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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643431/a-study-of-the-origin-of-chloramphenicol-isomers-in-honey
#1
Dmytro Yanovych, Bjorn Berendsen, Zvenyslava Zasadna, Mariana Rydchuk, Tobias Czymai
Due to the unexpected detection of chloramphenicol isomer residues in honey, we have studied the hypothesis of unauthorized or unintended use of unregistered veterinary drug preparations. First we have investigated honey samples in which a discrepancy was observed between the results of the immunological screening methods and the confirmatory LC-MS/MS method. In all samples, previously identified to be contaminated with the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol according to LC-MS/MS only, the presence of dextramycin (SS-para isomer of chloramphenicol) was detected by chiral LC-MS/MS...
June 22, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640863/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-limbal-epithelial-cells-lipsc-as-a-cellular-alternative-for-in-vitro-ocular-toxicity-testing
#2
Edith Aberdam, Isabelle Petit, Linda Sangari, Daniel Aberdam
Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625833/colorectal-cancer-cell-line-proteomes-are-representative-of-primary-tumors-and-predict-drug-sensitivity
#3
Jing Wang, Dmitri Mouradov, Xiaojing Wang, Robert N Jorissen, Matthew C Chambers, Lisa J Zimmerman, Suhas Vasaikar, Christopher G Love, Shan Li, Kym Lowes, Karl-Johan Leuchowius, Helene Jousset, Janet Weinstock, Christopher Yau, John Mariadason, Zhiao Shi, Yuguan Ban, Xi Chen, Robert J C Coffey, Robbert J C Slebos, Antony W Burgess, Daniel C Liebler, Bing Zhang, Oliver M Sieber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proteomics holds promise for individualizing cancer treatment. We analyzed to what extent the proteomic landscape of human colorectal cancer (CRC) is maintained in established CRC cell lines and the utility of proteomics for predicting therapeutic responses. METHODS: Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on 44 CRC cell lines, compared against primary CRCs (n=95) and normal tissues (n=60), and integrated with genomic and drug sensitivity data...
June 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625301/maintenance-of-epidural-labour-analgesia-the-old-the-new-and-the-future
#4
REVIEW
Ban Leong Sng, Alex Tiong Heng Sia
Neuraxial analgesia is considered the gold standard in labour analgesia, providing the most effective pain relief during childbirth. Improvements have enhanced the efficacy and safety of epidural analgesia through better drugs, techniques and delivery systems. This review describes the history of epidural labour analgesia and recent improvements in labour epidural analgesia. We discuss the role of the combined spinal epidural technique, low-concentration local anaesthetic-opioid epidural solutions, patient-controlled epidural analgesia, and programmed intermittent or automated mandatory boluses in the maintenance of epidural labour analgesia...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619395/the-new-front-in-the-war-on-doping-amateur-athletes
#5
April D Henning, Paul Dimeo
The war on drugs is usually associated with criminal policies aimed at stemming consumption of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and cannabis, less so with enhancement drugs like those used in sport. As drug use in sport, or doping, has become more visibly widespread, policies aimed at combating the issue have become more restrictive, intrusive, and harsh. In this article we draw new comparisons between the wider war on drugs and recent developments in sports anti-doping. We identify a growing trend towards criminalisation of traffickers and users, and associate that with another growing trend: the testing of amateur athletes...
June 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617997/a-market-on-both-sides-of-the-law-the-use-of-the-hidden-web-for-the-sale-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#6
Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Andreas Kimergård, Paolo Deluca
OBJECTIVE: The hidden Web is used for the anonymous sale of drugs, and with the UK Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016, implemented on May 26th 2016; it could increase as a platform for obtaining new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study aims to describe the NPS market on the visible and hidden Web preban, and assess whether the hidden Web is a likely place for the sale of NPS postban. METHODS: Data collection of 113 online shops took place in October 2015. Data collection of 22 cryptomarkets took place every 2 months from October 2015 to 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA project...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602505/proposal-of-5-methoxy-n-methyl-n-isopropyltryptamine-consumption-biomarkers-through-identification-of-in-vivo-metabolites-from-mice
#7
D Fabregat-Safont, M Barneo-Muñoz, F Martinez-Garcia, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a new breed of synthetically produced substances designed to mimic the effects of traditional illegal drugs. Synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are the two most common groups, which try to mimic the effects of the natural compounds (9)Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cathinone, respectively. Similarly, synthetic tryptamines are designer compounds which are based on the compounds psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine found in some mushrooms...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592404/alcohol-flavoured-tobacco-products
#8
Robert K Jackler, Callie K VanWinkle, Isabela M Bumanlag, Divya Ramamurthi
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. OBJECTIVES: To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)...
June 7, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584898/factors-affecting-the-dissolution-of-indomethacin-solid-dispersions
#9
Wei Zhang, Chen-Ning Zhang, Yue He, Ban-Yan Duan, Guang-Yi Yang, Wei-Dong Ma, Yong-Hong Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of factors such as carrier type, drug/carrier ratio, binary carriers, and preparation method on the dissolution of an insoluble drug, indomethacin (IM), under supersaturation conditions. Using a solvent evaporation (SE) method, poloxamer 188 and PVP K30 showed better dissolution among the selected carriers. Furthermore, as the ratio of carriers increased (drug/carrier ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:2), the dissolution rate increased especially in almost two times poloxamer 188 solid dispersions (SDs), while the reverse results were observed for PVP K30 SDs...
June 5, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578694/worldwide-legislative-challenges-related-to-psychoactive-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Carolina Negrei, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau, Mircea Lucian Bogdan Dumitru, Eren Ozcagli, Concettina Fenga, Leda Kovatsi, Domniki Fragou, Aristidis Tsatsakis
The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control...
June 2, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578329/the-athlete-biological-passport-how-to-personalize-anti-doping-testing-across-an-athlete-s-career
#11
Neil Robinson, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yorck Olaf Schumacher
For decades, drug testing has been the main instrument at the disposal of anti-doping authorities. The availability in the 1980s of substances identical to those produced by the human body, including the "big 3" (erythropoietin, testosterone, and growth hormone), necessitated a new paradigm in anti-doping. The athlete biological passport (ABP) is a new paradigm, complementary to traditional drug testing, based on the personalized monitoring of doping biomarkers. Athletes who abuse doping substances do so to trigger physiological changes that provide performance enhancement...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574863/mephentermine-dependence-in-a-young-athlete-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#12
Swarndeep Singh, Ankit Gupta, Siddharth Sarkar
: Mephentermine is structurally related to amphetamines and is banned for its use as a performance-enhancing drug in competitive sports. Limited literature is available on management of mephentermine dependence. Here, we describe a case of mephentermine dependence followed by review of literature and a discussion about its management. A 20-year-old professional wrestler presented with high-dose intravenous mephentermine use, and rapid development of dependence, in the absence of any comorbid substance use or psychiatric disorder...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573221/efficacy-and-safety-of-ban-huang-oral-liquid-for-treating-bovine-respiratory-diseases
#13
Bing Li, Xu-Zheng Zhou, Jian-Rong Niu, Xiao-Juan Wei, Jian-Yong Li, Ya-Jun Yang, Xi-Wang Liu, Fu-Sheng Cheng, Ji-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ban Huang oral liquid was developed as a veterinary compound preparation by the Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the oral liquid preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, Ban Huang, is safe and effective for treating respiratory diseases in cattle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute oral toxicity experiments were conducted in Wistar rats and Kunming mice via oral administration...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555109/rethinking-the-appraisal-and-approval-of-drugs-for-fracture-prevention
#14
Juan Erviti, Javier Gorricho, Luis C Saiz, Thomas Perry, James M Wright
Background: In January 2014, the EMA's Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee recommended that strontium ranelate no longer be used for osteoporosis. However, EMA's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use decided to restrict its use rather than ban it. Starting from this fact, evidence of drugs for fracture prevention over the last 30 years was reviewed and lessons to be learnt from this story are highlighted. Findings: The general belief that drug therapy may become a "solution" for fragility fractures is challenged...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544816/analytical-characterization-of-three-cathinone-derivatives-4-mpd-4%C3%A2-f-php-and-bk-epdp-purchased-as-bulk-powder-from-online-vendors
#15
Orapan Apirakkan, Anca Frinculescu, Trevor Shine, Mark C Parkin, Agostino Cilibrizzi, Nunzianda Frascione, Vincenzo Abbate
Novel emerging drugs of abuse, also referred as new psychoactive substances (NPS), constitute an ever-changing mixture of chemical compounds designed to circumvent legislative controls by means of chemical modifications of previously banned recreational drugs. One of such class, synthetic cathinones, namely β-keto derivatives of amphetamines, has been largely abused over the past decade. A number of new synthetic cathinones are detected each year, either in bulk powders/crystals or in biological matrices. It is therefore important to continuously monitor the supply of new synthetic derivatives and promptly report them...
May 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543414/closed-financial-loops-when-they-happen-in-government-they-re-called-corruption-in-medicine-they-re-just-a-footnote
#16
Kevin De Jesus-Morales, Vinay Prasad
Many physicians are involved in relationships that create tension between a physician's duty to work in her patients' best interest at all times and her financial arrangement with a third party, most often a pharmaceutical manufacturer, whose primary goal is maximizing sales or profit. Despite the prevalence of this threat, in the United States and globally, the most common reaction to conflicts of interest in medicine is timid acceptance. There are few calls for conflicts of interest to be banned, and, to our knowledge, no one calls for conflicted practitioners to be reprimanded...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537159/uk-should-review-the-ban-on-raw-marijuana
#17
Matt Griffits
Some areas of the US have laws supporting the use of raw marijuana for medical needs, as do certain countries in Europe - medical use is legal under certain conditions in Romania, and medical use of the drug on prescription has been legal since 2013 in the Czech Republic.
May 24, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529370/prevention-early-intervention-and-harm-reduction-of-substance-use-in-adolescents
#18
R C Jiloha
This paper presents a systematic review on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, and harm reduction including treatment of substance abuse among adolescents for tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Taxation, public consumption bans, restriction on advertisements, and minimum legal age for consumption, are effective measures to reduce the use of tobacco and alcohol. School-based prevention and skill-training interventions are effective tools to reduce substance use among adolescents. Social norms and intervention to reduce substance use in adolescents do not have strong evidence of effectiveness...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525914/cigarette-filter-ventilation-and-its-relationship-to-increasing-rates-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#19
Min-Ae Song, Neal L Benowitz, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, K Michael Cummings, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Catalin Marian, Richard O'Connor, Vaughan W Rees, Casper Woroszylo, Peter G Shields
The 2014 Surgeon General's Report on smoking and health concluded that changing cigarette designs have caused an increase in lung adenocarcinomas, implicating cigarette filter ventilation that lowers smoking machine tar yields. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the authority to regulate cigarette design if doing so would improve public health. To support a potential regulatory action, two weight-of-evidence reviews were applied for causally relating filter ventilation to lung adenocarcinoma. Published scientific literature (3284 citations) and internal tobacco company documents contributed to causation analysis evidence blocks and the identification of research gaps...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522236/parental-support-for-age-based-indoor-tanning-restrictions
#20
Melissa B Gilkey, Darren Mays, Maryam M Asgari, Melanie L Kornides, Annie-Laurie McRee
INTRODUCTION: Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, are considering policies to ban indoor tanning for youth aged <18 years. Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study assessed parental support for age-based bans as well as less restrictive parental permission requirements. METHODS: Data came from an online survey completed by 1,244 parents of adolescents aged 11-17 years. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models assessed correlates of supporting an indoor tanning ban for youth aged <18 years...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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