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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734745/why-are-some-people-who-have-received-overdose-education-and-naloxone-reticent-to-call-emergency-medical-services-in-the-event-of-overdose
#1
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
July 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728637/drinking-location-and-drinking-culture-and-their-association-with-alcohol-use-among-girls-and-boys-in-europe
#2
Bettina Grüne, Daniela Piontek, Pawel Sleczka, Ludwig Kraus, Oliver Pogarell
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (a) investigate the relationship between drinking location and adolescent alcohol use, (b) analyze the association of drinking culture indicators with alcohol use, and (c) explore interaction effects of drinking location and drinking culture indicators. METHOD: Analyses were based on the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The analytical sample consisted of 15- to 16-year-old students (N = 36,366; 51...
July 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698502/rapid-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-detection-of-sibutramine-hydrochloride-in-pharmaceutical-capsules-with-a-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-ag-polyvivnyl-alcohol-hydrogel-substrate
#3
Lei Ouyang, Zuyan Jiang, Nan Wang, Lihua Zhu, Heqing Tang
Sibutramine hydrochloride (SH) is a banned weight-loss drug, but its illegal addition to health products is still rampant. This suggests a very urgent need for a fast and precise detection method for SH. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is a promising candidate for this purpose, but the weak affinity between SH and bare metal limits its direct SERS detection. In the present work, β-cyclodextrin was capped in situ onto the surface of Ag nanoparticles to function as a scaffold to capture SH. The obtained Ag nanoparticles were encapsulated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to fabricate a SERS active hydrogel with excellent reproducibility...
July 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696583/mapping-medical-marijuana-state-laws-regulating-patients-product-safety-supply-chains-and-dispensaries-2017
#4
Sarah B Klieger, Abraham Gutman, Leslie Allen, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Jennifer K Ibrahim, Scott Burris
AIMS: 1) To describe open source legal datasets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of U.S. state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. 2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety, and dispensary practice. METHODS: Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety, and dispensaries in effect on February 1, 2017, creating three empirical legal datasets...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683309/the-complete-structure-of-the-mycobacterium-smegmatis-70s-ribosome
#5
Jendrik Hentschel, Chloe Burnside, Ingrid Mignot, Marc Leibundgut, Daniel Boehringer, Nenad Ban
The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664715/the-history-of-arsenical-pesticides-and-health-risks-related-to-the-use-of-agent-blue
#6
Vladimir Bencko, Florence Yan Li Foong
Arsenicals in agriculture. Beginning in the 1970s, the use of arsenic compounds for such purposes as wood preservatives, began to grow. By 1980, in the USA, 70% of arsenic had been consumed for the production of wood preservatives. This practice was later stopped, due to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ban of the arsenic-and chromium-based wood preservative chromated copper arsenate. In the past, arsenical herbicides containing cacodylic acid as an active ingredient have been used extensively in the USA, from golf courses to cotton fields, and drying-out the plants before harvesting...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660432/human-microdosing-and-mice-xenograft-data-of-agm-130-applied-to-estimate-efficacious-doses-in-patients
#7
Wan-Su Park, Gab-Jin Park, Seunghoon Han, Sooho Ban, Moon-Young Park, San-Ho Kim, Seon-Myung Kim, Yong-Chul Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Young G Shin, Dong-Seok Yim
PURPOSE: AGM-130 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that exhibits dose-dependent efficacy in xenograft mouse models. During preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, mice and rats showed comparable PK parameters while dogs showed unusually high clearance (CL), which has made human PK prediction challenging. To address this discrepancy, we performed a human microdosing PK and developed a mouse PK/PD model in order to guide the first-in-human studies. METHODS: A microdose of AGM-130 was given via intravenous injection to healthy subjects...
June 28, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657189/utility-of-web-search-query-data-in-testing-theoretical-assumptions-about-mephedrone
#8
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: With growing access to the Internet, people who use drugs and traffickers started to obtain information about novel psychoactive substances (NPS) via online platforms. This paper aims to analyze whether a decreasing Web interest in formerly banned substances-cocaine, heroin, and MDMA-and the legislative status of mephedrone predict Web interest about this NPS. METHODS: Google Trends was used to measure changes of Web interest on cocaine, heroin, MDMA, and mephedrone...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643431/a-study-of-the-origin-of-chloramphenicol-isomers-in-honey
#9
Dmytro Yanovych, Bjorn Berendsen, Zvenyslava Zasadna, Mariana Rydchuk, Tobias Czymai
Due to the unexpected detection of chloramphenicol isomer residues in honey, we have studied the hypothesis of unauthorized or unintended use of unregistered veterinary drug preparations. First we have investigated honey samples in which a discrepancy was observed between the results of the immunological screening methods and the confirmatory LC-MS/MS method. In all samples, previously identified to be contaminated with the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol according to LC-MS/MS only, the presence of dextramycin (SS-para isomer of chloramphenicol) was detected by chiral LC-MS/MS...
June 22, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640863/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-limbal-epithelial-cells-lipsc-as-a-cellular-alternative-for-in-vitro-ocular-toxicity-testing
#10
Edith Aberdam, Isabelle Petit, Linda Sangari, Daniel Aberdam
Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625833/colorectal-cancer-cell-line-proteomes-are-representative-of-primary-tumors-and-predict-drug-sensitivity
#11
Jing Wang, Dmitri Mouradov, Xiaojing Wang, Robert N Jorissen, Matthew C Chambers, Lisa J Zimmerman, Suhas Vasaikar, Christopher G Love, Shan Li, Kym Lowes, Karl-Johan Leuchowius, Helene Jousset, Janet Weinstock, Christopher Yau, John Mariadason, Zhiao Shi, Yuguan Ban, Xi Chen, Robert J C Coffey, Robbert J C Slebos, Antony W Burgess, Daniel C Liebler, Bing Zhang, Oliver M Sieber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proteomics holds promise for individualizing cancer treatment. We analyzed to what extent the proteomic landscape of human colorectal cancer (CRC) is maintained in established CRC cell lines and the utility of proteomics for predicting therapeutic responses. METHODS: Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on 44 CRC cell lines, compared against primary CRCs (n=95) and normal tissues (n=60), and integrated with genomic and drug sensitivity data...
June 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625301/maintenance-of-epidural-labour-analgesia-the-old-the-new-and-the-future
#12
REVIEW
Ban Leong Sng, Alex Tiong Heng Sia
Neuraxial analgesia is considered the gold standard in labour analgesia, providing the most effective pain relief during childbirth. Improvements have enhanced the efficacy and safety of epidural analgesia through better drugs, techniques and delivery systems. This review describes the history of epidural labour analgesia and recent improvements in labour epidural analgesia. We discuss the role of the combined spinal epidural technique, low-concentration local anaesthetic-opioid epidural solutions, patient-controlled epidural analgesia, and programmed intermittent or automated mandatory boluses in the maintenance of epidural labour analgesia...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619395/the-new-front-in-the-war-on-doping-amateur-athletes
#13
April D Henning, Paul Dimeo
The war on drugs is usually associated with criminal policies aimed at stemming consumption of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and cannabis, less so with enhancement drugs like those used in sport. As drug use in sport, or doping, has become more visibly widespread, policies aimed at combating the issue have become more restrictive, intrusive, and harsh. In this article we draw new comparisons between the wider war on drugs and recent developments in sports anti-doping. We identify a growing trend towards criminalisation of traffickers and users, and associate that with another growing trend: the testing of amateur athletes...
June 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617997/a-market-on-both-sides-of-the-law-the-use-of-the-hidden-web-for-the-sale-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#14
Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Andreas Kimergård, Paolo Deluca
OBJECTIVE: The hidden Web is used for the anonymous sale of drugs, and with the UK Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016, implemented on May 26th 2016; it could increase as a platform for obtaining new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study aims to describe the NPS market on the visible and hidden Web preban, and assess whether the hidden Web is a likely place for the sale of NPS postban. METHODS: Data collection of 113 online shops took place in October 2015. Data collection of 22 cryptomarkets took place every 2 months from October 2015 to 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA project...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602505/proposal-of-5-methoxy-n-methyl-n-isopropyltryptamine-consumption-biomarkers-through-identification-of-in-vivo-metabolites-from-mice
#15
D Fabregat-Safont, M Barneo-Muñoz, F Martinez-Garcia, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a new breed of synthetically produced substances designed to mimic the effects of traditional illegal drugs. Synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are the two most common groups, which try to mimic the effects of the natural compounds (9)Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cathinone, respectively. Similarly, synthetic tryptamines are designer compounds which are based on the compounds psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine found in some mushrooms...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592404/alcohol-flavoured-tobacco-products
#16
Robert K Jackler, Callie K VanWinkle, Isabela M Bumanlag, Divya Ramamurthi
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. OBJECTIVES: To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)...
June 7, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584898/factors-affecting-the-dissolution-of-indomethacin-solid-dispersions
#17
Wei Zhang, Chen-Ning Zhang, Yue He, Ban-Yan Duan, Guang-Yi Yang, Wei-Dong Ma, Yong-Hong Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of factors such as carrier type, drug/carrier ratio, binary carriers, and preparation method on the dissolution of an insoluble drug, indomethacin (IM), under supersaturation conditions. Using a solvent evaporation (SE) method, poloxamer 188 and PVP K30 showed better dissolution among the selected carriers. Furthermore, as the ratio of carriers increased (drug/carrier ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:2), the dissolution rate increased especially in almost two times poloxamer 188 solid dispersions (SDs), while the reverse results were observed for PVP K30 SDs...
June 5, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578694/worldwide-legislative-challenges-related-to-psychoactive-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Carolina Negrei, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau, Mircea Lucian Bogdan Dumitru, Eren Ozcagli, Concettina Fenga, Leda Kovatsi, Domniki Fragou, Aristidis Tsatsakis
The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control...
June 2, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578329/the-athlete-biological-passport-how-to-personalize-anti-doping-testing-across-an-athlete-s-career
#19
Neil Robinson, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yorck Olaf Schumacher
For decades, drug testing has been the main instrument at the disposal of anti-doping authorities. The availability in the 1980s of substances identical to those produced by the human body, including the "big 3" (erythropoietin, testosterone, and growth hormone), necessitated a new paradigm in anti-doping. The athlete biological passport (ABP) is a new paradigm, complementary to traditional drug testing, based on the personalized monitoring of doping biomarkers. Athletes who abuse doping substances do so to trigger physiological changes that provide performance enhancement...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574863/mephentermine-dependence-in-a-young-athlete-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#20
Swarndeep Singh, Ankit Gupta, Siddharth Sarkar
: Mephentermine is structurally related to amphetamines and is banned for its use as a performance-enhancing drug in competitive sports. Limited literature is available on management of mephentermine dependence. Here, we describe a case of mephentermine dependence followed by review of literature and a discussion about its management. A 20-year-old professional wrestler presented with high-dose intravenous mephentermine use, and rapid development of dependence, in the absence of any comorbid substance use or psychiatric disorder...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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