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banned drugs

Monica Mazzarino, Franziska L Khevenhüller-Metsch, Ilaria Fiacco, Maria Kristina Parr, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè
The potential consequences of drug-drug interactions on the excretion profile of the anabolic androgenic steroid methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) are discussed here. More specifically, we have evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments the effects of seven non-prohibited drugs (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, fluoxetine, paroxetine and nefazodone) on the main metabolic pathways of methandienone. These are selected among those most commonly used by the athletes...
May 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Janelle Applequist, Jennifer Gerard Ball
PURPOSE: In 2015, the American Medical Association called for a ban of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs. Yet, the pharmaceutical industry spends more than ever on broadcast advertisements, with national health care costs largely driven by drug spending. An evaluation of these ads is critical, as these advertisements can impact the frequency which patients ask their doctors about medications. METHODS: A content analysis of prime-time direct-to-consumer ads was conducted across 4 major cable television networks...
May 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Pradnya D Rao, Husile Nanding, Andrew A Strasser, Paul M Wise
Introduction: The US Food and Drug Administration banned most "sweet" flavorants for use in cigarettes due to the concern that sweet flavors appeal to young, beginning smokers. However, many of the same flavors, including fruity and confection-associated aromas (e.g. vanilla) are still used in e-cigarettes. Sweet flavors may have a number of effects, including enhancement of the taste of other ingredients. The current work focused on the impact of model flavorants on the taste of a mixture of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine, solvents used in most e-cigarettes and related products...
April 2018: Chemosensory Perception
Yajing Zhang, Huazhuo Ban, Runan Yu, Zhijian Wang, Dayong Zhang
SGLT2 inhibitors were promising and novel antidiabetic drugs which suppressed glucose reabsorption and increased urinary glucose exertion. This review paper are aimed to summarize the recent progress of SGLT2 inhibitors during the last 5 years. This paper first summarizes the information of SGLT2 inhibitors, including mechanism, evolution and then focuses on the recent efforts on structure-activity relationships and structural optimization of SGLT2 inhibitors. Finally, the corresponding clinical therapeutic efficacy and adverse drug reaction in patients with Type 2 diabetes are discussed in detail...
May 11, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Anne C Spaulding, Gloria D Eldridge, Cynthia E Chico, Nancy Morisseau, Ana Drobeniuc, Rebecca Fils-Aime, Carolyn Day, Robyn Hopkins, Xingzhong Jin, Junyu Chen, Kate A Dolan
Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines; we also examined whether prisons banned smoking or treated smokers...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
Fuqiang Ban, Kush Dalal, Eric LeBlanc, Hélène Morin, Paul S Rennie, Artem Cherkasov
Androgen receptor (AR) is a master regulator of prostate cancer (PCa), and therefore is a pivotal drug target for the treatment of PCa including its castration-resistance form (CRPC). The development of acquired resistance is a major challenge in the use of the current antiandrogens. The recent advancements in inhibiting AR activity with small molecules specifically designed to target areas distinct from the receptor's androgen binding site are carefully discussed. Our new classes of AR inhibitors of AF2 and BF3 functional sites and DBD domains designed using cheminformatics techniques are promising to circumvent various AR-dependent resistance mechanisms...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Informatics
Qing Chen, Wenyong DU, Yan Gao, Changlin Ma, Chunxia Ban, Fu Meng
Background: Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. Aims: To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents...
December 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
J-Pablo Salvador, Ester Vila-Roca, Núria Monfort, Rosa Ventura, M-Pilar Marco
Antiestrogenic compounds such as tamoxifen, toremifen and chlomifen are used illegally by athletes to minimize physical impacts such as gynecomastia resulting from the secondary effects of anabolic androgenic steroids, used to increase athletic efficiency unlawfully. The use of these compounds is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and controls are made through analytical methodologies such as HPLC-MS/MS, which do not fulfil the sample throughput requirements. Moreover, compounds such as tamoxifen are also used to treat hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (ER + )...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Konami Takahashi, Kazunari Sakai, Wataru Fukasawa, Yuriko Nagano, Sakiko Orui Sakaguchi, Andre O Lima, Vivian H Pellizari, Masato Iwatsuki, Kiyotaka Takishita, Takao Yoshida, Kenichi Nonaka, Katsunori Fujikura, Satoshi Ōmura
Saprolegnia parasitica, belonging to oomycetes, is one of virulent pathogen of fishes such as salmon and trout, and causes tremendous damage and losses in commercial aquacultures by saprolegniasis. Previously, malachite green, an effective medicine, had been used to control saprolegniasis. However, this drug has been banned around the world due to its mutagenicity. Therefore, novel anti-saprolegniasis compounds are urgently needed. As a new frontier to discover bioactive compounds, we focused on the deep-sea fungi for the isolation of anti-saprolegniasis compounds...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Charlotte Lawthom
Sodium valproate remains the best drug for idiopathic generalised epilepsy. For men with the latter diagnosis, this is the drug of choice. Sodium valproate has an unacceptably high level of major fetal malformation and also causes learning disabilities in many children exposed to the drug in utero. Women of reproductive age should not normally be offered this drug. There are many women with refractory epilepsy who would benefit from this drug and who are not planning pregnancy. Individualised epilepsy care is the gold standard, not blanket bans on drug choice based on gender...
April 23, 2018: Practical Neurology
Li Tang, Jie-Ran Luo, Dai-Tian Li, Rui Ge, Yun-Long Ma, Fei Xu, Tai-Gang Liang, Shu-Rong Ban, Qing-Shan Li
BACKGROUND: Great attention has been paid to the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs to overcome the adverse reactions of traditional drugs. Recently, a new compound 4-o-methyl-benzenesulfonyl benzoxazolone (MBB) we have prepared attracted our attention for its promising anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity. The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of MBB both in vivo and in vitro in order to determine its potential as a novel NSAIDs lead compound...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Fang-Fei Zhu, Juan Peng, Zhen Huang, Li-Ming Hu, Gang-Gang Zhang, Dao-Feng Liu, Ke-Yu Xing, Kai-Yi Zhang, Wei-Hua Lai
Amantadine (AMD), a banned antiviral veterinary drug, is still being abused. This study developed a novel enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the colorimetric detection of AMD involving DNA hybridization reaction and non-crosslinking gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation. Accordingly, the Primer 1-AuNPs-anti-AMD monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be captured by AMD artificial antigen on ELISA wells. Primer 2, which was complementary paired to Primer 1, was eventually added into the ELISA wells. After the hybridization reaction, the free Primer 2 in the supernatant was mixed with AuNPs and NaCl and induced a rapid color change of AuNPs...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yuki Mizuno, Atsushi Kudo, Takumi Akashi, Keiichi Akahoshi, Toshiro Ogura, Kosuke Ogawa, Hiroaki Ono, Yusuke Mitsunori, Daisuke Ban, Shinji Tanaka, Ukihide Tateishi, Minoru Tanabe
PURPOSE: The 2017 revised World Health Organization classification of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms classified conventional G3 tumors into well-differentiated (NET-G3) and poorly differentiated (NEC-G3) tumors. However, guidelines for selection of drug therapy were not established in the 2017 revision. This study aimed to elucidate the rates of maximum tumor reduction of sunitinib, progression-free survival, and overall survival in the new classification. METHODS: We investigated the reduction rate over time using computed tomography for 60 patients with unresectable or distant metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms who received 37...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Julio Villena, Hisashi Aso, Victor P M G Rutten, Hideki Takahashi, Willem van Eden, Haruki Kitazawa
The scientific community has reported several cases of microbes that exhibit elevated rates of antibiotic resistance in different regions of the planet. Due to this emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, the use of antibiotics as promoters of livestock animals' growth is being banned in most countries around the world. One of the challenges of agricultural immunology therefore is to find alternatives by modulating the immune system of animals in drug-independent safe food production systems. In this regard, in an effort to supplant antibiotics from bovine feeds, several alternatives were proposed including the use of immunomodulatory probiotics (immunobiotics)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Michael Worboys, Elizabeth Toon
In this article we explore the different trajectories of this one drug, phenylbutazone, across two species, humans and horses in the period 1950-2000. The essay begins by following the introduction of the drug into human medicine in the early 1950s. It promised to be a less costly alternative to cortisone, one of the "wonder drugs" of the era, in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. Both drugs appeared to offer symptomatic relief rather than a cure, and did so with the risk of side effects, which with phenylbutazone were potentially so severe that it was eventually banned from human use, for all but a few diseases, in the early 1980s...
March 26, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Hsin-Chun Lee, Chi-Min Chen, Jen-Ting Wei, Hsiu-Yi Chiu
Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Edward L E Jester, Jared I Loader, Harold A Flores Quintana, Kathleen R El Said, Ronald A Benner, Ann Abraham
The use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in aquaculture products is banned in many countries, including the United States, due to human health issues. Very few depletion and metabolism studies of CAP in seafood have been performed. Current detection methods for CAP residues in food are directed toward the parent drug molecule, but rapid elimination following treatment suggests the need for an alternative marker residue. We identified, characterized, and determined the persistence of two CAP metabolites, CAP-base (CAP-B) and CAP-alcohol (CAP-OH), in crab and shrimp...
April 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Basma R Damiri, Hisham N Sandouka, Eiad H Janini, Omar N Yaish
BACKGROUND: Substance use has been an increasing problem in the occupied Palestinian territory for decades. The aim of this study was to describe the practice, knowledge, and attitudes associated with substance use by university students in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 2015. Male and female students from four main public universities in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Tae Hyun Ban, Ji-Won Min, Changhwan Seo, Da Rae Kim, Yu Ho Lee, Byung Ha Chung, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Jae Wook Lee, Beom Seok Kim, Sang-Ho Lee, Bum Soon Choi, Jin Suk Han, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: The true incidence of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is thought to be underestimated because numerous ingredients known or suspected to contain aristolochic acid (AA) are used in traditional medicine in Korea. Methods: We collected data on cases of AAN since 1996 via a database in Korea. We evaluated the year of AAN development, route to obtaining AA-containing herbal medicine, gender, reason for taking AA-containing herbal medicine, clinical manifestations, histological findings, phytochemical analysis, and prognosis of patients with AAN...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Rhonda Orr, Matthew Grassmayr, Rona Macniven, Anne Grunseit, Mark Halaki, Adrian Bauman
BACKGROUND: This study investigated athlete knowledge of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited Substances List and the effects of four well-known performance enhancing substances (PES). METHODS: A sample of 1925 elite and sub-elite athletes (mean age 20.6 years) completed a questionnaire about the banned status of 30 substances/methods and their knowledge of the effects of amphetamines, anabolic steroids, growth hormone and erythropoietin. RESULTS: Athletes showed limited understanding of the WADA Prohibited Substances List, scoring 32...
March 15, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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