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Jean De Dieu Longo, Marcel Mbéko Simaléko, Richard Ngbale, Gérard Grésenguet, Gilles Brücker, Laurent Bélec
Classification of professional and non-professional female sex workers (FSWs) into different categories, never previously reported in the Central African Republic (CAR), may be useful to assess the dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, design operational intervention programmes to combat HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and to adapt these programmes to the broad spectrum of sexual transactions in the CAR. Our study proposes a socio-behavioural classification of FSWs living in the CAR and engaged in transactional and commercial sex...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Emily G Hudson, Victoria J Brookes, Salome Dürr, Michael P Ward
Although Australia is canine rabies free, the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland and other northern Australian communities are at risk of an incursion due to proximity to rabies infected islands of Indonesia and existing disease spread pathways. Northern Australia also has large populations of free-roaming domestic dogs, presenting a risk of rabies establishment and maintenance should an incursion occur. Agent-based rabies spread models are being used to predict potential outbreak size and identify effective control strategies to aid incursion preparedness...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jean-Baptiste Hazo, Coralie Gandré, Marion Leboyer, Carla Obradors-Tarragó, Stefano Belli, David McDaid, A-La Park, Maria Victoria Maliandi, Kristian Wahlbeck, Til Wykes, Jim van Os, Josep Maria Haro, Karine Chevreul
As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively...
September 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Luigi F Agnati
Cellular network architecture plays a crucial role as the structural substrate for the brain functions. Therefore, it represents the main rationale for the emerging field of connectomics, defined as the comprehensive study of all aspects of central nervous system connectivity. Accordingly, in the present paper the main emphasis will be on the communication processes in the brain, namely wiring transmission (WT), i.e. the mapping of the communication channels made by cell components such as axons and synapses, and volume transmission (VT), i...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
N A Fineberg, J M Menchon, J Zohar, D J Veltman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
C M van der Feltz-Cornelis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Til Wykes, Josep Maria Haro, Stefano R Belli, Carla Obradors-Tarragó, Celso Arango, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, István Bitter, Matthias Brunn, Karine Chevreul, Jacques Demotes-Mainard, Iman Elfeddali, Sara Evans-Lacko, Andrea Fiorillo, Anna K Forsman, Jean-Baptiste Hazo, Rebecca Kuepper, Susanne Knappe, Marion Leboyer, Shôn W Lewis, Donald Linszen, Mario Luciano, Mario Maj, David McDaid, Marta Miret, Szilvia Papp, A-La Park, Gunter Schumann, Graham Thornicroft, Christina van der Feltz-Cornelis, Jim van Os, Kristian Wahlbeck, Tom Walker-Tilley, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Mental and brain disorders represent the greatest health burden to Europe-not only for directly affected individuals, but also for their caregivers and the wider society. They incur substantial economic costs through direct (and indirect) health-care and welfare spending, and via productivity losses, all of which substantially affect European development. Funding for research to mitigate these effects lags far behind the cost of mental and brain disorders to society. Here, we describe a comprehensive, coordinated mental health research agenda for Europe and worldwide...
November 2015: Lancet Psychiatry
Anna K Forsman, Kristian Wahlbeck, Leif Edvard Aarø, Jordi Alonso, Margaret M Barry, Matthias Brunn, Graça Cardoso, Mima Cattan, Giovanni de Girolamo, Malin Eberhard-Gran, Sara Evans-Lacko, Andrea Fiorillo, Lars Hansson, Josep Maria Haro, Jean-Baptiste Hazo, Ulrich Hegerl, Heinz Katschnig, Susanne Knappe, Mario Luciano, Marta Miret, Merete Nordentoft, Carla Obradors-Tarragó, David Pilgrim, Torleif Ruud, Hans Joachim Salize, Sarah L Stewart-Brown, Kristinn Tómasson, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Daniel B J Ventus, Jukka Vuori, Airi Värnik
BACKGROUND: The ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe project aimed to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research. Leading mental health research experts across Europe have formulated consensus-based recommendations for future research within the public mental health field. METHODS: Experts were invited to compile and discuss research priorities in a series of topic-based scientific workshops. In addition, a Delphi process was carried out to reach consensus on the list of research priorities and their rank order...
April 2015: European Journal of Public Health
Véronique Sarilar, Claudine Bleykasten-Grosshans, Cécile Neuvéglise
Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread in eukaryotes but uncommon in yeasts of the Saccharomycotina subphylum, in terms of both host species and genome fraction. The class II elements are especially scarce, but the hAT element Rover is a noteworthy exception that deserves further investigation. Here, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of hAT elements in 40 ascomycota. A novel family, Roamer, was found in three species, whereas Rover was detected in 15 preduplicated species from Kluyveromyces, Eremothecium, and Lachancea genera, with up to 41 copies per genome...
January 2015: Genome Biology and Evolution
Anna K Forsman, Daniel B J Ventus, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Kristian Wahlbeck
BACKGROUND: As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. METHODS: Five electronic databases (CINAHL, Health Management, Medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts) were used for identifying public mental health research articles published between January 2007 and April 2012...
December 2014: European Journal of Public Health
Iman Elfeddali, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Jim van Os, Susanne Knappe, Eduard Vieta, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Carla Obradors-Tarragó, Josep Maria Haro
Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to the importance of three challenges in the field of clinical mental health research: (1) the development of new, safe and effective interventions for mental disorders; (2) understanding the mechanisms of disease in order to be able to develop such new interventions; and (3) defining outcomes (an improved set of outcomes, including alternative outcomes) to use for clinical mental health research evaluation...
2014: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Luigi F Agnati, Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Susanna Genedani, Dasiel Borroto-Escuela, Guido Maura, Kjell Fuxe
Two far-reaching theoretical approaches, namely "Neuro-semeiotics" (NS) and "Free-energy Minimization" (FEM), have been recently proposed as frames within which to put forward heuristic hypotheses on integrative brain actions. In the present paper these two theoretical approaches are briefly discussed in the perspective of a recent model of brain architecture and information handling based on what we suggest calling Jacob's tinkering principle, whereby "to create is to recombine!". The NS and FEM theoretical approaches will be discussed from the perspective both of the Roamer-Type Volume Transmission (especially exosome-mediated) of intercellular communication and of the impact of receptor oligomers and Receptor-Receptor Interactions (RRIs) on signal recognition/decoding processes...
2014: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Luigi F Agnati, Diego Guidolin, Guido Maura, Manuela Marcoli, Giuseppina Leo, Chiara Carone, Raffaele De Caro, Susanna Genedani, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Kjell Fuxe
The current view on the organization of the central nervous system (CNS) is basically anchored to the paradigm describing the brain as formed by networks of neurons interconnected by synapses. Synaptic contacts are a fundamental characteristic for describing CNS operations, but increasing evidence accumulated in the last 30 years pointed to a refinement of this view. A possible overcoming of the classical "neuroscience paradigm" will be here outlined, based on the following hypotheses: (1) the basic morpho-functional unit in the brain is a compartment of tissue (functional module) where different resident cells (not only neurons) work as an integrated unit; (2) in these complex networks, a spectrum of intercellular communication processes is exploited, that can be classified according to a dichotomous criterion: wiring transmission (occurring through physically delimited channels) and volume transmission (exploiting diffusion in the extracellular space); (3) the connections between cells can themselves be described as a network, leading to an information processing occurring at different levels from cell network down to molecular level; (4) recent evidence of the existence of specialized structures (microvesicles and tunneling nanotubes) for intercellular exchange of materials, could allow a further type of polymorphism of the CNS networks based on at least transient changes in cell phenotype...
December 2014: Journal of Neural Transmission
S Evans-Lacko, E Courtin, A Fiorillo, M Knapp, M Luciano, A-L Park, M Brunn, S Byford, K Chevreul, A K Forsman, L Gulacsi, J M Haro, B Kennelly, S Knappe, T Lai, A Lasalvia, M Miret, C O'Sullivan, C Obradors-Tarragó, N Rüsch, N Sartorius, V Svab, J van Weeghel, C Van Audenhove, K Wahlbeck, A Zlati, D McDaid, G Thornicroft
Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe-primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%)...
August 2014: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments"...
January 2014: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Susanne Knappe, Gunter Schumann
This paper provides an overview of the theoretical framework of the Psychological Sciences' reviews and describes how improved psychological research can foster our understanding of mental health and mental disorders in a complementary way to biomedical research. Core definitions of the field and of psychological interventions and treatment in particular are provided. The work group's consensus regarding strength and weaknesses of European Union (EU) research in critical areas is summarized, highlighting the potential of a broader comprehensive "Behaviour Science programme" in forthcoming programmatic EU funding programmes...
January 2014: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Josep Maria Haro, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Istvan Bitter, Jacques Demotes-Mainard, Marion Leboyer, Shôn W Lewis, Donald Linszen, Mario Maj, David McDaid, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Trevor W Robbins, Gunter Schumann, Graham Thornicroft, Christina Van Der Feltz-Cornelis, Jim Van Os, Kristian Wahlbeck, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Til Wykes, Celso Arango, Jerome Bickenbach, Matthias Brunn, Pamela Cammarata, Karine Chevreul, Sara Evans-Lacko, Carla Finocchiaro, Andrea Fiorillo, Anna K Forsman, Jean-Baptiste Hazo, Susanne Knappe, Rebecca Kuepper, Mario Luciano, Marta Miret, Carla Obradors-Tarragó, Grazia Pagano, Szilvia Papp, Tom Walker-Tilley
Despite the high impact of mental disorders in society, European mental health research is at a critical situation with a relatively low level of funding, and few advances been achieved during the last decade. The development of coordinated research policies and integrated research networks in mental health is lagging behind other disciplines in Europe, resulting in lower degree of cooperation and scientific impact. To reduce more efficiently the burden of mental disorders in Europe, a concerted new research agenda is necessary...
January 2014: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Gunter Schumann, Elisabeth B Binder, Arne Holte, E Ronald de Kloet, Ketil J Oedegaard, Trevor W Robbins, Tom R Walker-Tilley, Istvan Bitter, Verity J Brown, Jan Buitelaar, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Roshan Cools, Carles Escera, Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Herta Flor, Chris D Frith, Andreas Heinz, Erik Johnsen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Torkel Klingberg, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Shon Lewis, Wolfgang Maier, Karl Mann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Christian P Müller, Walter E Müller, David J Nutt, Antonio Persico, Giulio Perugi, Mathias Pessiglione, Ulrich W Preuss, Jonathan P Roiser, Paolo M Rossini, Janusz K Rybakowski, Carmen Sandi, Klaas E Stephan, Juan Undurraga, Eduard Vieta, Nic van der Wee, Til Wykes, Josep Maria Haro, Hans Ulrich Wittchen
There is recognition that biomedical research into the causes of mental disorders and their treatment needs to adopt new approaches to research. Novel biomedical techniques have advanced our understanding of how the brain develops and is shaped by behaviour and environment. This has led to the advent of stratified medicine, which translates advances in basic research by targeting aetiological mechanisms underlying mental disorder. The resulting increase in diagnostic precision and targeted treatments may provide a window of opportunity to address the large public health burden, and individual suffering associated with mental disorders...
January 2014: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Gaia Sampogna, Carla Obradors-Tarragó, Mario Maj
Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders...
June 2013: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Kjell Fuxe, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Wei-Bo Zhang, Luigi F Agnati
Volume transmission (VT) is a widespread mode of intercellular communication that occurs in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the brain with VT signals moving from source to target cells via energy gradients leading to diffusion and convection (flow). The VT channels are diffuse forming a plexus in the extracellular space, while in wiring transmission (WT) the channels (axons, terminals) are private. The speed is slow (seconds-minutes) in VT while rapid in the millisecond range in WT...
May 2013: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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