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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352151/effects-of-genetic-variants-on-platelet-reactivity-and-one-year-clinical-outcomes-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-prospective-multicentre-registry-study
#1
Hyung Joon Joo, Sung Gyun Ahn, Jae Hyoung Park, Ji Young Park, Soon Jun Hong, Seok-Yeon Kim, WoongGil Choi, HyeonCheol Gwon, Young-Hyo Lim, Weon Kim, Woong Chol Kang, Yun-Hyeong Cho, Yong Hoon Kim, JungHan Yoon, WonYong Shin, Myeong-Ki Hong, Scot Garg, Yangsoo Jang, Do-Sun Lim
Clopidogrel is the mainstay for antiplatelet treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The relationship of platelet reactivity and genetic polymorphism with clinical outcomes with newer-generation drug-eluting stents is unclear. We analysed 4,587 patients for the most powerful single-nucleotide polymorphisms (CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ABCB1, PON1, and P2Y12) related to on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR). The optimal cut-off value of high OPR for major adverse thrombotic events was 266. CYP2C19 was significantly associated with high OPR and the number of CYP2C19*R (*2 or *3) alleles was proportional to the increased risk of high OPR...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350303/a-short-review-of-the-non-invasive-transcutaneous-pericranial-electrical-stimulation-techniques-and-their-application-in-headache
#2
REVIEW
Licia Grazzi, Emanuela Sansone, Paul Rizzoli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this short review, the most common non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques will be described, along with their advantages and disadvantages and their application in headache. Available preventive treatments can be unhelpful or may have unpleasant side effects; moreover, the rate of response to preventive drugs does not exceed 50%, lower in chronic migraine; alternative options would be welcome. Though the concept of neuromodulation was originally developed with invasive methods, newer non-invasive techniques are appearing...
January 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350069/new-and-developing-pharmacotherapy-for-osteoporosis-in-men
#3
Luigi Gennari, John P Bilezikian
Osteoporosis represents a major health and societal burden in men, as well as in women. However, only a minority of men are screened and treated for osteoporosis and fracture prevention, even after first fracture. Areas covered: This article provides a comprehensive summary of the currently available drugs for osteoporosis in men as well as insights into new and developing pharmacotherapy. Expert opinion: To date, therapeutic approaches to osteoporosis in men remain not as well defined as in women, since antifracture efficacy data are lacking for most approved pharmaceuticals...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346366/testing-for-soil-transmitted-helminth-transmission-elimination-analysing-the-impact-of-the-sensitivity-of-different-diagnostic-tools
#4
Marleen Werkman, James E Wright, James E Truscott, Alice V Easton, Rita G Oliveira, Jaspreet Toor, Alison Ower, Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Arianna R Means, Sam H Farrell, Judd L Walson, Roy M Anderson
In recent years, an increased focus has been placed upon the possibility of the elimination of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) transmission using various interventions including mass drug administration. The primary diagnostic tool recommended by the WHO is the detection of STH eggs in stool using the Kato-Katz (KK) method. However, detecting infected individuals using this method becomes increasingly difficult as the intensity of infection decreases. Newer techniques, such as qPCR, have been shown to have greater sensitivity than KK, especially at low prevalence...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346071/identification-of-potential-inhibitors-against-nuclear-dam1-complex-subunit-ask1-of-candida-albicans-using-virtual-screening-and-md-simulations
#5
Himanshu Tripathi, Feroz Khan
Identification of hit compounds against specific target form the starting point for a drug discovery program. A consistent decline of new chemical entities (NCEs) in recent years prompted a challenge to explore newer approaches to discover potential hit compounds that in turn can be converted into leads, and ultimately drug with desired therapeutic efficacy. The vast amount of omics and activity data available in public databases offers an opportunity to identify novel targets and their potential inhibitors...
January 1, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344468/levetiracetam-induced-skin-hyperpigmentation-an-extremely-rare-undesirable-side-effect
#6
Hussein Algahtani, Siham Marghalani, Mohamed Satti, Bader Shirah
Levetiracetam is one of the newer second-generation antiepileptic drugs with multiple mechanisms of action. Cutaneous side effects due to levetiracetam are rarely reported in the literature. In this article, we describe a patient with skin hyperpigmentation due to the treatment with levetiracetam with complete resolution after discontinuation of the medication. In addition, we review the topic and hypothesize the mechanism behind this rare complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of skin hyperpigmentation as a side effect of levetiracetam in the literature...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342367/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-guidelines-use-of-cftr-modulator-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Clement L Ren, Rebecca L Morgan, Christopher Oermann, Helaine E Resnick, Cynthia Brady, Annette Campbell, Richard DeNagel, Margaret Guill, Jeffrey Hoag, Andrew Lipton, Thomas Newton, Stacy Peters, Donna Beth Willey-Courand, Edward T Naureckas
BACKGROUND: CFTR modulators are a new class of medications that target the underlying defect in in cystic fibrosis (CF). Ivacaftor (IVA) and IVA combined with lumacaftor (IVA/LUM) have been approved by the FDA for use in CF patients. However, the FDA label for these medications encompasses patient groups that were not studied as part of the drug approval process. CF clinicians, patients, and their families have recognized a need for recommendations to guide the use of these medications...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340618/mitochondrial-toxicity
#8
Joel N Meyer, Jessica H Hartman, Danielle F Mello
Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in reported toxic effects of drugs and pollutants on mitochondria. Researchers have also documented many genetic differences leading to mitochondrial diseases, currently reported to affect ∼1 person in 4,300, creating a large number of potential gene-environment interactions in mitochondrial toxicity. We briefly review this history, and then highlight cutting-edge areas of mitochondrial research including the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in signaling; increased understanding of fundamental biological processes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis (DNA maintenance and mutagenesis, mitochondrial stress response pathways, fusion and fission, autophagy and biogenesis, and exocytosis); systemic effects resulting from mitochondrial stresses in specific cell types; mitochondrial involvement in immune function; the growing evidence of long-term effects of mitochondrial toxicity; mitochondrial-epigenetic cross-talk; and newer approaches to test chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity...
January 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338071/the-financial-burden-and-distress-of-patients-with-cancer-understanding-and-stepping-up-action-on-the-financial-toxicity-of-cancer-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Pricivel M Carrera, Hagop M Kantarjian, Victoria S Blinder
"Financial toxicity" has now become a familiar term used in the discussion of cancer drugs, and it is gaining traction in the literature given the high price of newer classes of therapies. However, as a phenomenon in the contemporary treatment and care of people with cancer, financial toxicity is not fully understood, with the discussion on mitigation mainly geared toward interventions at the health system level. Although important, health policy prescriptions take time before their intended results manifest, if they are implemented at all...
January 16, 2018: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337673/evaluation-of-immunomodulatory-effects-of-lamotrigine-in-balb-c-mice
#10
Eman Y Abu-Rish, Shada Y Elhayek, Yehia S Mohamed, Islam Hamad, Yasser Bustanji
Modulation of the immune system has recently been shown to be involved in the pharmacological effects of old antiepileptic drugs and in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Therefore, the most recent guidelines for immunotoxicological evaluation of drugs were consulted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of lamotrigine, a newer antiepileptic drug, in BALB/c mice. These included the in vivo effects of lamotrigine on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antigens, hemagglutination titer assays and hematological changes...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336185/an-update-on-first-line-therapies-for-metastatic-breast-cancer
#11
Palma Fedele, Mariangela Ciccarese, Giammarco Surico, Saverio Cinieri
In recent years, outcomes of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) have improved due to a greater understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the development of newer molecularly targeted drugs, especially those as a front-line therapy. Remarkable improvements have been made in the treatment of hormone receptor positive (HR+) and Her2 positive MBC and currently targeted treatment strategies represent a valid first line treatment. Areas covered: Herein, the authors provide an overview of the first-line pharmacotherapies currently available for the treatment of MBC and provide their expert perspectives on the area...
January 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335720/review-newer-second-line-drugs-for-diabetes-are-not-more-cost-effective-than-sulfonylureas
#12
Natalia Genere, Victor M Montori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326081/macromolecule-nanotherapeutics-approaches-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Puneet Tyagi, Jose Luis Santos
With the advent of technology, newer forms of drugs, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA, have entered mainstream product development. However, systemic delivery of macromolecules is limited by rapid blood clearance, poor stability in vivo, and inadequate uptake by cells. Nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems have emerged as suitable carriers for overcoming such pharmacokinetic limitations of macromolecule delivery. Nanocarriers, such as liposomes, provide protection for sensitive drug materials and also enhance the circulation half-life of=therapeutics...
January 8, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321520/essential-thrombocythemia-treatment-algorithm-2018
#14
REVIEW
Ayalew Tefferi, Alessandro M Vannucchi, Tiziano Barbui
Current drug therapy for myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV), is neither curative nor has it been shown to prolong survival. Fortunately, prognosis in ET and PV is relatively good, with median survivals in younger patients estimated at 33 and 24 years, respectively. Therefore, when it comes to treatment in ET or PV, less is more and one should avoid exposing patients to new drugs that have not been shown to be disease-modifying, and whose long-term consequences are suspect (e...
January 10, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321112/the-evaluation-and-management-of-urolithiasis-in-the-emergency-department-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a common condition in the U.S. Patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) for care, including analgesia and treatments to facilitate stone passage. OBJECTIVE: With the new evidence concerning the evaluation and treatment of urolithiasis, this review summarizes current literature regarding the ED management of urolithiasis. DISCUSSION: Urolithiasis occurs primarily through supersaturation of urine and commonly presents with flank pain, hematuria, and nausea/vomiting...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319477/publicly-funded-overactive-bladder-drug-treatment-patterns-in-ontario-over-15-years-an-ecologic-study
#16
Mina Tadrous, Dean Elterman, Wayne Khuu, Muhammad M Mamdani, David N Juurlink, Tara Gomes
INTRODUCTION: Medication is an important option for patients with overactive bladder (OAB), with four different drugs approved over the last 10 years including the first non-anticholinergic treatment, mirabegron. We set out to describe the number and rate of users of medication for the management of OAB over the last 15 years among residents of Ontario, Canada covered by the public drug programs. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study examining quarterly publically-funded prescription claims for OAB medications from January 2000 to June 2016 in Ontario, Canada...
December 22, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319249/stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation-which-is-the-best-balanced-in-efficacy-and-safety-as-a-thromboprophylactic
#17
Viraj Suvarna
Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) has reached an exciting phase with a plethora of newer, potentially more efficacious and safer agents being introduced for physicians to select from. Dabigatran belongs to a class of anticoagulants called direct thrombin inhibitors, while rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban are direct Factor Xa inhibitors. Purely from a therapeutic endpoint perspective-based on the action of anticoagulants in reducing cardioembolic stroke-in clinical trials, one should look at whether a new anticoagulant in patients with AF prevents ischemic stroke...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319042/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-principles-of-management
#18
Rajendra Prasad, Nikhil Gupta, Amitabh Banka
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is human-made problem and emerging due to poor management of TB and is a threat to control of TB. Early suspicion and diagnosis are important. Culture and drug susceptibility testing are gold standards, but newer molecular methods help in rapid diagnosis. Once diagnosed, prompt treatment should be started, preferably under direct observation. Treatment can be standardized or individualized. Conventional regimen takes up to 24 months but recently shorter regimen of up to 12 months was introduced in specific subset of MDR-TB/RR-TB patients...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318007/severe-haematuria-of-lower-urinary-tract-origin-with-low-dose-dabigatran-use-in-three-indian-elderly-patients-unresolved-issues-in-the-safety-of-novel-oral-anticoagulants
#19
Upinder Kaur, Sankha Shubhra Chakrabarti, Sukdev Manna, Indrajeet Singh Gambhir
Dabigatran is a newer oral direct thrombin inhibitor approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The proper dosage of the drug, the potential for adverse drug reactions and the nature of bleeds with use of this drug as with other novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), in the elderly population are still areas of uncertainty. Despite the existence of a specific antibody, idarucizumab which is an antidote to dabigatran toxicity, management of dabigatran-induced bleeds is an undefined area especially in resource constrained settings...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317959/impact-of-oxidative-stress-and-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-on-the-albumin-and-cortisol-value-in-severe-motor-and-intellectual-disabilities-with-epilepsy
#20
Masahito Morimoto, Toshiaki Hashimoto, Taisuke Kitaoka, Shojiro Kyotani
Background: Epilepsy is a common complication in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID). There are no reports as yet of the effects of these medications in vivo other than their epileptic efficacy. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on the blood biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in SMID with epilepsy by comparing the therapeutic effects between a group of patients receiving lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) in addition to the conventional AEDs (newer AED group) and a group receiving conventional AEDs alone (old AED group)...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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