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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722461/-disorders-of-water-and-electrolyte-metabolism-and-changes-in-acid-base-balance-in-patients-with-ascitic-liver-cirrhosis
#1
Halima Gottfriedová, Miroslava Horáčková, Milena Čáslavská, Julius Špičák, Otto Schück
In patients with advanced cirrhosis with ascites disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism are often present and they are associated with changes in acid-base balance. These changes can be very complicated, their diagnosis and treatment difficult. Dilutional hyponatremia is the most common disorder. Hyponatremia in these patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. Other common disorders include hyperchloremic acidosis, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, lactic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719636/the-non-diuretic-hypotensive-effects-of-thiazides-are-enhanced-during-volume-depletion-states
#2
Saeed Alshahrani, Robert M Rapoport, Kamyar Zahedi, Min Jiang, Michelle Nieman, Sharon Barone, Andrea L Meredith, John N Lorenz, Jack Rubinstein, Manoocher Soleimani
Thiazide derivatives including Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) represent the most common treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Thiazides initially enhance diuresis via inhibition of the kidney Na+-Cl- Cotransporter (NCC). However, chronic volume depletion and diuresis are minimal while lowered blood pressure (BP) is maintained on thiazides. Thus, a vasodilator action of thiazides is proposed, likely via Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in vascular smooth muscles. This study ascertains the role of volume depletion induced by salt restriction or salt wasting in NCC KO mice on the non-diuretic hypotensive action of HCTZ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719597/pharmacogenomics-study-of-thiazide-diuretics-and-qt-interval-in-multi-ethnic-populations-the-cohorts-for-heart-and-aging-research-in-genomic-epidemiology
#3
A A Seyerle, C M Sitlani, R Noordam, S M Gogarten, J Li, X Li, D S Evans, F Sun, M A Laaksonen, A Isaacs, K Kristiansson, H M Highland, J D Stewart, T B Harris, S Trompet, J C Bis, G M Peloso, J A Brody, L Broer, E L Busch, Q Duan, A M Stilp, C J O'Donnell, P W Macfarlane, J S Floyd, J A Kors, H J Lin, R Li-Gao, T Sofer, R Méndez-Giráldez, S R Cummings, S R Heckbert, A Hofman, I Ford, Y Li, L J Launer, K Porthan, C Newton-Cheh, M D Napier, K F Kerr, A P Reiner, K M Rice, J Roach, B M Buckley, E Z Soliman, R de Mutsert, N Sotoodehnia, A G Uitterlinden, K E North, C R Lee, V Gudnason, T Stürmer, F R Rosendaal, K D Taylor, K L Wiggins, J G Wilson, Y-DI Chen, R C Kaplan, K Wilhelmsen, L A Cupples, V Salomaa, C van Duijn, J W Jukema, Y Liu, D O Mook-Kanamori, L A Lange, R S Vasan, A V Smith, B H Stricker, C C Laurie, J I Rotter, E A Whitsel, B M Psaty, C L Avery
Thiazide diuretics, commonly used antihypertensives, may cause QT interval (QT) prolongation, a risk factor for highly fatal and difficult to predict ventricular arrhythmias. We examined whether common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modified the association between thiazide use and QT or its component parts (QRS interval, JT interval) by performing ancestry-specific, trans-ethnic and cross-phenotype genome-wide analyses of European (66%), African American (15%) and Hispanic (19%) populations (N=78 199), leveraging longitudinal data, incorporating corrected standard errors to account for underestimation of interaction estimate variances and evaluating evidence for pathway enrichment...
July 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719376/stability-of-spironolactone-oral-suspension-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#4
Richard Graves, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal, Yashoda V Pramar
Spironolactone (Aldactone) is a potassium-sparing diuretic used to treat hypertension and heart failure and may also be used to treat edema resulting from kidney disease, low potassium levels, or excess aldosterone. No commercial liquid dosage form of spironolactone exists. An extemporaneously compounded suspension from pure drug powder or commercial tablets would provide an alternative option to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of spironolactone in the PCCA base SuspendIt...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715206/high-throughput-screening-and-quantitation-of-target-compounds-in-biofluids-by-coated-blade-spray-mass-spectrometry
#5
Marcos Tascon, German Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Justen J Poole, Ezel Boyaci, Janusz Pawliszyn
Most contemporary methods of screening and quantitating controlled substances and therapeutic drugs in biofluids typically require laborious, time-consuming, and expensive analytical workflows. In recent years, our group has worked towards developing microextraction (µe)-mass spectrometry (MS) technologies that merge all of the tedious steps of the classical methods into a simple, efficient, and low-cost methodology. Unquestionably, the automation of these technologies allows for faster sample throughput, greater reproducibility, and radically reduced analysis times...
July 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714258/renal-neuroendocrine-control-of-desiccation-and-cold-tolerance-by-drosophila-suzukii
#6
Selim Terhzaz, Lucy Alford, Joseph G C Yeoh, Richard Marley, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological, and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. However, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in D. suzukii. The close phylogenetic relationship of D. suzukii with D. melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in D. suzukii. RESULTS: Capa, Leucokinin, DH44 and DH31 neuropeptides demonstrate a high level of conservation between D...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711449/intrarenal-flow-alterations-during-transition-from-euvolemia-to-intravascular-volume-expansion-in-heart-failure-patients
#7
Petra Nijst, Pieter Martens, Matthias Dupont, W H Wilson Tang, Wilfried Mullens
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess: 1) the intrarenal flow in heart failure (HF) patients during the transition from euvolemia to intravascular volume overload; and 2) the relationship between intrarenal flow and diuretic efficiency. BACKGROUND: Intrarenal blood flow alterations may help to better understand impaired volume handling in HF. METHODS: Resistance index (RI) and venous impedance index (VII) were assessed in 6 healthy subjects, 40 euvolemic HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and 10 HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
July 6, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711447/the-transition-from-hypertension-to%C3%A2-heart%C3%A2-failure-contemporary-update
#8
REVIEW
Franz H Messerli, Stefano F Rimoldi, Sripal Bangalore
Longstanding hypertension ultimately leads to heart failure (HF), and as a consequence most patients with HF have a history of hypertension. Conversely, absence of hypertension in middle age is associated with lower risks for incident HF across the remaining life course. Cardiac remodeling to a predominant pressure overload consists of diastolic dysfunction and concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. When pressure overload is sustained, diastolic dysfunction progresses, filling of the concentric remodeled LV decreases, and HF with preserved ejection fraction ensues...
July 6, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709630/validity-and-reliability-of-the-brazilian-version-of-the-weight-control-behaviors-scale
#9
Karin Louise Lenz Dunker, Angelica Medeiros Claudino
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate the weight-control behaviors (WCBs) scale and to evaluate its psychometric properties. STUDY DESIGN: We made use of data from a cluster-randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of the Brazilian New Moves Program. The Brazilian New Moves Program was a multicomponent intervention aimed at preventing weight-related problems among adolescent girls in public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: Healthy and unhealthy WCBs were strongly associated...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709394/intravenous-vancomycin-is-associated-with-the-development-of-nephrotoxicity-in-patients-with-class-iii-obesity
#10
Yookyung Christy Choi, Stephen Saw, Daniel Soliman, Angela L Bingham, Laura Pontiggia, Krystal Hunter, Linda Chuang, Laura A Siemianowski, Benjamin Ereshefsky, James M Hollands
BACKGROUND: A consensus statement recommends initial intravenous (IV) vancomycin dosing of 15-20 mg/kg every 8- 24 hours, with an optional 25- to 30-mg/kg loading dose. Although some studies have shown an association between weight and the development of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity, results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between incidence of nephrotoxicity associated with weight-based IV vancomycin dosing strategies in nonobese and obese patients...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706743/when-is-the-optimal-timing-of-surgical-intervention-for-severe-functional-tricuspid-regurgitation
#11
Nobuhiro Nakanishi, Masanobu Ishii, Koichi Kaikita, Ken Okamoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Seiji Takashio, Seiji Hokimoto, Toshihiro Fukui, Kenichi Tsujita
Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a serious pathology to be noted for severe right heart failure (HF) and poor prognosis; however, the conventional assessment of TR has some limitations and the optimal timing of surgical intervention remains unclear. A 79-year-old Japanese female was admitted to our hospital to undergo cardiac surgery, because edema gradually got worse despite the increase in diuretics. She had a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic HF due to severe TR and had been treated with a furosemide for leg edema 4 years ago...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706401/influence-of-west-african-ethnicity-and-gender-on-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-essential-hypertensives-treated-with-hydrochlorothiazide-and-hydrochlorothiazide-lisinopril-combination
#12
Micheal Olamoyegun, Babatope Kolawole, Adesuyi A L Ajayi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) given alone and in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on beta-cell function in a negroid population to further explore possible ethnic differences in the effect of antihypertensive drugs on homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 80 newly diagnosed Nigerian essential hypertensive patients were assigned to receive either HCT 25 mg daily or both HCT and lisinopril (Lis; 25/10 mg daily) in an open-label study for 12 weeks...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706114/one-year-incidence-time-trends-and-predictors-of-recurrent-ischemic-stroke-in-sweden-from-1998-to-2010-an-observational-study
#13
Lisa Bergström, Anna-Lotta Irewall, Lars Söderström, Joachim Ögren, Katarina Laurell, Thomas Mooe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent data on the incidence, time trends, and predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke are limited for unselected patient populations. METHODS: Data for ischemic stroke patients were obtained from The Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke) between 1998 and 2009 and merged with The Swedish National Inpatient Register. A reference group of patients was created by Statistics Sweden. The ischemic stroke patient cohort was divided into 4 time periods...
July 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704280/the-paradox-of-transient-worsening-renal-function-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-the-role-of-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-diuretic-response
#14
Gaetano Ruocco, Ranuccio Nuti, Amalia Giambelluca, Isabella Evangelista, Oreste De Vivo, Cosimo Daniello, Alberto Palazzuoli
AIMS: Worsening renal function (WRF) occurs in one-third of patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. Recently, WRF was categorized in two subtypes: persistent and transient WRF. Thus, we sought to investigate the different prognostic impact of persistent vs. transient WRF; we also evaluate the relation of two WRF phenotypes with congestion, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) changes, and diuretic response at discharge. METHODS: The prospective was a single centre study including patients screened for interventional Diur-heart failure Trial (NCT01441245)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702260/renin-angiotensin-system-modifying-therapies-are-associated-with-improved-pulmonary-health
#15
Maira Soto, Soo I Bang, Jeff McCombs, Kathleen E Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary diseases are often complicated and have diverse etiologies. One common factor is the lack of therapeutics available for these diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)-modifying medications on incidence and time to pulmonary complications. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using claims data from a US commercial insurance company (2007-2013). The study consisted of patients with an emerging hypertension (HTN) diagnosis...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701888/pharmacological-treatment-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#16
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Yamamoto
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a socioeconomic burden in Japan as well as other developed countries. Diuretics are widely used to attenuate symptoms and signs of congestion in both heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, although their effects on long-term prognosis of both phenotypes of heart failure have not been demonstrated because of an ethical difficulty in designing a randomized and prospective clinical trial. Guidelines do not provide any guidance on therapy choice, and physicians blindly choose furosemide among loop diuretics in current clinical settings...
June 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701671/is-serum-uric-acid-independently-associated-with-left-ventricular-mass-index-ejection-fraction-and-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-among-female-and-male-cardiac-patients
#17
Yohei Yamauchi, Shu-Ichi Fujita, Kensaku Shibata, Hideaki Morita, Takahide Ito, Koichi Sohmiya, Masaaki Hoshiga, Nobukazu Ishizaka
Mean serum uric acid (SUA) levels are higher in men than women. In addition, recent studies have suggested that the SUA threshold at which the cardiovascular risk might increase may vary between women and men. In the current retrospective study, by analyzing the data from 219 female and 519 male patients who were free from uric acid-lowering medication, we investigated whether SUA is associated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) independent of confounding factors, such as serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), in a gender-specific manner...
July 13, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701216/the-effect-of-ambient-temperature-on-type-2-diabetes-case-crossover-analysis-of-4-million-gp-consultations-across-england
#18
S Hajat, A Haines, C Sarran, A Sharma, C Bates, L E Fleming
BACKGROUND: Given the double jeopardy of global increases in rates of obesity and climate change, it is increasingly important to recognise the dangers posed to diabetic patients during periods of extreme weather. We aimed to characterise the associations between ambient temperature and general medical practitioner consultations made by a cohort of type-2 diabetic patients. Evidence on the effects of temperature variation in the primary care setting is currently limited. METHODS: Case-crossover analysis of 4,474,943 consultations in England during 2012-2014, linked to localised temperature at place of residence for each patient...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700790/association-of-changes-in-medication-use-and-adherence-with-accountable-care-organization-exposure-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-or-diabetes
#19
J Michael McWilliams, Mehdi Najafzadeh, William H Shrank, Jennifer M Polinski
Importance: Many of the quality measures used to assess accountable care organization (ACO) performance in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) focus on disease control and medication use among patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To date, the association between participation in the MSSP by provider organizations and medication use or adherence among their patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes has not been described. Objective: To assess the association between exposure to the MSSP and changes in the use of and adherence to common antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and hypoglycemic medications...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700781/efficacy-and-safety-of-spironolactone-in-acute-heart-failure-the-athena-hf-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Javed Butler, Kevin J Anstrom, G Michael Felker, Michael M Givertz, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos, Marvin A Konstam, Douglas L Mann, Kenneth B Margulies, Steven E McNulty, Robert J Mentz, Margaret M Redfield, W H Wilson Tang, David J Whellan, Monica Shah, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Adrian F Hernandez, Eugene Braunwald
Importance: Persistent congestion is associated with worse outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists administered at high doses may relieve congestion, overcome diuretic resistance, and mitigate the effects of adverse neurohormonal activation in AHF. Objective: To assess the effect of high-dose spironolactone and usual care on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels compared with usual care alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind and placebo (or low-dose)-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 22 US acute care hospitals among patients with AHF who were previously receiving no or low-dose (12...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
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