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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785478/changing-trend-of-infectious-diseases-in-nepal
#1
Shiba Kumar Rai
Many infectious/communicable diseases (IDs) are endemic in Nepal. Until a decade and half ago, IDs were the major cause of both morbidity and mortality accounting 70% for both. However, as a result of various preventive measures implemented by both the state and non-state actors, the overall IDs have shown a changing (declining) trend. The most impressive decline has been seen in the intestinal helminth infection. Though the overall burden of IDs is decreasing, several newer infectious diseases (emerging infections) namely, dengue fever, scrub typhus, influenza (H5N1 and H1N1), and others are posing a great public health problem...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781322/the-impact-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-medication-choice-and-pharmacologic-management-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#2
Syed Raza Shah, David E Winchester
In the past few years, medical community, including doctors, have become increasingly aware of the fact that chronic kidney disease (CK) and heart failure (HF) have common risk factors which impacts one another in terms of choice of therapy. Areas covered: Management of these two diseases has been a challenge for physicians. The treatment goals for HF patients in CK are very important. They serve as the end-point in using a specific treatment for management and treatment of CK patients hence, decreasing mortality rates...
May 21, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779179/clinical-outcomes-of-complete-revascularization-using-either-angiography-guided-or-fractional-flow-reserve-guided-drug-eluting-stent-implantation-in-non-culprit-vessels-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-insights-from-a-study-based-on-a-systematic
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Hideo-Kajita, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Kayode O Kuku, Solomon S Beyene, Viana Azizi, Yael F Meirovich, Gebremedhin D Melaku, Aaphtaab Dheendsa, Echo J Brathwaite, Sameer Desale, Mohammad Soud, Kazuhiro Dan, Yuichi Ozaki, Ron Waksman, Michael Lipinski
Current guidelines recommend that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) should be restricted to the culprit vessel in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multi-vessel disease (MVD) and without cardiogenic shock. However, newer data suggests that performing complete revascularization (CR) in MVD patients may lead to better outcomes compared to intervention in the culprit vessel only. The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine the available data to determine if CR (using either angio- or fractional flow reserve guidance-FFR) following primary PCI in STEMI patients without cardiogenic shock impacts clinical outcomes...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778713/concluding-commentary-on-current-trends-to-enhance-the-clinical-safety-of-pediatric-transfusion-focusing-on-prevention-of-untoward-complications-of-hsc-transplantation-newer-strategies-for-improving-the-standards-of-safety-quality-of-stem-cells-expansion-for
#4
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Clinical practice and related diagnostic, development and research [DDR] strategies in pediatric transfusion and transplantation cover a broad range of multidisciplinary studies, performed by many professionals involved in this most challenging clinical field [1]. This commentary on the current position and future perspectives in pediatric transfusion field is aimed to highlight major unresolved transfusion complications in pediatric patients, namely red blood cell and platelet alloimmunisation, and new ones such as nosocomial infection, thrombosis and multi-organ failure...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775399/dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infection
#5
Jose L Casado, Marta Monsalvo, Aurora M Rojo, María Fontecha, Miguel A Rodriguez-Sagrado
Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts concerning the use of a dual therapy with DTG plus RPV as a switching strategy in patients with viral suppression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775220/cystatin-c-is-a-more-reliable-biomarker-for-determining-egfr-to-support-drug-development-studies
#6
REVIEW
Sumit Kar, Sabina Paglialunga, Rafiqul Islam
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is routinely used as a surrogate endpoint for the development of investigational drugs in clinical trials. GFR and staging of chronic kidney disease are typically assessed by measuring the concentration of endogenous serum biomarkers such as albumin and creatinine. However, creatinine is subject to high biological variability, and levels of creatinine do not rise until nearly 50% of kidney function is damaged, leading to inaccurate chronic kidney disease staging and false negatives...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774177/the-new-direct-antiviral-agents-and-hepatitis-c-in-thoracic-transplantation-impact-on-donors-and-recipients
#7
REVIEW
Robert L Gottlieb, Shelley A Hall
Purpose of Review: The landscape of abdominal organ transplantation has been altered by the emergence of curative direct-acting antiviral agents for hepatitis C. Expansion of the thoracic donor pool to include the hearts and the lungs from hepatitis C-positive donors holds promise to increase available donor organs. Recent Findings: Case reports have documented separate lung and heart transplant patients who acquired, and then were cured of, donor-derived hepatitis C using these newer, more effective therapies...
2018: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769784/nilotinib-induced-perforating-folliculitis-two-cases
#8
Neerja Saraswat, Ajay Chopra, Debdeep Mitra, Krishna Talukdar
Cutaneous adverse effects of chemotherapy are widely known but underreported. A significant advancement is made in the field of oncology with the advent of new classes of drug being added to the existing classes at a fast pace. Most of these cutaneous adverse effects are self-limiting and subsides on suspending the drug either temporarily or permanently. Some of these effects are merely overlooked by the patients and the treating physician hence goes un-noticed. Nilotinib is a newer second-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitor approved for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769783/trichotillomania-ranging-from-ritual-to-illness-and-as-a-rare-clinical-manifestation-of-frontotemporal-dementia-review-of-literature-and-case-report
#9
Thomas Gregor Issac, Ashay Vivek Telang, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia in the younger age group and often exists with comorbid obsessions and compulsions in up to 80% of the patients. Trichotillomania or compulsive "hair-pulling" disorder is a rare manifestation of FTD and is a poorly evaluated symptom in this condition. The release of "grooming functions" due to frontal disinhibition is often attributed to the evolutionary perspective; however, recent findings also implicate the role of neurotransmitter dysfunction...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768064/a-look-at-treatment-strategies-for-relapsed-multiple-myeloma
#10
Giusy Cetani, Mario Boccadoro, Stefania Oliva
Multiple myeloma treatment considerably improved during the past decade, thanks to novel effective drugs, a better understanding of myeloma biology and clonal heterogeneity, and an improved management of toxicities. The choice of regimen at relapse is usually based on prior response, toxicities, age and comorbidities of relapsed patients. Areas covered: A review was performed of the most recent and effective therapeutic strategies for the relapsed myeloma setting, by documenting the latest clinical evidence from phase II and III clinical trials...
May 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763992/development-of-an-algorithm-to-identify-pregnancy-episodes-and-related-outcomes-in-health-care-claims-databases-an-application-to-antiepileptic-drug-use-in-4-9-million-pregnant-women-in-france
#11
Pierre-Olivier Blotière, Alain Weill, Marie Dalichampt, Cécile Billionnet, Myriam Mezzarobba, Fanny Raguideau, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Mahmoud Zureik, Joël Coste, François Alla
PURPOSE: Access to claims databases provides an opportunity to study medication use and safety during pregnancy. We developed an algorithm to identify pregnancy episodes in the French health care databases and applied it to study antiepileptic drug (AED) use during pregnancy between 2007 and 2014. METHODS: The algorithm searched the French health care databases for discharge diagnoses and medical procedures indicative of completion of a pregnancy. To differentiate claims associated with separate pregnancies, an interval of at least 28 weeks was required between 2 consecutive pregnancies resulting in a birth and 6 weeks for terminations of pregnancy...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761330/a-review-of-long-term-toxicity-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-and-implications-for-an-aging-population
#12
REVIEW
Anita Chawla, Christina Wang, Cody Patton, Miranda Murray, Yogesh Punekar, Annemiek de Ruiter, Corklin Steinhart
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a chronic infectious disease currently requiring lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). People living with HIV (PLWH) face an increased risk of comorbidities associated with aging, chronic HIV, and the toxicity arising from long-term ART. A literature review was conducted to identify the most recent evidence documenting toxicities associated with long-term ART, particularly among aging PLWH. In general, PLWH are at a greater risk of developing fractures, osteoporosis, renal and metabolic disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disease, and liver disease...
May 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759154/mrd-testing-in-multiple-myeloma-the-main-future-driver-for-modern-tailored-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Ola Landgren, Sydney X Lu, Malin Hultcrantz
The past decade, several highly efficacious drugs have been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Many of these newer drugs are less toxic than older chemotherapy drugs. Using modern combination therapy in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients, high proportions of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients obtain minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity and MRD testing has rapidly become an integral part of clinical trials focusing on patients in this setting. Only recently, MRD negativity was reported in clinical trials focusing on older newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients (ie, nontransplant candidates), as well as studies focusing on patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma...
January 2018: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759152/minimal-residual-disease-detection-by-flow-cytometry-in-multiple-myeloma-why-and-how
#14
REVIEW
Mikhail Roshal
The outlook for myeloma patients has steadily improved with the introduction of newer drug combinations in recent years. Unlike older therapies that largely achieved only modest levels of neoplastic clone reduction, the newer drug combinations have led to deeper suppression of myeloma clones in most patients. Frequently the neoplastic clones become undetectable with traditional disease evaluation approaches. Recent studies using ultrasensitive disease monitoring have demonstrated that patients with disease undetectable by traditional techniques show wide heterogeneity in disease levels varying by several orders of magnitude...
January 2018: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755344/endophytic-fungi-alternative-sources-of-cytotoxic-compounds-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Fazilath Uzma, Chakrabhavi D Mohan, Abeer Hashem, Narasimha M Konappa, Shobith Rangappa, Praveen V Kamath, Bhim P Singh, Venkataramana Mudili, Vijai K Gupta, Chandra N Siddaiah, Srinivas Chowdappa, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, with an increasing number of cases being reported annually. The elevated rate of mortality necessitates a global challenge to explore newer sources of anticancer drugs. Recent advancements in cancer treatment involve the discovery and development of new and improved chemotherapeutics derived from natural or synthetic sources. Natural sources offer the potential of finding new structural classes with unique bioactivities for cancer therapy. Endophytic fungi represent a rich source of bioactive metabolites that can be manipulated to produce desirable novel analogs for chemotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753294/prescription-trends-and-psychiatric-symptoms-following-first-receipt-of-one-of-seven-common-antiepileptic-drugs-in-general-practice
#16
Colin B Josephson, Jordan D T Engbers, Nathalie Jette, Scott B Patten, Tolulope T Sajobi, Deborah Marshall, Mark Lowerison, Samuel Wiebe
We sought to examine the risk of psychiatric symptoms associated with a first prescription for specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used in monotherapy in a general cohort of patients with epilepsy. We used The Health Improvement Network database (comprising the years 2000-2012) to identify incident patients with epilepsy. The index date was that on which they met the case definition for epilepsy, and analyses only included patients who remained on monotherapy or received no AED therapy following diagnosis to avoid confounding by polytherapy...
May 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748143/the-investigation-and-treatment-of-diabetic-gastroparesis
#17
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar, Adam Chapman, Saad Javed, Uazman Alam, Rayaz A Malik, Shazli Azmi
PURPOSE: This review provides an update on the investigations and treatment options for gastroparesis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of Medline, PubMed, Embase and OVID was conducted which included all systematic reviews and research articles that focused on the diagnosis, investigations and management diabetic gastroparesis. FINDINGS: Dietary modifications and pharmacologic treatment with prokinetics to increase gastric motility form the mainstay of treatment...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746307/erythropoietin-mimetic-peptides-and-erythropoietin-fusion-proteins-for-treating-anemia-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Nupur Gupta, Jay B Wish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: First generation erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have short duration of action which requires administration once weekly or greater. Second generation ESAs were developed which have longer duration of action and can be administered one to two times monthly. Erythropoietin (EPO) mimetic peptides (EMPs) activate the EPO receptor but have no structural analogy to EPO, offering the potential for lower cost as they are not biologic drugs. The first approved EMP, peginesatide, was withdrawn from the market within a year of its approval because of fatal anaphylactic reactions...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744526/-drugs-for-intravenous-induction-of-anesthesia-barbiturates
#19
C Dumps, E Halbeck, D Bolkenius
The discovery of barbituric acid and research on its derivatives have long been of importance in advancements in modern anesthesia. Decades of clinical use of barbiturates worldwide and their abuse has led to an enormous amount of knowledge. Thiopental and methohexital are ultra-short acting derivatives of barbiturates. Their clinical application has been accompanied by an enormous increase in the knowledge of the pharmacology of cerebrally active drugs, in particular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA ) receptor and GABA-induced effects on nerve cell membranes...
May 9, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742786/-patient-controlled-analgesia-pca-an-overview-about-methods-handling-and-new-modalities
#20
Marie Abrolat, Leopold H J Eberhart, Gerald Kalmus, Tilo Koch, Stefan Nardi-Hiebl
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is one of the well established methods for the treatment of postoperative pain. A cochrane-review concluded that PCA is associated with better postoperative pain ratings and improved patient-satifaction compared to traditional way of administering opioids. Some prerequisites concerning patient selection, education of the patient and the medical staff, and supervision during PCA therapy are mandatory for a safe use of PCA. Current PCA modalities (intravenous and epidural routes of application) are expanded by newer, less invasive routes of drug administration, e...
April 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
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