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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802653/in-vitro-interactions-of-malachite-green-and-leucomalachite-green-with-hepatic-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-systems-in-the-rainbow-trout-onchorhyncus-mykiss
#1
Carlo Nebbia, Flavia Girolami, Monica Carletti, Laura Gasco, Ivo Zoccarato, Alessandra Giuliano Albo
Malachite green (MG) has been widely used in aquaculture to treat a number of microbial and parasitic diseases. It is currently banned in the EU because of the high cytotoxicity and carcinogenic activity, which is also shared by leucomalachite green (LMG), a reduced MG metabolite that can persist in fish tissues for months. There is scant information about the ability of either compound to interact with drug metabolizing enzymes in fish. Therefore we evaluated the in vitro effects of MG and LMG (25, 50 and 100μM) on some DMEs and glutathione (GSH) content in rainbow trout liver subfractions...
August 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798016/bayesian-analysis-a-practical-approach-to-interpret-clinical-trials-and-create-clinical-practice-guidelines
#2
John A Bittl, Yulei He
Bayesian analysis is firmly grounded in the science of probability and has been increasingly supplementing or replacing traditional approaches based on P values. In this review, we present gradually more complex examples, along with programming code and data sets, to show how Bayesian analysis takes evidence from randomized clinical trials to update what is already known about specific treatments in cardiovascular medicine. In the example of revascularization choices for diabetic patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease, we combine the results of the FREEDOM trial (Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease) with prior probability distributions to show how strongly we should believe in the new Class I recommendation ("should be done") for a preference of bypass surgery over percutaneous coronary intervention...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795205/changes-in-support-for-bans-of-illicit-drugs-tobacco-and-alcohol-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-europe-2008-2014
#3
Raffaele Palladino, Thomas Hone, Filippos T Filippidis
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the support for bans for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs in adolescents and young adults across the European Union (EU). METHODS: Data were analysed for the years 2008, 2011, and 2014 for 27 EU member states. 37,253 individuals aged 15-24 years were interviewed ascertaining their support for banning tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, and ecstasy. Changes over time were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Support for banning heroin, ecstasy, and cocaine was constantly greater than 90%, although support fell over time...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775145/bypassing-drug-resistance-mechanisms-of-prostate-cancer-with-small-molecules-that-target-androgen-receptor-chromatin-interactions
#4
Kush Dalal, Meixia Che, Nanette S Que, Aishwariya Sharma, Rendong Yang, Nada Lallous, Hendrik Borgmann, Deniz Ozistanbullu, Ronnie Tse, Fuqiang Ban, Huifang Li, Kevin J Tam, Mani Roshan-Moniri, Eric Leblanc, Martin E Gleave, Daniel T Gewirth, Scott M Dehm, Artem Cherkasov, Paul S Rennie
Human androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone-activated transcription factor that is an important drug-target in the treatment of prostate cancer. Current small molecule AR-antagonists, such as enzalutamide, compete with androgens that bind to the steroid binding pocket of the AR ligand binding domain (LBD). In castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), drug-resistance can manifest through AR-LBD mutations that convert AR-antagonists into agonists, or by expression of AR-variants lacking the LBD. Such treatment resistance underscores the importance of novel ways of targeting the AR...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762264/chemically-edited-exosomes-with-dual-ligand-purified-by-microfluidic-device-for-active-targeted-drug-delivery-to-tumor-cells
#5
Jie Wang, Wei Li, Leicheng Zhang, Lin Ban, Peng Chen, Wei Du, Xiaojun Feng, Bi-Feng Liu
Exosomes, which are lipid membrane-bound nanovesicles (50-150 nm in diameter), have aroused extensive attention for their potential applications in invasive molecular and stand for a new therapeutic delivery system. However, they are limited by poor targeting ability and a lack of efficient isolation techniques. Here, we present a three-dimensional nanostructured microfluidic chip, in which arrays of micropillars were functionalized with crisscrossed multiwall carbon nanotubes by chemical deposition, to capture exosomes with high efficiency through a combination of a specific recognition molecule (CD63) and the unique topography of the nanomaterials...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745489/the-dihydroxy-metabolite-of-the-teratogen-thalidomide-causes-oxidative-dna-damage
#6
Tasaduq H Wani, Anindita Chakrabarty, Norio Shibata, Hiroshi Yamazaki, F Peter Guengerich, Goutam Chowdhury
Thalidomide [α-(N-phthalimido)glutarimide] (1) is a sedative and antiemetic drug originally introduced into the clinic in the 1950s for the treatment of morning sickness. Although marketed as entirely safe, more than 10 000 babies were born with severe birth defects. Thalidomide was banned and subsequently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and complications associated with leprosy. Although known for more than 5 decades, the mechanism of teratogenicity remains to be conclusively understood. Various theories have been proposed in the literature including DNA damage and ROS and inhibition of angiogenesis and cereblon...
August 2, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738670/antidoping-program-an-important-factor-in-the-promotion-and-protection-of-the-integrity-of-sport-and-athlete-s-health
#7
Filomena Mazzeo, Vincenzo Monda, Stefania Santamaria, Ersilia Nigro, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonietta Messina, Giovanni Messina
Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734745/why-are-some-people-who-have-received-overdose-education-and-naloxone-reticent-to-call-emergency-medical-services-in-the-event-of-overdose
#8
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
July 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728637/drinking-location-and-drinking-culture-and-their-association-with-alcohol-use-among-girls-and-boys-in-europe
#9
Bettina Grüne, Daniela Piontek, Pawel Sleczka, Ludwig Kraus, Oliver Pogarell
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (a) investigate the relationship between drinking location and adolescent alcohol use, (b) analyze the association of drinking culture indicators with alcohol use, and (c) explore interaction effects of drinking location and drinking culture indicators. METHOD: Analyses were based on the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The analytical sample consisted of 15- to 16-year-old students (N = 36,366; 51...
July 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698502/rapid-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-detection-of-sibutramine-hydrochloride-in-pharmaceutical-capsules-with-a-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-ag-polyvivnyl-alcohol-hydrogel-substrate
#10
Lei Ouyang, Zuyan Jiang, Nan Wang, Lihua Zhu, Heqing Tang
Sibutramine hydrochloride (SH) is a banned weight-loss drug, but its illegal addition to health products is still rampant. This suggests a very urgent need for a fast and precise detection method for SH. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is a promising candidate for this purpose, but the weak affinity between SH and bare metal limits its direct SERS detection. In the present work, β-cyclodextrin was capped in situ onto the surface of Ag nanoparticles to function as a scaffold to capture SH. The obtained Ag nanoparticles were encapsulated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to fabricate a SERS active hydrogel with excellent reproducibility...
July 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696583/mapping-medical-marijuana-state-laws-regulating-patients-product-safety-supply-chains-and-dispensaries-2017
#11
Sarah B Klieger, Abraham Gutman, Leslie Allen, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Jennifer K Ibrahim, Scott Burris
AIMS: (1) To describe open source legal data sets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of US state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. (2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety and dispensary practice. METHODS: Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety and dispensaries in effect on 1 February 2017, creating three empirical legal data sets...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683309/the-complete-structure-of-the-mycobacterium-smegmatis-70s-ribosome
#12
Jendrik Hentschel, Chloe Burnside, Ingrid Mignot, Marc Leibundgut, Daniel Boehringer, Nenad Ban
The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664715/the-history-of-arsenical-pesticides-and-health-risks-related-to-the-use-of-agent-blue
#13
Vladimir Bencko, Florence Yan Li Foong
Arsenicals in agriculture. Beginning in the 1970s, the use of arsenic compounds for such purposes as wood preservatives, began to grow. By 1980, in the USA, 70% of arsenic had been consumed for the production of wood preservatives. This practice was later stopped, due to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ban of the arsenic-and chromium-based wood preservative chromated copper arsenate. In the past, arsenical herbicides containing cacodylic acid as an active ingredient have been used extensively in the USA, from golf courses to cotton fields, and drying-out the plants before harvesting...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660432/human-microdosing-and-mice-xenograft-data-of-agm-130-applied-to-estimate-efficacious-doses-in-patients
#14
Wan-Su Park, Gab-Jin Park, Seunghoon Han, Sooho Ban, Moon-Young Park, San-Ho Kim, Seon-Myung Kim, Yong-Chul Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Young G Shin, Dong-Seok Yim
PURPOSE: AGM-130 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that exhibits dose-dependent efficacy in xenograft mouse models. During preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, mice and rats showed comparable PK parameters while dogs showed unusually high clearance (CL), which has made human PK prediction challenging. To address this discrepancy, we performed a human microdosing PK and developed a mouse PK/PD model in order to guide the first-in-human studies. METHODS: A microdose of AGM-130 was given via intravenous injection to healthy subjects...
August 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657189/utility-of-web-search-query-data-in-testing-theoretical-assumptions-about-mephedrone
#15
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: With growing access to the Internet, people who use drugs and traffickers started to obtain information about novel psychoactive substances (NPS) via online platforms. This paper aims to analyze whether a decreasing Web interest in formerly banned substances-cocaine, heroin, and MDMA-and the legislative status of mephedrone predict Web interest about this NPS. METHODS: Google Trends was used to measure changes of Web interest on cocaine, heroin, MDMA, and mephedrone...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643431/a-study-of-the-origin-of-chloramphenicol-isomers-in-honey
#16
Dmytro Yanovych, Bjorn Berendsen, Zvenyslava Zasadna, Mariana Rydchuk, Tobias Czymai
Due to the unexpected detection of chloramphenicol isomer residues in honey, we have studied the hypothesis of unauthorized or unintended use of unregistered veterinary drug preparations. First we have investigated honey samples in which a discrepancy was observed between the results of the immunological screening methods and the confirmatory LC-MS/MS method. In all samples, previously identified to be contaminated with the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol according to LC-MS/MS only, the presence of dextramycin (SS-para isomer of chloramphenicol) was detected by chiral LC-MS/MS...
June 22, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640863/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-limbal-epithelial-cells-lipsc-as-a-cellular-alternative-for-in-vitro-ocular-toxicity-testing
#17
Edith Aberdam, Isabelle Petit, Linda Sangari, Daniel Aberdam
Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625833/colorectal-cancer-cell-line-proteomes-are-representative-of-primary-tumors-and-predict-drug-sensitivity
#18
Jing Wang, Dmitri Mouradov, Xiaojing Wang, Robert N Jorissen, Matthew C Chambers, Lisa J Zimmerman, Suhas Vasaikar, Christopher G Love, Shan Li, Kym Lowes, Karl-Johan Leuchowius, Helene Jousset, Janet Weinstock, Christopher Yau, John Mariadason, Zhiao Shi, Yuguan Ban, Xi Chen, Robert J C Coffey, Robbert J C Slebos, Antony W Burgess, Daniel C Liebler, Bing Zhang, Oliver M Sieber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proteomics holds promise for individualizing cancer treatment. We analyzed to what extent the proteomic landscape of human colorectal cancer (CRC) is maintained in established CRC cell lines and the utility of proteomics for predicting therapeutic responses. METHODS: Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on 44 CRC cell lines, compared against primary CRCs (n=95) and normal tissues (n=60), and integrated with genomic and drug sensitivity data...
June 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625301/maintenance-of-epidural-labour-analgesia-the-old-the-new-and-the-future
#19
REVIEW
Ban Leong Sng, Alex Tiong Heng Sia
Neuraxial analgesia is considered the gold standard in labour analgesia, providing the most effective pain relief during childbirth. Improvements have enhanced the efficacy and safety of epidural analgesia through better drugs, techniques and delivery systems. This review describes the history of epidural labour analgesia and recent improvements in labour epidural analgesia. We discuss the role of the combined spinal epidural technique, low-concentration local anaesthetic-opioid epidural solutions, patient-controlled epidural analgesia, and programmed intermittent or automated mandatory boluses in the maintenance of epidural labour analgesia...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619395/the-new-front-in-the-war-on-doping-amateur-athletes
#20
April D Henning, Paul Dimeo
The war on drugs is usually associated with criminal policies aimed at stemming consumption of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and cannabis, less so with enhancement drugs like those used in sport. As drug use in sport, or doping, has become more visibly widespread, policies aimed at combating the issue have become more restrictive, intrusive, and harsh. In this article we draw new comparisons between the wider war on drugs and recent developments in sports anti-doping. We identify a growing trend towards criminalisation of traffickers and users, and associate that with another growing trend: the testing of amateur athletes...
June 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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