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brain abscess guidelines

Thomas Simjian, Ivo S Muskens, Nayan Lamba, Ismaeel Yunusa, Kristine Wong, Raymond Veronneau, Annick Kronenburg, H Bart Brouwers, Timothy R Smith, Rania A Mekary, M L D Broekman
OBJECTIVE: Dexamethasone has been used to treat cerebral edema associated with brain abscesses. Whereas some argue that dexamethasone might aid the antibiotic treatment, others believe that because of its immune-suppressive characteristics, it might have a negative impact on outcomes. To date it is still unclear how corticosteroid use affects overall mortality of brain abscess patients. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines...
April 26, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zina Hijazi, Peter Lange, Rosie Watson, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the frequency and patterns of use of cerebral imaging in delirium and to describe pathological changes associated with delirium using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with delirium admitted to a tertiary hospital (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia) between January 2015 and August 2016. Data on cerebral imaging was collected and positive imaging findings were defined as: Acute or subacute infarct, haemorrhage, abscess, neoplasm, vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, encephalitis, acute demyelination, or fat embolism...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
I Raffaldi, S Garazzino, G Castelli Gattinara, R Lipreri, L Lancella, S Esposito, A M Giannini, C Montagnani, G L Marseglia, C Pignata, F Bernardi, P-A Tovo
Brain abscess is uncommon in paediatric population, but of clinical importance because of significant long-term morbidity and mortality. In this multicentre study, promoted by the Italian Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases, we retrospectively collected patients aged 0-18 years, with a diagnosis of 'brain abscess'. Seventy-nine children were included; the median age was 8·75 years. As predisposing factor, 44 children had preceding infections. The Gram-positive cocci were mostly isolated (27 cases). Sixty (76%) children underwent a surgical intervention...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Mohammad Akram Randhawa, Awwad Khalaf Alenazy, Majed Gorayan Alrowaili, Jamith Basha
AIM/BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Alessandro Capitanini, Luca Rosso, Laura Giannecchini, Ophelia Meniconi, Adamasco Cupisti
A 47-year old, Caucasian man underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of a 14mm calcium stone in the right renal pelvis, without urinary tract obstruction or sepsis. 24 hours after ESWL septic shock occurred and the patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Escherichia coli emerged from the blood and urine culture. The patient developed acute renal failure and it was necessary to start a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Infection was successfully treated, patient recovered renal function and an improvement of general condition occurred...
September 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Michael Hanley, Osmanuddin Ahmed, Ankur Chandra, Kenneth L Gage, Marie D Gerhard-Herman, Michael Ginsburg, Heather L Gornik, Pamela T Johnson, Isabel B Oliva, Thomas Ptak, Michael L Steigner, Richard Strax, Frank J Rybicki, Karin E Dill
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are often included in the differential diagnosis of common clinical presentations, including hypoxemia, hemoptysis, brain abscesses, and paradoxical stroke, as well as affecting 30% to 50% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Various imaging studies are used in the diagnostic and screening settings, which have been reviewed by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria Vascular Imaging Panel. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation screening in patients with HHT is commonly performed with transthoracic echocardiographic bubble study, followed by CT for positive cases...
July 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Yvette Farran, Suresh Antony
Nocardia infections primarily begin in the lungs and spread hematogenously to other sites in the body. Thus, a Nocardia brain abscess is not a completely uncommon occurrence. However, a Nocardia brain abscess complicated by a middle cerebral artery and infectious intracranial aneurysm is a very rare clinical entity. We present a case of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with an associated Nocardia brain abscess that required surgical intervention and resection. The patient was an immunocompetent 60-year-old male who presented with a chief complaint of headache and was found to have an infected intracranial aneurysm and cerebral abscess...
May 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Olivier Leroy, Hugues Georges, Patrick Devos, Steve Bitton, Nathalie De Sa, Céline Dedrie, Sébastien Beague, Pierre Ducq, Claire Boulle-Geronimi, Damien Thellier, Fabienne Saulnier, Sebastien Preau
BACKGROUND: Very few studies focused on patients with severe infective endocarditis (IE) and multiple complications leading to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. Studied primary outcomes depended on the series and multiple prognostic factors have been identified. Our goal was to determinate characteristics of patients, in-hospital mortality and independent prognostic factors in an overall population of patients admitted to ICU for a left-sided, definite, active and severe IE. METHODS: Retrospective study performed in 9 ICUs during an 11-year period...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
Joji Inamasu, Shigeta Moriya, Yushi Kawazoe, Shinya Nagahisa, Mitsuhiro Hasegawa, Yuichi Hirose
Primary intraventricular brain abscesses are rare, and there are no established treatment guidelines for this condition. We report a case in which isolated ventricular dilatation and unilateral hydrocephalus developed after seemingly successful conservative management and which required surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid. A 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with high-grade fever and headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abscesses in the bilateral posterior horn...
May 2015: Case Reports in Neurology
Tsung-Han Tsai, Kai-Ling Peng
BACKGROUND: Endogenous endophthalmitis, extra-hepatic metastasis from liver abscess with diabetes mellitus, could lead to a devastating outcome without a prompt and appropriate management. We report a case of metastatic endophthalmitis combined with subretinal abscess with successful visual outcome after treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus under poor control presented to our emergency room with fever, sore throat, cough and poor appetite for 2 weeks...
2015: BMC Ophthalmology
Alfredo Campennì, Gerardo Caruso, Valeria Barresi, Mariangela Pino, Mariapaola Cucinotta, Sergio Baldari, Maria Caffo
Abscess formation within a brain tumor is uncommon. Intrasellar or parasellar tumors are the most common neoplasms that develop such complications. Cerebral gliomas with abscesses are extremely rare. In this paper three rare cases of glioma associated with abscess formation are described. The diagnosis of brain tumor associated with abscess is particularly difficult by conventional neuroradiological studies. (99m)Tc-labeled sulesomab can be useful in the diagnosis of brain tumors with intratumoral abscesses...
July 2015: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Anjoli Anand, Alicia Salas, Evan Mahl, Marla C Levine
Currently, there is no standardized approach to the management of complex febrile seizures in children and there are no published practice guidelines for the procurement of neuroimaging. Presented is a 2-year-old female patient who experienced a 3- to 5-minute episode of staring and unilateral mouth twitching associated with high fever. On initial presentation, the patient appeared well and had a normal neurological examination. No focus of infection was identified, and she was diagnosed with complex febrile seizure...
July 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Javier Nieto-Guevara
Brain abscess is a serious and life-threatening disease among children despite advances in diagnosis and management. Changes in the epidemiology of predisposing conditions for brain abscess are associated with changes in the patient population and causative organisms. Though still a potentially fatal infection, there have been recent improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Although mortality appears to be decreasing, a significant percentage of children continue to have residual neurological deficits, including epilepsy, permanent motor or sensory dysfunction, visual field defects, and personality change...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Susanna Felsenstein, Bhanu Williams, Delane Shingadia, Lucy Coxon, Andrew Riordan, Andreas K Demetriades, Christopher L Chandler, Sanj Bassi, Eirini Koutoumanou, Simon Stapleton, Mike Sharland, Penelope A Bryant
BACKGROUND: There are no guidelines for the management of brain abscesses in children, and there is a paucity of recent data describing clinical and microbiologic features. We aimed to identify factors affecting outcome to inform antibiotic recommendations. METHODS: From 1999 to 2009, 118 children presented with brain abscesses to 4 neurosurgical centers in the United Kingdom. Clinical, microbiologic and treatment data were collected. RESULTS: The commonest preceding infection was sinusitis, with 59% of all children receiving antibiotics before diagnosis...
February 2013: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
M M Verkerk, C L Shovlin, V J Lund
BACKGROUND: Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are at risk of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that may be complicated by stroke and brain abscess. ENT surgeons are well placed to direct patients to screening, which was recommended for all HHT patients in recently published international guidelines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: A retrospective study of patients with known HHT was performed based on responses to a telephone questionnaire...
September 2012: Rhinology
P Polak, S Snopkova, P Husa
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 38-year-old woman who suffered from migraine was admitted because of severe, worsening headache for 24 hours (dissimilar to the previous migraine attacks), with impaired vision and weakness of the right arm. Mild hemiparesis and expressive aphasia indicated an intracranial tumor. INVESTIGATIONS: Cranial computed tomography revealed a focal lesion with a diameter of 2.5 cm in the left frontoparietal lobe, with signs of intracranial hypertension, indicating cerebral metastasis or an abscess...
August 2012: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sarah Norberg, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Paul D Cotter
Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens, and a mortality rate of 40 to 80% is associated with infections. This pathogen can cause a range of serious diseases such as meningitis, septicemia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and brain abscesses and has been responsible for a variety of sequelae such as quadriplegia. Although Cronobacter can cause disease in both adults and infants, infant infections associated with powdered formula are the focus of this review. Since the first reported Cronobacter infection outbreak in 1958, powdered infant formula has been identified as a major source of these outbreaks, resulting in many recalls of powdered infant formula worldwide...
March 2012: Journal of Food Protection
Timothy Rittman, Robert Corns, Atul Kumar, Ranjeev Bhangoo, Keyoumars Ashkan
INTRODUCTION: Since 2006, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines advise referral of any suspected brain tumour to a dedicated neuro-oncology multidisciplinary team (MDT). We investigated two aspects of MDT safety: whether time to operation was delayed and whether brain abscesses were inappropriately referred to the MDT. MATERIAL(S) AND METHODS: We reviewed the notes of 220 consecutive patients referred to our neuro-oncology service before and after implementation of a pre-operative MDT meeting...
June 2012: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Michele Rossi, Alina Gallo, Ravi Joseph De Silva, Rana Sayeed
Neurologic dysfunction complicates the course of 10-40% of left-side infective endocarditis (IE). In right-sided IE, instead, when systemic emboli occur, paradoxical embolism should be considered. The spectrum of neurologic events includes embolic cerebrovascular complication (CVC), intracranial haemorrhage, ruptured mycotic aneurysm, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), meningitis, encephalopathy and brain abscess. Cardiopulmonary bypass might exacerbate neurological deficits due to: heparinization and secondary cerebral haemorrhage; hypotension and cerebral oedema in areas of the disrupted blood brain barrier...
January 2012: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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July 2011: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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