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Adult protection

Rachit Bakshi, Yuehang Xu, Kaly A Mueller, Xiqun Chen, Eric Granucci, Sabrina Paganoni, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Michael A Schwarzschild
Dominant mutations in an antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. Oxidative stress has also been linked to many of the neurodegenerative diseases and is likely a central mechanism of motor neuron death in ALS. Astrocytes derived from mutant SOD1G93A mouse models or patients play a significant role in the degeneration of spinal motor neurons in ALS through a non-cell-autonomous process...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Jing Ma, Haijing Yan, Ranran Wang, Shuhong Bo, Xiaotong Lu, Jian Zhang, Ajing Xu
Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion due to small-artery disease is a common subtype of vascular dementia, which is recognized as the second most prevalent type of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carnosine on white matter damage in corpus striatum. Adult male mice (C57BL/6 strain) were subjected to right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO), and treated with carnosine or saline. Klüver-Barrera staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blots and neurochemical analysis were performed after rUCCAO...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Chrysovalantis Stafylis, George Rachiotis, Antonis Katsioulis, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for heart and lung disease and is responsible for many forms of cancer. The resulting morbidity and mortality weigh heavily upon countries with high prevalence, such as Greece. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Greece, 38.2% of Greeks aged ≥15 years, namely 51.2% of men and 25.7% of women, are smokers. Smoking is also common among the young and people of high education. Despite laws prohibiting smoking at indoor places, exposure to environmental tobacco is very high both in private and public places...
June 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Vandenberk Bert, Vandael Eline, Robyns Tomas, Vandenberghe Joris, Garweg Christophe, Foulon Veerle, Ector Joris, Willems Rik
BACKGROUND: Incorporation of QTc in clinical decision support systems requires accurate QT-interval correction, also during common ECG abnormalities as ventricular conduction defects (VCD). We compared the performance and predictive value of QT correction formulas to design a patient-specific QT correction algorithm (QTcA). METHODS: The first ECG in adult patients with sinus rhythm (SR), atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular pacing (VP) was collected retrospectively...
June 21, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Teresa W Wang, Michael A Tynan, Cynthia Hallett, Laura Walpert, Maggie Hopkins, Darryl Konter, Brian A King
Each year in the United States, cigarette smoking causes an estimated 480,000 deaths, including approximately 41,000 deaths from secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults (1). Smoke-free policies protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure, reduce the social acceptability of smoking, help in preventing youth and young adult smoking initiation, and increase smokers' efforts to quit smoking (1,2). Given that 99% of adult cigarette smokers first start smoking before age 26 years and many smokers transition to regular, daily use during young adulthood (2),* colleges and universities represent an important venue for protecting students, faculty, staff members, and guests from secondhand smoke exposure through tobacco control policies (3)...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Mustafa Evcimen, Recep Aslan, Mehmet Sukru Gulay
The current study aimed to investigate the protective role of polydatin (PD) and grape seed extracts (GSEs) against the effects of cadmium chlorine (CD) application in the rats. Forty-nine adult Wistar albino male rats were used in the study. Rats were assigned into control (saline), CD (5 mg/kg CdCI2 ), PD (120 mg/kg PD), GSE (120 mg/kg GSE), CD + PD (5 mg/kg CdCI2  + 120 mg/kg PD), CD + GSE (5 mg/kg CdCI2  + 120 mg GSE), and CD + PD + GSE (5 mg/kg CdCI2 +120 mg/kg PD +120 mg/kg GSE) treatments (n = 7 per group)...
June 21, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
F Bérard, M C Ferrier le Bouëdec, L Bouillet, Z Reguiai, A Barbaud, F Cambazard, B Milpied, B Pelvet, I Kasujee, H Gharbi, J P Lacour
BACKGROUND: Omalizumab is approved as an add-on therapy for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in patients with inadequate response to H1-anti-histamine treatment. The urticaria control test (UCT) is a reliable, brief tool developed as an alternative to the 7-day urticaria activity score (UAS7)-the standard for CSU disease activity assessment. OBJECTIVE: This prospective, open-label, phase IV study evaluated the efficacy and safety of omalizumab in French adult patients with CSU nonresponsive to H1-antihistamine treatment...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
James W Varni, Alan M Delamater, Korey K Hood, Kimberly A Driscoll, Jenise C Wong, Saleh Adi, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Ellen K Grishman, Melissa A Faith, Sarah D Corathers, Jessica C Kichler, Jennifer L Miller, Jennifer K Raymond, Elena M Doskey, Vincent Aguirre, Robert W Heffer, Don P Wilson
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the mediating effects of diabetes management in the relationship between diabetes symptoms and generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with type 1 diabetes. The secondary objective explored patient health communication and perceived treatment adherence barriers as mediators in a serial multiple mediator model. METHODS: The PedsQL 3.2 Diabetes Module 15-item Diabetes Symptoms Summary Score, 18-item Diabetes Management Summary Score and PedsQL 4...
June 21, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Daniel J Hocking, James T Thorson, Kyle O'Neil, Benjamin H Letcher
Population dynamics are often correlated in space and time due to correlations in environmental drivers as well as synchrony induced by individual dispersal. Many statistical analyses of populations ignore potential autocorrelations and assume that survey methods (distance and time between samples) eliminate these correlations, allowing samples to be treated independently. If these assumptions are incorrect, results and therefore inference may be biased and uncertainty under-estimated. We developed a novel statistical method to account for spatio-temporal correlations within dendritic stream networks, while accounting for imperfect detection in the surveys...
June 21, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jenny C Dunn, Jennifer E Stockdale, Rosemary J Moorhouse-Gann, Alexandra McCubbin, Helen Hipperson, Antony J Morris, Philip V Grice, William O C Symondson
Dietary changes linked to the availability of anthropogenic food resources can have complex implications for species and ecosystems, especially when species are in decline. Here, we use recently developed primers targeting the ITS2 region of plants to characterise diet from faecal samples of four UK columbids, with particular focus on the European turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur), a rapidly declining obligate granivore. We examine dietary overlap between species (potential competition), associations with body condition in turtle doves, and spatiotemporal variation in diet...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Michael P Moore, Cassandra Lis, Ryan A Martin
While deploying immune defenses early in ontogeny can trade-off with the production and maintenance of other important traits across the entire life cycle, it remains largely unexplored how features of the environment shape the magnitude or presence of these lifetime costs. Greater predation risk during the juvenile stage may particularly influence such costs by 1) magnifying the survival costs that arise from any handicap of juvenile avoidance traits and/or 2) intensifying allocation trade-offs with important adult traits...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Gertrude van den Brink, Martha A C van Gaalen, Marieke Zijlstra, Lissy de Ridder, C Janneke van der Woude, Johanna C Escher
AIM: It can be difficult for adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to make the transition from paediatric to adult care. We studied the outcomes of this process and defined what constituted a successful transition. METHODS: In 2008, 50 adolescents who attended our IBD transition clinic completed IBD-yourself, a self-efficacy questionnaire that we had previously developed and validated. We approached the subjects in 2014, two to six years after they transferred to adult care, and 35 agreed to take part in the current study...
June 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Filippa Nyboe Norsker, Catherine Rechnitzer, Luise Cederkvist, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Laura-Maria Madanat-Harjuoja, Ingrid Øra, Halldora K Thorarinsdottir, Kim Vettenranta, Andrea Bautz, Henrik Schrøder, Henrik Hasle, Jeanette Falck Winther
Because of the rarity of neuroblastoma and poor survival until the 1990s, information on late effects in neuroblastoma survivors is sparse. We comprehensively reviewed the long-term risk for somatic disease in neuroblastoma survivors. We identified 721 5-year survivors of neuroblastoma in Nordic population-based cancer registries and identified late effects in national hospital registries covering the period 1977-2012. Detailed treatment information was available for 46% of the survivors. The disease-specific rates of hospitalization of survivors and of 152,231 randomly selected population comparisons were used to calculate standardized hospitalization rate ratios (SHRRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs)...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Sheng-Chang Yang, Ling-Ling Chen, Tian Fu, Wen-Ya Li, En-Sheng Ji
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of hydrogen on liver injury in chronic intermittent hypoxia rats and the related oxidative stress mechanism. METHODS: Twenty-four male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups( n =8):the normoxia group (Norm), the chronic intermittent hypoxia group (CIH), the chronic intermittent hypoxia and hydrogen group (H2 + CIH). Rats in Norm group were exposed in air, those in the other 2 groups suffered from chronic intermittent hypoxia conditions for 5 weeks...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Alan R Teo, Jason I Chen, Hiroaki Kubo, Ryoko Katsuki, Mina Sato-Kasai, Norihiro Shimokawa, Kohei Hayakawa, Wakako Umene-Nakano, James E Aikens, Shigenobu Kanba, Takahiro A Kato
AIM: Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal, is an emerging issue in mental health, for which validated measurement tools are lacking. The object was to develop a self-report scale of hikikomori, and assess its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: A sample of 399 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis; diagnostic accuracy was compared against a semi-structured diagnostic interview...
June 21, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mari Matsuo, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Kayoko Saito
Typical 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is the most common submicroscopic chromosomal deletion syndrome. The chromosomal 22q11.2 deletion region involves a complex genomic architecture with eight low copy repeats (LCRs) (named LCR22-A to H) (Shaikh et al. 2001). Approximately 90% of cases with 22q11.2 microdeletion have a common 3-Mb deletion, spanning LCR22-A to D, resulting from LCR mediated non-allelic homologous recombination (Shaikh et al. 2001). In contrast, a distal 22q11.2 deletion mediated by LCR22-D to H has been recognized as a different clinical entity (Ben-Shachar et al...
June 21, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
G Montalbano, M Mania, F Abbate, M Navarra, M C Guerrera, R Laura, J A Vega, M Levanti, A Germanà
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death in modern society. Recently, numerous natural and synthetic compounds have been tested in diet-induced obese animal models, to counteract obesity. Melatonin is a circadian hormone, produced by pineal gland and extra-pineal sources, involved in processes which have in common a rhythmic expression. In teleost, it can control energy balance by activating or inhibiting appetite-related peptides...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine
Xavier Struillou, Aurélien Fruchet, Mia Rakic, Zahi Badran, Gildas Rethore, Sophie Sourice, Borhane Hakim Fellah, Laurent LE Guehennec, Olivier Gauthier, Pierre Weiss, Assem Soueidan
The aim of the study was to evaluate bone regeneration using a canine model with surgically created periodontal defects filled for 12 weeks using a stratified biomaterial consisting in a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) covered with a crosslinking hydrogel acting as polymer membrane of silated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) as the tested new concept. Bilateral, critical-sized, defects were surgically created at the mandibular premolar teeth of six adult beagle dogs. The defects were randomly allocated and: (i) left empty for spontaneous healing or filled with: (ii) BCP and a collagen membrane; (iii) BCP and hydrogel Si-HPMC membrane...
June 20, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Linda G Brock, Xiang Liu, Bo Liang, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Richard Herbert, Ashley D Hackenberg, Ursula J Buchholz, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) continues to be the leading viral cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children worldwide. A licensed vaccine or antiviral drug suitable for routine use remains unavailable. Like RSV, murine pneumonia virus (MPV) is a member of the genus Orthopneumovirus , family Pneumoviridae Humans are not normally exposed to MPV and MPV is not cross-protective with RSV. We evaluated MPV as an RSV vaccine vector expressing the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rukeya Sawut, Nijat Kasim, Balati Maihemuti, Li Hu, Abdugheni Abliz, Abdusalam Abdujappar, Miradil Kurban
The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination in four major vegetable bases and determine the health risks of residents in the vicinity of the highly urbanized city Urumqi in Xinjiang, China. In this paper, we determined the contents of six heavy metals (i.e., As, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) in surface soil and groundwater to evaluate the levels of heavy metal pollution and human health risks using the pollution index (PI), the Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI), the ecological risk factor (Ei r ), risk index (RI) and the health risk assessment model...
June 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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