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urinary tract infections guidelines

V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Roberto Velasco, Helvia Benito, Rebeca Mozun, Juan E Trujillo, Pedro A Merino, Mercedes de la Torre, Borja Gomez, Santiago Mintegi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics define urinary tract infection (UTI) as the growth of greater than 50,000 ufc/mL of a single bacterium in a urine culture with a positive urine dipstick or with a urinalysis associated. Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of this cutoff point for the diagnosis of UTI in young febrile infants. METHODS: Subanalysis of a prospective multicenter study developed in RISeuP-SPERG Network between October 11 and September 13...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Philippa C Matthews, Lucinda K Barrett, Stephanie Warren, Nicole Stoesser, Mel Snelling, Matthew Scarborough, Nicola Jones
BACKGROUND: Fosfomycin is increasingly called upon for the treatment of multi drug-resistant (MDR) organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI). We reviewed oral fosfomycin use for UTI treatment in a large UK hospital. The primary goal was to audit our clinical practice against current national guidelines. Secondary aims were to identify factors associated with treatment failure, and to investigate the potential for using fosfomycin in patients with co-morbidities. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 75 adult patients with UTI who received 151 episodes of treatment with fosfomycin from March 2013 to June 2015...
October 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Linda C Lee, Armando J Lorenzo, Martin A Koyle
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common bacterial cause of febrile illness in children. Of children presenting with a febrile UTI, 25-40% are found to have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Historically, the concern regarding VUR was that it could lead to recurrent pyelonephritis, renal scarring, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. As a result, many children underwent invasive surgical procedures to correct VUR. We now know that many cases of VUR are low-grade and have a high rate of spontaneous resolution...
May 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Meera Tandan, Sinead Duane, Martin Cormican, Andrew W Murphy, Akke Vellinga
Current antimicrobial prescribing guidelines indicate that male and female patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be treated with same antimicrobials but for different durations. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in reconsultations and antimicrobial prescribing for UTI for both males and females. A total of 2557 adult suspected UTI patients participating in the Supporting the Improvement and Management of Prescribing for urinary tract infection (SIMPle) study from 30 general practices were analyzed...
September 15, 2016: Antibiotics
Jay N Nathwani, Katherine E Law, Rebecca D Ray, Bridget R O'Connell Long, Rebekah M Fiers, Anne-Lise D D'Angelo, Shannon M DiMarco, Carla M Pugh
BACKGROUND: Urinary catheter insertion is a common procedure performed in hospitals. Improper catheterization can lead to unnecessary catheter-associated urinary tract infections and urethral trauma, increasing patient morbidity. To prevent such complications, guidelines were created on how to insert and troubleshoot urinary catheters. As nurses have an increasing responsibility for catheter placement, resident responsibility has shifted to more complex scenarios. This study examines the clinical decision-making skills of surgical residents during simulated urinary catheter scenarios...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Louis Ayzac, Emmanuelle Caillat-Vallet, Raphaële Girard, Michel Berland
"RESEAU MATER" is useful to monitor nosocomial infections in maternity and contributes to the decreasing trend of it, since its implementation. Specifically, this network demonstrates its efficiency in the control of endometritis following vaginal deliveries, but not in the control of urinary tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine whether the difference between the control of endometritis and of urinary tract infection could be explained by an unsuitable regression model or by an unsuitable care policy concerning urinary cares...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
H Hof
BACKGROUND: Yeasts are found in urine specimens relatively often, especially in the elderly and patients under treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, i. e. especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In some cases, the number of pathogens is very high, i. e. >10(5)/ml. The clinical relevance of detecting Candida in urine is difficult to assess. In the German S3 guidelines it is apodictically stated that an ascending infection of the urinary tract by yeasts does not occur but this may undoubtedly happen in certain instances in patients at risk, for example in the elderly, in diabetic persons and in the case of foreign bodies in the urinary tract...
September 2, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Alessandro Capitanini, Luca Rosso, Laura Giannecchini, Ophelia Meniconi, Adamasco Cupisti
A 47-year old, Caucasian man underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of a 14mm calcium stone in the right renal pelvis, without urinary tract obstruction or sepsis. 24 hours after ESWL septic shock occurred and the patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Escherichia coli emerged from the blood and urine culture. The patient developed acute renal failure and it was necessary to start a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Infection was successfully treated, patient recovered renal function and an improvement of general condition occurred...
September 1, 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Jan Novak, Viktor Vik, Roman Zachoval, Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen
We report a 50-year-old female patient with a left-sided renal abscess caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria. According to the ORENUC classification she had phenotype N. The course was complicated by a perforation to an adjacent cyst and later to the renal pelvis. A primarily conservative approach of intravenous antibiotics had to be changed to an ultrasonography-guided percutaneous drainage of the lesion and insertion of a ureteral stent to stem a high volume of urine leakage. Drainage of a renal abscess is indicated if the size is larger than 3 cm according to EAU guidelines (relative size) or when the resolution does not occur after antibiotics...
2016: J Endourol Case Rep
R E Selekman, I E Allen, H L Copp
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) affects 10% of girls and 3% of boys by age 16. Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Guidelines recommend urine testing prior to initiation of antibiotic treatment and the use of local antibiograms to guide empiric antibiotic therapy. Urine culture results not only provide the opportunity to halt empiric therapy if there is no bacterial growth, but also allow for tailoring of broad-spectrum therapy...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Jonathan Kaufman, Patrick Fitzpatrick, Shidan Tosif, Sandy M Hopper, Penelope A Bryant, Susan M Donath, Franz E Babl
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children. Urine sample collection is required to diagnose or exclude UTI; however, current collection methods for pre-continent children all have limitations and guidelines vary. Clean catch urine (CCU) collection is a common and favoured non-invasive collection method, despite its high contamination rates and time-consuming nature. This study aims to establish whether gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold fluid-soaked gauze can improve the rate of voiding for CCU within 5 min in young pre-continent children...
2016: BMJ Open
Jameca Renee Price, Larissa A Guran, W Thomas Gregory, Marian S McDonagh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to provide current pooled estimates of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of nitrofurantoin versus all other treatments including other antibiotics in reducing recurrent urinary tract infections in adult, non-pregnant women and assess relative adverse side effects. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE January 1, 1946 to January 31, 2015; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), tCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ClinicalTrials...
July 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Peter Hoang, Rebecca L Salbu
The American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel has revised its recommendation to avoid use of nitrofurantoin in renal impairment from patients with a creatinine clearance (Clcr) of less than 60 mL/min to those with a Clcr of less than 30 mL/min, based on two retrospective studies that identified the safety and efficacy of nitrofurantoin in this population. This change in recommendation, along with increasing resistance to both sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and fluoroquinolones, gave rise to the advantages of nitrofurantoin and may reflect a surge in prescribing among the elderly...
July 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
F Bruyère, A Dihn, A Sotto
OBJECTIVE: This is a review article aiming to bring the place and manner of use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in urology. METHOD: Data collection on the conditions of use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in urology has been performed from the Medline database. The following keywords were used: amoxicillin; clavulanic acid; urine; diffusion; pharmacokinetics. The selection was based on the methodology, language of publication (English/French), relevance to the topic and date of publication of the articles collected...
June 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Devika D Misal, Saleel V Maulingkar, Sushma Bhonsle
Antibiotics to treat healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) contribute to a substantial proportion of drug expenditure in intensive care units (ICUs). Our study aimed to determine the common HCAIs in our hospital ICU, to assess the antibiotics prescribed and the mean antibiotic cost per HCAI. All adult patients, admitted to the ICU over a 1-year period, were included in the study. HCAIs were determined according to CDC definition. The incidence of HCAIs in the ICU was 16%. Ventilator associated pneumonia (50%) was the most common HCAI, followed by urinary tract infection (35...
June 15, 2016: Tropical Doctor
Arthur Holtzclaw, Zorana Mrsic, Jim Managbanag, Tatjana Calvano, Christopher Colombo
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is a well-known, though rare, entity in the United States with only 100 cases previously reported. With no Food and Drug Administration-approved screening tests of donated blood for malaria in the United States, prevention relies solely on deferral of the highest-risk donors. We present a case of TTM not preventable by these guidelines. CASE REPORT: A 76-year-old male presented with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and a urinalysis consistent with a urinary tract infection...
September 2016: Transfusion
Affan Umer, David S Shapiro, Chris Hughes, Cynthia Ross-Richardson, Scott Ellner
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) have been associated with increases in morbidity and mortality as well as increased costs of hospitalization. At our institution, we implemented a protocol for indwelling catheter use, maintenance, and removal based on Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) guidelines, in efforts to reduce CAUTI rates. METHODS: A hospital committee of quality stewards focused on several measures which included staff education, modification of existing systems to ensure compliance, and auditing of patient care areas for catheter utilization before implementation of the protocol...
April 2016: Connecticut Medicine
Fateh Rahimi, Leili Shokoohizadeh
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of a variety of infections ranging from wound infections to urinary tract infections (UTI) in hospital and community. In this study during 3 years we characterized the antibiotic resistance patterns of 491 hospital acquired MRSA and community associated MRSA strains by the guidelines of clinical and laboratory standard institute. A combination of high resolution PhP typing method and SCCmec typing were used for clonal dissemination of isolates...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
A R Araujo da Silva, W Zingg, A Dramowski, J A Bielicki, M Sharland
International infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines provide standardized recommendations for healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) prevention in adults, but often lack specific information about neonates and children. We reviewed ten international IPC/HCAI guidelines to identify paediatric-specific recommendations for HCAI prevention. Hand hygiene, bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, environmental control and outbreak management were frequently reported with recommendations applicable to children and newborns, but documents on catheter-associated urinary tract infection and surgical site infection were lacking...
October 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
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