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Mikkel Brabrand, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen
IMPORTANCE: The CURB-65 score is widely implemented as a prediction tool for identifying patients with community-acquired pneumonia (cap) at increased risk of 30-day mortality. However, since most ingredients of CURB-65 are used as general prediction tools, it is likely that other prediction tools, e.g. the British National Early Warning Score (NEWS), could be as good as CURB-65 at predicting the fate of CAP patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether NEWS is better than CURB-65 at predicting 30-day mortality of CAP patients...
March 14, 2018: Lung
Vivian E von Gruenigen, Beth Y Karlan
For the last few months, media and news outlets have exposed prominent professionals in many settings who have taken advantage of their status of power and influence to engage in sexual harassment and discrimination in the workplace. In medicine, harassment may include many types of health professionals including physicians, nurses, medical students, colleagues and even patients. Programs for sexual harassment prevention, education and training vary between industries, workplaces, medical schools and hospitals...
March 8, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Joonas Tirkkonen, Heini Huhtala, Sanna Hoppu
AIM: Study the incidence and reasons behind in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) after rapid response team (RRT) reviews. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Data on adult patients who were triaged to remain on general ward after first (index) RRT review without treatment limitations but who suffered an IHCA within the following 48 hours were prospectively collected for 5.3 years. These cases were matched (age +/- 3 years, sex, surgical/medical ward, admission year) at a 1:4 ratio to controls (no ICHA after RRT review)...
March 6, 2018: Resuscitation
Tom E F Abbott, Nicholas Cron, Nidhi Vaid, Dorothy Ip, Hew D T Torrance, Julian Emmanuel
Background: National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is increasingly used in UK hospitals. However, there is only limited evidence to support the use of pre-hospital early warning scores. We hypothesised that pre-hospital NEWS was associated with death or critical care escalation within the first 48 h of hospital stay. Methods: Planned secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study at a single UK teaching hospital. Consecutive medical ward admissions over a 20-day period were included in the study...
March 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Felix Michael Schmitz, Kai Philipp Schnabel, Daniel Bauer, Cadja Bachmann, Ulrich Woermann, Sissel Guttormsen
OBJECTIVES: Effective instructional approaches are needed to enable undergraduates to optimally prepare for the limited training time they receive with simulated patients (SPs). This study examines the learning effects of different presentation formats of a worked example on student SP communication. METHODS: Sixty-seven fourth-year medical students attending a mandatory communication course participated in this randomized field trial. Prior to the course, they worked through an e-learning module that introduced the SPIKES protocol for delivering bad news to patients...
February 24, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Jennifer N Stojan, Eleanor Y Sun, Arno K Kumagai
PURPOSE: Educational approaches involving patient stories aim at enhancing empathy and patient-centered care; however, it is not known whether the influence of such programs on physician attitudes persists beyond medical school. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Family Centered Experience (FCE) paired preclinical medical students with patient families over two years and engaged students in reflective dialogs about the volunteers' stories. This study examined possible long-term influences on attitudes toward medicine and doctoring...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Sharon R Sznitman, Nehama Lewis
BACKGROUND: This experimental study tests effects of exposure to video narratives about successful symptom relief with Medical Cannabis (MC) on attitudes, beliefs, and intentions related to recreational cannabis use. METHODS: Patient video testimonials were modeled after those found in extant media coverage. Israeli participants (N = 396) recruited through an online survey company were randomly assigned to view a narrative or a non-narrative video containing equivalent information about MC...
January 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Wei Xuan-Dong, Wei Mo, Lv Yuan, Yi Shang-Hui, Liu Tao-Cheng, Luo Chun-Xiang, Zha Wen-Ting, Luo Qing-Hong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the status of knowledge awareness rates and influencing factors of clonorchiasis among the residents in 4 counties (cities) of Hunan Province, so as to provide the references for formulating the prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis in the province. METHODS: A total of 1 224 subjects were selected by the multi-stage cluster sampling method and investigated with questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: The clonorchiasis knowledge awareness rates of the residents were 15...
May 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Afsaneh Yakhforoshha, Seyed Amir Hossein Emami, Farhad Shahi, Saeed Shahsavari, Mohammadali Cheraghi, Rita Mojtahedzadeh, Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Mandana Shirazi
The task of breaking bad news (BBN) may be improved by incorporating simulation with art-based teaching methods. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an integrating simulation with art-based teaching strategies, on fellows' performance regarding BBN, in Iran. The study was carried out using quasi-experimental methods, interrupted time series. The participants were selected from medical oncology fellows at two teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. Participants were trained through workshop, followed by engaging participants with different types of art-based teaching methods...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Shaun Comfort, Sujan Perera, Zoe Hudson, Darren Dorrell, Shawman Meireis, Meenakshi Nagarajan, Cartic Ramakrishnan, Jennifer Fine
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing interest in social digital media (SDM) as a data source for pharmacovigilance activities; however, SDM is considered a low information content data source for safety data. Given that pharmacovigilance itself operates in a high-noise, lower-validity environment without objective 'gold standards' beyond process definitions, the introduction of large volumes of SDM into the pharmacovigilance workflow has the potential to exacerbate issues with limited manual resources to perform adverse event identification and processing...
February 14, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Denise J Montell
Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Seungjun Kim, Paul George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pass/fail preclinical grading is associated with improved student well-being. Studies do not demonstrate differences in United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores after adopting pass/fail grading, but were conducted at unrepresentative, highly selective institutions, and average scores increased overall during the study periods. We investigated the effect of preclinical grading on USMLE scores across 96 US medical schools. METHODS: Preclinical grading systems were identified with the 2017 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Admissions Requirements...
February 2018: Family Medicine
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Tahereh Rahimi, Tahmineh Farajkhoda, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Siamak Mohebi
Background: Despite the important role of feelings in health care seeking behavior (HCSB), this subject has not yet been adequately investigated. HCSB-related feelings begin with the onset of disease symptoms and persist in different forms after treatment. The aim of current study was to explore the feelings that women of reproductive age experience when they seek health care. Methods: In this deductive, qualitative content analysis, participants were selected by purposeful sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 17 women of reproductive age and 5 health care staffs in Qom, Iran were carried out until data saturation was achieved...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Sophie Lelorain, Stéphane Cattan, Florian Lordick, Anja Mehnert, Christophe Mariette, Véronique Christophe, Alexis Cortot
OBJECTIVE: In cancer settings, physician empathy is not always linked to a better patient emotional quality of life quality of life (eQoL). We tested two possible moderators of the inconsistent link: type of consultation (bad news versus follow-up) and patient emotional skills (emoSkills, i.e., the way patients process emotional information). METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 296 thoracic and digestive tract cancer patients completed validated questionnaires to assess their physician empathy, their emoSkills and eQoL...
February 1, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Abraar Karan, Nathan Hansen
Female sex workers are subjected to intense physical, sexual, and mental abuses that are well documented in the medical and public health literature. However, less well-studied are the mental coping mechanisms that are employed by women in this population to survive. The Stockholm Syndrome has been discussed in the news media as a potential phenomenon in this vulnerable population, but has not been formally studied. From a previous retrospective qualitative analysis reviewing interviews with women in sex work throughout India, we found that the four main criteria for Stockholm Syndrome (perceived threat to survival; showing of kindness from a captor; isolation from other perspectives; perceived inability to escape) are present in narrative accounts from this population...
February 6, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Paweł Marschollek, Katarzyna Bąkowska, Wojciech Bąkowski, Karol Marschollek, Radosław Tarkowski
The way that bad news is disclosed to a cancer patient has a crucial impact on physician-patient cooperation and trust. Consensus-based guidelines provide widely accepted tools for disclosing unfavorable information. In oncology, the most popular one is called the SPIKES protocol. A 17-question survey was administered to a group of 226 patients with cancer (mean age 59.6 years) in order to determine a level of SPIKES implementation during first cancer disclosure. In our assessment, the patients felt that the highest compliance with the SPIKES protocol was with Setting up (70...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Dina S Itum, Sarah C Oltmann, Michael A Choti, Hannah G Piper
BACKGROUND: Parental leave is linked to health benefits for both child and parent. It is unclear whether surgeons at academic centers have access to paid parental leave. The aim of this study was to determine parental leave policies at the top academic medical centers in the United States to identify trends among institutions. METHODS: The top academic medical centers were identified (US News & World Report 2016). Institutional websites were reviewed, or human resource departments were contacted to determine parental leave policies...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Cherelle M V van Stenus, Magda M Boere-Boonekamp, Erna F G M Kerkhof, Ariana Need
PROBLEM: It is unknown if client experiences with perinatal healthcare differ between low-risk and high-risk women. BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, risk selection divides pregnant women into low- and high-risk groups. Receiving news that a pregnancy or childbirth has an increased likelihood of complications can cause elevated levels of emotional distress. AIM: The purpose of this study is to describe client experiences with perinatal healthcare and to determine which, if any, background characteristics, pregnancy circumstances, childbirth or follow-up care characteristics are explaining variables of differences in client experiences between high-risk and low-risk women...
January 26, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Amulya A Nageswara Rao, Deepti M Warad, Amy L Weaver, Cathy D Schleck, Vilmarie Rodriguez
Pediatric hematologists/oncologists face complex situations such as breaking bad news, treatment/clinical trials discussions, and end-of-life/hospice care. With increasing diversity in patient and physician populations, cultural competency and sensitivity training covering different aspects of pediatric hematology/oncology (PDHO) care can help improve health care delivery and reduce disparities. Though it is considered a required component of fellowship training, there is no clearly defined curriculum meant specifically for PDHO fellows-in-training (PDHO-F)...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Nour Azimah Zulkapli, Jafri Malin Abdullah
This editorial aims to report on the performance of the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS) in the year 2016. The performance report is based on an analysis of the auto-generated data compiled from the ScholarOne Manuscripts™. It will specifically focus on the pattern of manuscript submission, geographical distribution of contributors, manuscript submission by month and the acceptance-rejection rate of post-review manuscripts. It will also discuss the effects of the decision to raise the article acceptance standards...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
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