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Yuyan Guo, Zhangyao Song, Lei Luo, Qingmin Wang, Guofa Zhou, Dizi Yang, Daibin Zhong, Xueli Zheng
BACKGROUND: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an indigenous species and the predominant vector of dengue fever in China. Understanding of genetic diversity and structure of the mosquito would facilitate dengue prevention and vector control. Sympatric cryptic species have been identified in the Ae. albopictus subgroup in Southeast Asia; however, little is known about the presence and distribution of cryptic species in China. This study aimed to examine the genetic diversity, evaluate potential new cryptic sibling species, and assess the prevalence of Wolbachia infections in field populations...
April 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Joshua Krissansen-Totton, Giada N Arney, David C Catling
The early Earth's environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alberto Oliveira, Lucas Bleicher, Carlos G Schrago, Floriano Paes Silva Junior
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s) comprise a superfamily of glycerophospholipids hydrolyzing enzymes present in many organisms in nature, whose catalytic activity was majorly unveiled by analysis of snake venoms. The latter have pharmaceutical and biotechnological interests and can be divided into different functional sub-classes. Our goal was to identify important residues and their relation to the functional and class-specific characteristics in the PLA2 s family with special emphasis on snake venom PLA2 s (svPLA2 s)...
March 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Cara L Brand, M Victoria Cattani, Sarah B Kingan, Emily L Landeen, Daven C Presgraves
Crossing over between homologous chromosomes during meiosis repairs programmed DNA double-strand breaks, ensures proper segregation at meiosis I [1], shapes the genomic distribution of nucleotide variability in populations, and enhances the efficacy of natural selection among genetically linked sites [2]. Between closely related Drosophila species, large differences exist in the rate and chromosomal distribution of crossing over. Little, however, is known about the molecular genetic changes or population genetic forces that mediate evolved differences in recombination between species [3, 4]...
March 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Aravindan Arun Nadaradjane, Raphael Guerois, Jessica Andreani
The structural modeling of protein complexes by docking simulations has been attracting increasing interest with the rise of proteomics and of the number of experimentally identified binary interactions. Structures of unbound partners, either modeled or experimentally determined, can be used as input to sample as extensively as possible all putative binding modes and single out the most plausible ones. At the scoring step, evolutionary information contained in the joint multiple sequence alignments of both partners can provide key insights to recognize correct interfaces...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
H De Kort, M Baguette, J G Prunier, M Tessier, J Monsimet, C Turlure, V M Stevens
Habitat fragmentation increasingly threatens the services provided by natural communities and ecosystem worldwide. An understanding of the eco-evolutionary processes underlying fragmentation-compromised communities in natural settings is lacking, yet critical to realistic and sustainable conservation. Through integrating the multivariate genetic, biotic and abiotic facets of a natural community module experiencing various degrees of habitat fragmentation, we provide unique insights into the processes underlying community functioning in real, natural conditions...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Lei Wen, Hin Chu, Bosco Ho-Yin Wong, Dong Wang, Cun Li, Xiaoyu Zhao, Man-Chun Chiu, Shuofeng Yuan, Yanhui Fan, Honglin Chen, Jie Zhou, Kwok-Yung Yuen
To elucidate the adaptive strategies of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to human, we proposed a computational approach to identify human-adaptive mutations in seasonal IAVs, which have not been analyzed comprehensively. We compared representative PB2 sequences of 1425 avian IAVs and 2176 human IAVs and identified a total of 42 human-adaptive markers, including 28 and 31 markers in PB2 proteins of seasonal viruses H1N1 and H3N2, respectively. Notably, this comprehensive list encompasses almost all the markers identified in prior computational studies and 21 novel markers including an experimentally verified mutation K526R, suggesting the predictive power of our method...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Andrew D Sweet, Sarah E Bush, Daniel R Gustafsson, Julie M Allen, Emily DiBlasi, Heather R Skeen, Jason D Weckstein, Kevin P Johnson
Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies often show varying degrees of phylogenetic congruence. However, few studies have rigorously explored the factors driving this variation. Multiple factors such as host or parasite morphology may govern the degree of phylogenetic congruence. An ideal analysis for understanding the factors correlated with congruence would focus on a diverse host-parasite system for increased variation and statistical power. In this study, we focused on the Brueelia-complex, a diverse and widespread group of feather lice that primarily parasitize songbirds...
March 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Yanjing Wang, Jinming Lu, G Andrew C Beattie, Md Rashidul Islam, Namgay Om, Hang Thi Dao, Liem Van Nguyen, Syed Muhammad Zaka, Jun Guo, Mingyi Tian, Xiaoling Deng, Shunyun Tan, Paul Holford, Yurong He, Yijing Cen
BACKGROUND: In insects, little is known about the coevolution between their primary endosymbionts and hosts at the intraspecific level, and this study has examined codiversification between the notorious agricultural pest Diaphorina citri and its P-endosymbiont, 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' at the population level. RESULTS: Maximum likelihood, haplotype network, principal components and Bayesian clustering identified three lineages for D. citri and its P-endosymbiont: a Western clade containing individuals from Pakistan, Bhutan (Phuentsholing), Vietnam (Son La), USA, Myanmar and China (Ruili, Yunnan); a Central clade, with accessions originating from Southwest China, Bhutan (Tsirang) and Bangladesh; and an Eastern clade containing individuals from Southeast Asian countries, and East and South China...
March 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
Layla Maria Höckerstedt, Jukka Pekka Siren, Anna-Liisa Laine
Both theory and experimental evolution studies predict migration to influence the outcome of antagonistic coevolution between hosts and their parasites, with higher migration rates leading to increased diversity and evolutionary potential. Migration rates are expected to vary in spatially structured natural pathosystems, yet how spatial structure generates variation in coevolutionary trajectories across populations occupying the same landscape has not been tested. Here, we studied the effect of spatial connectivity on host evolutionary potential in a natural pathosystem characterized by a stable Plantago lanceolata host network and a highly dynamic Podosphaera plantaginis parasite metapopulation...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Marialisa Scatà, Alessandro Di Stefano, Aurelio La Corte, Pietro Liò
Heterogeneity of human beings leads to think and react differently to social phenomena. Awareness and homophily drive people to weigh interactions in social multiplex networks, influencing a potential contagion effect. To quantify the impact of heterogeneity on spreading dynamics, we propose a model of coevolution of social contagion and awareness, through the introduction of statistical estimators, in a weighted multiplex network. Multiplexity of networked individuals may trigger propagation enough to produce effects among vulnerable subjects experiencing distress, mental disorder, which represent some of the strongest predictors of suicidal behaviours...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
William S Cole, Alexander S James, Christopher Irwin Smith
Yucca moths ( Tegeticula spp.) are the exclusive pollinators of Joshua trees ( Yucca brevifolia s. l.). The moths actively pollinate the Joshua tree flowers and lay their eggs in the style. Recent studies have revealed that the plants commonly known as Joshua trees include two distinct, sister-species of plant: Yucca brevifolia Engelm. and Yucca jaegeriana McKelvey, each pollinated by two sister-species of yucca moth Tegeticula synthetica Riley and Tegeticula antithetica Pellmyr, respectively. A number of studies have argued that the moths have coevolved with their hosts, producing a pattern of phenotype matching between moth ovipositor length and floral style length...
July 2017: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Oliver Sheehan, Joseph Watts, Russell D Gray, Quentin D Atkinson
One of the defining trends of the Holocene has been the emergence of complex societies. Two essential features of complex societies are intensive resource use and sociopolitical hierarchy. Although it is widely agreed that these two phenomena are associated cross-culturally and have both contributed to the rise of complex societies, the causality underlying their relationship has been the subject of longstanding debate. Materialist theories of cultural evolution tend to view resource intensification as driving the development of hierarchy, but the reverse order of causation has also been advocated, along with a range of intermediate views...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carlos G P Voogdt, Jaap A Wagenaar, Jos P M van Putten
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) of mammals, birds, and reptiles detects bacterial flagellin and signals as a homodimeric complex. Structural studies using truncated TLR5b of zebrafish confirm the homodimeric TLR5-flagellin interaction. Here we provide evidence that zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) TLR5 unexpectedly signals as a heterodimer composed of the duplicated gene products drTLR5b and drTLR5a. Flagellin-induced signaling by the zebrafish TLR5 heterodimer increased in the presence of the TLR trafficking chaperone UNC93B1...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Luan Wang, Hao He, Shuangchao Wang, Xiaoguang Chen, Dewen Qiu, Hideki Kondo, Lihua Guo
Here we describe a novel (-)ssRNA mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (FgNSRV-1), isolated from Fusarium graminearum strain HN1. The genome of FgNSRV-1 is 9072 nucleotides in length, with five discontinuous but linear ORFs (ORF I-V). Phylogenetic analysis based on entire L polymerase sequences indicated that FgNSRV-1 is related to the (-)ssRNA mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), and other mycoviruses. Our data suggest that FgNSRV-1 can be classified into the family Mymonaviridae, order Mononegavirales...
March 14, 2018: Virology
Raquel Xavier, Joana L Santos, Ana Veríssimo
Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest jawed vertebrates and are also reported to be the hosts of some of the most basal lineages of Cestoda and Aporocotylidae (Digenea) parasites. Recently a phylogenetic analysis of the coccidia (Apicomplexa) infecting marine vertebrates revealed that the lesser spotted dogfish harbours parasite lineages basal to Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and the group formed by Schellackia Reichenow, 1919, Lankesterella Ames, 1923, Caryospora Leger, 1904 and Isospora Schneider, 1881. In the present study we have found additional lineages of coccidian parasites infecting the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus Mitchill and the blue shark Prionace glauca Linnaeus...
March 16, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Sa Geng, Ayano Miyagi, James G Umen
Volvocine algae comprise a unique comparative model for investigating the evolution of distinct male and female sexes (oogamy) from an isogamous ancestral state with mating types. The mating-type or sex-determining gene MID encodes a putative RWP-RK family transcription factor, and orthologs of MID are present throughout the volvocine algal lineage in either the MT- or male mating locus of dioecious species. It was previously found that ectopic expression of isogamous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii MID ( CrMID ) in a C...
March 16, 2018: Development
Cecilia Siliansky de Andreazzi, Paulo R Guimarães, Carlos J Melián
Studies have shown the potential for rapid adaptation in coevolving populations and that the structure of species interaction networks can modulate the vulnerability of ecological systems to perturbations. Although the feedback loop between population dynamics and coevolution of traits is crucial for understanding long-term stability in ecological assemblages, modelling eco-evolutionary dynamics in species-rich assemblages is still a challenge. We explore how eco-evolutionary feedbacks influence trait evolution and species abundances in 23 empirical antagonistic networks...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Karissa L Cross, Payal Chirania, Weili Xiong, Clifford J Beall, James G Elkins, Richard J Giannone, Ann L Griffen, Adam M Guss, Robert L Hettich, Snehal S Joshi, Elaine M Mokrzan, Roman K Martin, Igor B Zhulin, Eugene J Leys, Mircea Podar
The human oral microbiota encompasses representatives of many bacterial lineages that have not yet been cultured. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of previously uncultured Desulfobulbus oralis , the first human-associated representative of its genus. As mammalian-associated microbes rarely have free-living close relatives, D. oralis provides opportunities to study how bacteria adapt and evolve within a host. This sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium has adapted to the human oral subgingival niche by curtailing its physiological repertoire, losing some biosynthetic abilities and metabolic independence, and by dramatically reducing environmental sensing and signaling capabilities...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Aphrodite Kantsa, Robert A Raguso, Adrian G Dyer, Jens M Olesen, Thomas Tscheulin, Theodora Petanidou
Despite progress in understanding pollination network structure, the functional roles of floral sensory stimuli (visual, olfactory) have never been addressed comprehensively in a community context, even though such traits are known to mediate plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of floral traits and a novel dynamic data-pooling methodology to explore the impacts of floral sensory diversity on the structure of a pollination network in a Mediterranean scrubland. Our approach tracks transitions in the network behaviour of each plant species throughout its flowering period and, despite dynamism in visitor composition, reveals significant links to floral scent, and/or colour as perceived by pollinators...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
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