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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545003/adaptation-specialization-and-coevolution-within-phytobiomes
#1
REVIEW
David A Baltrus
Growth patterns of individual plants and evolutionary trajectories of plant communities are intimately linked with and are critically affected by host-associated microbiomes. Research across systems has begun to shed light on how these phytobiomes are established under laboratory and natural conditions, and have cultivated hope that a better understanding of the governing principles for host-microbe interactions can guide attempts to engineer microbiomes to boost agricultural yields. One important, yet relatively understudied, parameter in regards to phytobiome membership is the degree to which specialization and coevolution between plant species and microbes provides structure to these communities...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539510/sexual-conflict-and-correlated-evolution-between-male-persistence-and-female-resistance-traits-in-the-seed-beetle-callosobruchus-maculatus
#2
Liam R Dougherty, Emile van Lieshout, Kathryn B McNamara, Joe A Moschilla, Göran Arnqvist, Leigh W Simmons
Traumatic mating (or copulatory wounding) is an extreme form of sexual conflict whereby male genitalia physically harm females during mating. In such species females are expected to evolve counter-adaptations to reduce male-induced harm. Importantly, female counter-adaptations may include both genital and non-genital traits. In this study, we examine evolutionary associations between harmful male genital morphology and female reproductive tract morphology and immune function across 13 populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus We detected positive correlated evolution between the injuriousness of male genitalia and putative female resistance adaptations across populations...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#3
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533455/coevolution-of-coloration-and-colour-vision
#4
Olle Lind, Miriam J Henze, Almut Kelber, Daniel Osorio
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529152/coevolution-of-patch-type-dependent-emigration-and-patch-type-dependent-immigration
#5
Helene C Weigang
The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527568/evolution-of-nuclear-receptors-and-ligand-signaling-toward-a-soft-key-lock-model
#6
Guillaume Holzer, Gabriel V Markov, Vincent Laudet
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that modulate a wide variety of physiological functions in a ligand-dependent manner. The first NRs were discovered as receptors of well-known hormones such as 17β-estradiol, corticosteroids, or thyroid hormones. In these cases a direct activation of the receptor transcriptional activity by a very specific ligand, with nanomolar affinity, was demonstrated, providing a strong conceptual framework to understand the mechanism of action of these hormones...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515206/widespread-ecomorphological-convergence-in-multiple-fish-families-spanning-the-marine-freshwater-interface
#7
Aaron M Davis, Ricardo Betancur-R
The theoretical definition and quantification of convergence is an increasingly topical focus in evolutionary research, with particular growing interest on study scales spanning deep phylogenetic divergences and broad geographical areas. While much progress has recently been made in understanding the role of convergence in driving terrestrial (e.g. anole lizards) and aquatic (e.g. cichlids) radiations, little is known about its macroevolutionary effects across environmental gradients. This study uses a suite of recently developed comparative approaches integrating diverse aspects of morphology, dietary data, habitat affiliation and phylogeny to assess convergence across several well-known tropical-temperate fish families in the percomorph suborder Terapontoidei, a clade with considerable phenotypic and ecological diversity radiating in both marine and freshwater environments...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515202/does-coevolution-with-a-shared-parasite-drive-hosts-to-partition-their-defences-among-species
#8
Eleanor M Caves, Martin Stevens, Claire N Spottiswoode
When mimicry imposes costs on models, selection may drive the model's phenotype to evolve away from its mimic. For example, brood parasitism often drives hosts to diversify in egg appearance among females within a species, making mimetic parasitic eggs easier to detect. However, when a single parasite species exploits multiple host species, parasitism could also drive host egg evolution away from other co-occurring hosts, to escape susceptibility to their respective mimics. This hypothesis predicts that sympatric hosts of the same parasite should partition egg phenotypic space (defined by egg colour, luminance and pattern) among species to avoid one another...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514630/speciation-and-the-latitudinal-diversity-gradient-insights-from-the-global-distribution-of-endemic-fish
#9
Patrick J Hanly, Gary G Mittelbach, Douglas W Schemske
The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513204/on-design-mining-coevolution-and-surrogate-models
#10
Richard J Preen, Larry Bull
Design mining is the use of computational intelligence techniques to iteratively search and model the attribute space of physical objects evaluated directly through rapid prototyping to meet given objectives. It enables the exploitation of novel materials and processes without formal models or complex simulation. In this article, we focus upon the coevolutionary nature of the design process when it is decomposed into concurrent sub-design-threads due to the overall complexity of the task. Using an abstract, tunable model of coevolution, we consider strategies to sample subthread designs for whole-system testing and how best to construct and use surrogate models within the coevolutionary scenario...
May 17, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507664/coevolution-and-ratiometric-behaviour-in-metal-cation-driven-dynamic-covalent-systems
#11
Sébastien Dhers, Jan Holub, Jean-Marie Lehn
Dynamic Covalent Libraries (DCLs) have been used to demonstrate coevolution behaviour on a molecular level using dynamic covalent molecules such as imines and hydrazones. Two systems are presented: the first system is based on a dialdehyde and two diamines in combination with Zn(ii) and Hg(ii) to form a 2 × 2 Constitutional Dynamic Network (CDN) of four complexes of macrocyclic bis-imines. Whereas the two metal ions, when reacted separately form a complex with each macrocycle with low selectivity, when applied together, each cation yields selectively a complex with one of the two macrocycles...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490593/evolution-and-antiviral-specificity-of-interferon-induced-mx-proteins-of-bats-against-ebola-influenza-and-other-rna-viruses
#12
Jonas Fuchs, Martin Hölzer, Mirjam Schilling, Corinna Patzina, Andreas Schoen, Thomas Hoenen, Gert Zimmer, Manja Marz, Friedemann Weber, Marcel A Müller, Georg Kochs
Bats serve as a reservoir for various, often zoonotic viruses, including significant human pathogens such as Ebola- and influenza viruses. However, for unknown reasons, viral infections rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats. A tight control of viral replication by the host innate immune defense might contribute to this phenomenon. Transcriptomic studies revealed the presence of the interferon-induced antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins in bats, but detailed functional aspects have not been assessed...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489251/geographically-structured-genetic-variation-in-the-medicago-lupulina-ensifer-mutualism
#13
Tia L Harrison, Corlett W Wood, Katy D Heath, John R Stinchcombe
Gene flow between genetically differentiated populations can maintain variation in species interactions, especially when population structure is congruent between interacting species. However, large-scale empirical comparisons of the population structure of interacting species are rare, particularly in positive interspecific interactions (mutualisms). One agriculturally and ecologically important mutualism is the partnership between legume plants and rhizobia. Through characterizing and comparing the population genomic structure of the legume Medicago lupulina and two rhizobial species (Ensifer medicae and E...
May 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482022/optimization-of-rna-3d-structure-prediction-using-evolutionary-restraints-of-nucleotide-nucleotide-interactions-from-direct-coupling-analysis
#14
Jian Wang, Kangkun Mao, Yunjie Zhao, Chen Zeng, Jianjin Xiang, Yi Zhang, Yi Xiao
Direct coupling analysis of nucleotide coevolution provides a novel approach to identify which nucleotides in an RNA molecule are likely in direct contact, and this information obtained from sequence only can be used to predict RNA 3D structures with much improved accuracy. Here we present an efficient method that incorporates this information into current RNA 3D structure prediction methods, specifically 3dRNA. Our method makes much more accurate RNA 3D structure prediction than the original 3dRNA as well as other existing prediction methods that used the direct coupling analysis...
May 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468957/bacilli-glutamate-dehydrogenases-diverged-via-coevolution-of-transcription-and-enzyme-regulation
#15
Lianet Noda-Garcia, Maria Luisa Romero Romero, Liam M Longo, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Dan S Tawfik
The linkage between regulatory elements of transcription, such as promoters, and their protein products is central to gene function. Promoter-protein coevolution is therefore expected, but rarely observed, and the manner by which these two regulatory levels are linked remains largely unknown. We study glutamate dehydrogenase-a hub of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In Bacillus subtilis, two paralogues exist: GudB is constitutively transcribed whereas RocG is tightly regulated. In their active, oligomeric states, both enzymes show similar enzymatic rates...
May 3, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454764/ribosomal-proteins-as-documents-of-the-transition-from-unstructured-poly-peptides-to-folded-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Andrei N Lupas, Vikram Alva
For the most part, contemporary proteins can be traced back to a basic set of a few thousand domain prototypes, many of which were already established in the Last Universal Common Ancestor of life on Earth, around 3.5 billion years ago. The origin of these domain prototypes, however, remains poorly understood. One hypothesis posits that they arose from an ancestral set of peptides, which acted as cofactors of RNA-mediated catalysis and replication. Initially, these peptides were entirely dependent on the RNA scaffold for their structure, but as their complexity increased, they became able to form structures by excluding water through hydrophobic contacts, making them independent of the RNA scaffold...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#17
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443092/disarming-cellular-alarm-systems-manipulation-of-stress-induced-nkg2d-ligands-by-human-herpesviruses
#18
REVIEW
Dominik Schmiedel, Ofer Mandelboim
The coevolution of viruses and their hosts led to the repeated emergence of cellular alert signals and viral strategies to counteract them. The herpesvirus family of viruses displays the most sophisticated repertoire of immune escape mechanisms enabling infected cells to evade immune recognition and thereby maintain infection. The herpesvirus family consists of nine viruses that are capable of infecting humans: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), roseoloviruses (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7), and Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440802/genetic-hurdles-limit-the-arms-race-between-prochlorococcus-and-the-t7-like-podoviruses-infecting-them
#19
Daniel A Schwartz, Debbie Lindell
Phages and hosts coexist in nature with a high degree of population diversity. This is often explained through coevolutionary models, such as the arms race or density-dependent fluctuating selection, which differ in assumptions regarding the emergence of phage mutants that overcome host resistance. Previously, resistance in the abundant marine cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, was found to occur frequently. However, little is known about the ability of phages to overcome this resistance. Here we report that, in some cases, T7-like cyanophage mutants emerge to infect resistant Prochlorococcus strains...
April 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430779/a-coevolution-analysis-for-identifying-protein-protein-interactions-by-fourier-transform
#20
Changchuan Yin, Stephen S-T Yau
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees...
2017: PloS One
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