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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236321/murine-models-of-osteosarcoma-a-piece-of-the-translational-puzzle
#1
Mannu K Walia, Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Anthony J Mutsaers, T John Martin, Carl R Walkley
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common cancer of bone in children and young adults. Despite extensive research efforts, there has been no significant improvement in patient outcome for many years. An improved understanding of the biology of this cancer and how genes frequently mutated contribute to OS may help improve outcomes for patients. Whilst our knowledge of the mutational burden of OS is approaching saturation, our understanding of how these mutations contribute to OS initiation and maintenance is less clear...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236301/synergistic-effect-of-carnosine-on-browning-of-adipose-tissue-in-exercised-obese-rats-a-focus-on-circulating-irisin-levels
#2
Mona F Schaalan, Basma K Ramadan, Azza H Abd Elwahab
BACKGROUND: The recent appreciation of the energy burning capacity of brown adipose tissue turns it to an attractive target as anti-obesity therapy. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of L-carnosine on browning of white adipose tissue in exercised obese rats. METHODS: Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats between 7-8 weeks-old weighing 130-150 g were allocated into six groups;(i) normal control rats fed normal diet; (ii) high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats, (iii) normal control rats fed normal diet and injected with L-carnosine (250mg/kg), (iv) HFD-rats injected with L-carnosine (250mg/kg),(v): HFD-rats subjected to exercise training; (vi): HFD- rats subjected to exercise training and L-carnosine together...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235661/association-of-higher-daptomycin-dose-%C3%A2-7-mg-kg-with-improved-survival-in-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#3
Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Megan K Luther, Vrishali Lopes, Kerry L LaPlante
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines recommend higher daptomycin doses than the daptomycin label dose of 6 mg/kg for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia; however, the evidence supporting this recommendation is from in vitro and cases series studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the daptomycin label dose versus higher daptomycin doses in patients with MRSA bacteremia. DESIGN: Retrospective national cohort study...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235617/-predictors-of-seizure-related-injuries-in-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-in-colombia-a-case-control-study
#4
J P Orozco-Hernandez, J F Quintero-Moreno, C Duque-Salazar, A Gil-Restrepo, J William-Martinez, A Lizcano-Meneses, H Carmona-Villada
AIM: To identify predictors of seizure related injuries in adult patients with epilepsy in Colombia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Case-control study. Patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy aged 16 years and older who attended the Neurocentro epilepsy center between 2013-2016 and were attended by a specialist in epilepsy were included. Patients with seizure related injuries were defined as the case. The control group was conformed by those without seizure related injuries...
December 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235178/the-gp130-cytokine-il-11-regulates-engraftment-of-vav1-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-lethally-irradiated-recipients
#5
Serena De Vita, Yanhua Li, Chad E Harris, Meaghan K McGuinness, Clement Ma, David A Williams
During bone marrow transplantation (BMT), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) respond to signals from the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM) by coordinately activating molecular pathways through Rho GTPases, including Rac. We have previously shown that deletion of Vav1, a hematopoietic-specific activator of Rac, compromises engraftment of transplanted adult HSPCs without affecting steady-state hematopoiesis in adult animals. Here, we show that Vav1-/- fetal HSPCs can appropriately seed hematopoietic tissues during ontogeny but cannot engraft into lethally irradiated recipients...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235144/histological-assessment-of-the-liver-explant-in-transplanted-hcv-patients-achieving-sustained-virologic-response-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#6
Juan Putra, Thomas D Schiano, M Isabel Fiel
AIMS: The use of direct-acting anti-viral agents (DAAs) has resulted in extremely high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients being treated while on liver transplantation (LT) waiting lists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological findings of HCV patients who achieved SVR after receiving DAA treatment (SVR(+)) prior to LT and comparing them to HCV patients who had not achieved SVR (SVR(-)). METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-eight adult HCV patients who underwent LT at our institution from 2014-2016 were included in the study...
December 13, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235113/postnatal-effects-of-intrauterine-treatment-of-the-growth-restricted-ovine-fetus-with-intra-amniotic-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#7
A M Spiroski, M H Oliver, A L Jaquiery, T C R Prickett, E A Espiner, J E Harding, F H Bloomfield
Placental insufficiency-mediated fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with altered postnatal growth and metabolism, which are, in turn, associated with increased risk of adult disease. Intra-amniotic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) treatment of ovine FGR increases growth rate in late gestation, but the effects on postnatal growth and metabolism are unknown. We investigated the effects of intra-amniotic IGF1 administration to ovine fetuses with uteroplacental embolisation-induced FGR on phenotypic and physiologic characteristics in the two weeks after birth...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233953/clustering-and-combining-pattern-of-high-risk-behaviors-among-iranian-university-students-a-latent-class-analysis
#8
Sima Afrashteh, Haleh Ghaem, Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Hamid Reaz Tabatabaee
BACKGROUND: High-risk behaviors are increasing among young adults worldwide. We aimed to identify university students' subgroups on the basis of high-risk behaviors and to assess the role of age, living alone, religious beliefs, and parental support in the membership of specific subgroups. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study METHODS: The study was conducted in Bushehr (south of Iran) from November to December 2016. The sample included 977 university students selected through random sampling...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233204/is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d-in-supporting-cognitive-function-as-we-age
#9
Niamh Aspell, Brian Lawlor, Maria O'Sullivan
Globally, an estimated 46 million people are currently living with dementia and this figure is projected to increase 3-fold by 2050, highlighting this major public health concern and its substantial associated healthcare costs. With pharmacological treatment yet to reach fruition, the emphasis on evidence-based preventative lifestyle strategies is becoming increasingly important and several modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified that may preserve cognitive health. These include good cardiovascular health, physical activity, low alcohol intake, smoking and a healthy diet, with growing interest in vitamin D...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233033/influence-of-age-on-arsenic-induced-behavioral-and-cholinergic-perturbations-amelioration-with-zinc-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol
#10
M R Kumar, G R Reddy
This study was planned to determine arsenic (As) (10 mg/kg body weight given through oral gavage) induced behavioral and cholinergic perturbations in three different age groups of rats; young (postnatal day 21), adult (3 months), and aged (18 months) at 7 days post-acute exposure ( n = 6 for each of the four groups of all three age points). Further, we also evaluated the ameliorative effect of essential metal zinc (Zn; 0.02% through drinking water) and an antioxidant, α-tocopherol (vitamin E; 125 mg/kg body weight through oral gavage) against As-induced neurotoxicity...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232664/vaccination-practices-in-pediatric-dialysis-patients-across-europe-a-european-pediatric-dialysis-working-group-and-european-society-for-pediatric-nephrology-dialysis-working-group-study
#11
Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
December 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232620/high-social-trust-associated-with-increased-depressive-symptoms-in-a-longitudinal-south-african-sample
#12
Kafui Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Ichiro Kawachi, S V Subramanian, Mauricio Avendano
Several studies have documented a protective association between social trust and mental and physical health, but gaps in knowledge remain. Debates regarding the contextual versus individual nature of social trust are ongoing; research from low- and middle-income countries is lacking, and study designs have been limited for causal inference. To address these gaps, we examined the association between social trust and depressive symptoms using three waves of the National Income Dynamics Study, a longitudinal South African survey...
December 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232573/radioprotective-effects-of-silymarin-on-the-sperm-parameters-of-nmri-mice-irradiated-with-%C3%AE-rays
#13
Daryoush Fatehi, Mohsen Mohammadi, Babak Shekarchi, Arash Shabani, Mohammad Seify, Ayoob Rostamzadeh
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated using various endogenous systems or from external sources such as exposure to different physiochemicals. Ionizing radiation damage to the cell can be caused by the direct or indirect effects of radiotherapy processes. Silymarin (SM), a flavanolignan compound, has been identified as a natural potent antioxidant with cytoprotection activities due to scavenging free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of SM on sperm parameters of mice induced by γ-rays...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232484/juvenile-social-experience-and-differential-age-related-changes-in-the-dendritic-morphologies-of-subareas-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#14
B T Himmler, R Mychasiuk, A Nakahashi, S M Himmler, S M Pellis, B Kolb
Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. In the present study, rats were reared in groups of either four (quads) or two (pairs) and the brains of the rats from each rearing condition were then harvested at 60 days (i...
December 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232040/geographic-disparity-in-kidney-transplantation-under-kas
#15
Sheng Zhou, Allan B Massie, Xun Luo, Jessica M Ruck, Eric K H Chow, Mary G Bowring, Sunjae Bae, Dorry L Segev, Sommer E Gentry
The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231128/exploring-the-experiences-of-persons-who-frequently-visit-the-emergency-department-for-mental-health-related-reasons
#16
Amanda Digel Vandyk, Lisa Young, Colleen MacPhee, Katharine Gillis
In this qualitative study, the experiences of persons who frequently visit the emergency department (ED) for mental health-related reasons were explored. Interpretive Description guided the design, and data were collected through interviews with 10 adults who made 12+ ED visits within a 1-year time frame (2015). Thematic analysis was used to analyze data inductively. The participants' experiences were described with the help of three themes emerging from the data: The Experience, The Providers, and Protective Factors...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231061/the-effect-of-aqueous-extract-of-rosa-damascena-on-formaldehyde-induced-toxicity-in-mice-testes
#17
Majid Askaripour, Azam Hasanpour, Foruzan Hosseini, Mojgan Moshrefi, Gholamreza Moshtaghi, Mohammad Hasannejad, Soodeh Rajabi, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani
CONTEXT: Rosa damascena L. (Rosaceae) (RD) essential oil and extracts are commonly used as a flavour in herbal medicine which increase libido. Previous studies have shown inhalation of RD flower's oil increases libido and causes protective effects in formaldehyde (FA)-induced testicular damage. OBJECTIVE: The protective effects of aqueous extract of RD on the male reproductive system of mice were examined following FA-induced damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight adult NMRI male mice were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 8): control (normal saline, 10 mg/kg); RD40 (40 mg/kg, p...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230878/a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-and-flash-glucose-monitoring-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-and-impaired-awareness-of-hypoglycaemia
#18
M Reddy, N Jugnee, A El Laboudi, E Spanudakis, S Anantharaja, N Oliver
AIM: Hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes is associated with mortality and morbidity, especially where awareness of hypoglycaemia is impaired. Clinical pathways for access to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring technologies are unclear. We assessed the impact of CGM and flash glucose monitoring in a high-risk group of people with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A randomized, non-masked parallel group study was undertaken. Adults with Type 1 diabetes using a multiple-dose insulin-injection regimen with a Gold score of ≥ 4 or recent severe hypoglycaemia were recruited...
December 12, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230807/a-comparative-study-of-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-in-the-adult-hypothalamus-of-human-mouse-rat-and-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#19
Giuliana Pellegrino, Claire Trubert, Jérémy Terrien, Fabien Pifferi, Danièle Leroy, Anne Loyens, Martine Migaud, Marc Baroncini, Claude-Alain Maurage, Christian Fontaine, Vincent Prévot, Ariane Sharif
The adult brain contains niches of neural stem cells that continuously add new neurons to selected circuits throughout life. Two niches have been extensively studied in various mammalian species including humans, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Recently, studies conducted mainly in rodents have identified a third neurogenic niche in the adult hypothalamus. In order to evaluate whether a neural stem cell niche also exists in the adult hypothalamus in humans, we performed multiple immunofluorescence labeling to assess the expression of a panel of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers (Sox2, nestin, vimentin, GLAST, GFAP) in the human hypothalamus and compared them with the mouse, rat and a non-human primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230061/boosting-with-recombinant-mva-expressing-m-tuberculosis-%C3%AE-crystallin-antigen-augments-the-protection-imparted-by-bcg-against-tuberculosis-in-guinea-pigs
#20
Prachi Nangpal, Ritika Kar Bahal, Anil K Tyagi
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major causes of mortality all over the globe. BCG, the only vaccine available against this disease has been successful in preventing the severe forms of childhood TB. However, the unsatisfactory performance of BCG in controlling the adult pulmonary tuberculosis has made the development of an effective vaccine against M. tuberculosis a prime objective of the TB research. In this study, a genetically stable, marker-free recombinant MVA expressing α-crystallin of M. tuberculosis (rMVA...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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