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Coevolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468031/reproduction-of-parasitic-mites-varroa-destructor-in-original-and-new-honeybee-hosts
#1
Zheguang Lin, Yao Qin, Paul Page, Shuai Wang, Li Li, Zhengsheng Wen, Fuliang Hu, Peter Neumann, Huoqing Zheng, Vincent Dietemann
The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor , shifted host from the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana , to the western honeybee, Apis mellifera . Whereas the original host survives infestations by this parasite, they are lethal to colonies of its new host. Here, we investigated a population of A. cerana naturally infested by the V. destructor Korea haplotype that gave rise to the globally invasive mite lineage. Our aim was to better characterize traits that allow for the survival of the original host to infestations by this particular mite haplotype...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463716/the-timescale-of-early-land-plant-evolution
#2
Jennifer L Morris, Mark N Puttick, James W Clark, Dianne Edwards, Paul Kenrick, Silvia Pressel, Charles H Wellman, Ziheng Yang, Harald Schneider, Philip C J Donoghue
Establishing the timescale of early land plant evolution is essential for testing hypotheses on the coevolution of land plants and Earth's System. The sparseness of early land plant megafossils and stratigraphic controls on their distribution make the fossil record an unreliable guide, leaving only the molecular clock. However, the application of molecular clock methodology is challenged by the current impasse in attempts to resolve the evolutionary relationships among the living bryophytes and tracheophytes...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459036/targeting-intramembrane-protein-protein-interactions-novel-therapeutic-strategy-of-millions-years-old
#3
Alexander B Sigalov
Intramembrane protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in transmembrane signal transduction mediated by cell surface receptors and play an important role in health and disease. Recently, receptor-specific modulatory peptides rationally designed using a general platform of transmembrane signaling, the signaling chain homooligomerization (SCHOOL) model, have been proposed to therapeutically target these interactions in a variety of serious diseases with unmet needs including cancer, sepsis, arthritis, retinopathy, and thrombosis...
2018: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457136/unexpected-evolutionary-benefit-to-phages-imparted-by-bacterial-crispr-cas9
#4
Pan Tao, Xiaorong Wu, Venigalla Rao
Bacteria and bacteriophages arm themselves with various defensive and counterdefensive mechanisms to protect their own genome and degrade the other's. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) is an adaptive bacterial defense mechanism that recognizes short stretches of invading phage genome and destroys it by nuclease attack. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the CRISPR-Cas system might also accelerate phage evolution. When Escherichia coli bacteria containing CRISPR-Cas9 were infected with phage T4, its cytosine hydroxymethylated and glucosylated genome was cleaved poorly by Cas9 nuclease, but the continuing CRISPR-Cas9 pressure led to rapid evolution of mutants that accumulated even by the time a single plaque was formed...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451899/cooperation-enhanced-by-the-coevolution-of-teaching-activity-in-evolutionary-prisoner-s-dilemma-games-with-voluntary-participation
#5
Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Yini Geng, Jiahua Jin, Fei Chen, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447388/enhancing-protein-fold-determination-by-exploring-the-complementary-information-of-chemical-cross-linking-and-coevolutionary-signals
#6
Ricardo N Dos Santos, Allan J R Ferrari, Hugo C R de Jesus, Fábio C Gozzo, Faruck Morcos, Leandro Martínez, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Elucidation of protein native states from amino acid sequences is a primary computational challenge. Modern computational and experimental methodologies, such as molecular coevolution and chemical cross-linking mass-spectrometry allowed protein structural characterization to previously intangible systems. Despite several independent successful examples, data from these distinct methodologies have not been systematically studied in conjunction. One challenge of structural inference using coevolution is that it is limited to sequence fragments within a conserved and unique domain for which sufficient sequence datasets are available...
February 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445373/tissue-dependent-tumor-microenvironments-and-their-impact-on-immunotherapy-responses
#7
REVIEW
Amanda J Oliver, Peter K H Lau, Ashleigh S Unsworth, Sherene Loi, Phillip K Darcy, Michael H Kershaw, Clare Y Slaney
Recent advances in cancer immunology have led to a better understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. Tumors can occur at many locations within the body and coevolution between malignant tumor cells and non-malignant cells sculpts the TME at these sites. It has become increasingly clear that there are specific differences of the TMEs at different anatomical locations, and these tissue-specific TMEs regulate tumor growth, determine metastatic progression, and impact on the outcome of therapy responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440519/high-magnitude-innovators-as-keystone-individuals-in-the-evolution-of-culture
#8
Michal Arbilly
Borrowing from the concept of keystone species in ecological food webs, a recent focus in the field of animal behaviour has been keystone individuals: individuals whose impact on population dynamics is disproportionally larger than their frequency in the population. In populations evolving culture, such may be the role of high-magnitude innovators: individuals whose innovations are a major departure from the population's existing behavioural repertoire. Their effect on cultural evolution is twofold: they produce innovations that constitute a 'cultural leap' and, once copied, their innovations may induce further innovations by conspecifics (socially induced innovations) as they explore the new behaviour themselves...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439676/evolution-of-cyp2j19-a-gene-involved-in-colour-vision-and-red-coloration-in-birds-positive-selection-in-the-face-of-conservation-and-pleiotropy
#9
Hanlu Twyman, Staffan Andersson, Nicholas I Mundy
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated signals, such as brilliant colours, are usually assumed to evolve through antagonistic coevolution between senders and receivers, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here we explore a recently identified "redness gene", CYP2J19, that is highly interesting in this context since it encodes a carotenoid-modifying enzyme (a C4 ketolase involved in both colour signalling and colour discrimination in the red (long wavelength) spectral region...
February 13, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437427/network-dynamics-of-innovation-processes
#10
Iacopo Iacopini, Staša Milojević, Vito Latora
We introduce a model for the emergence of innovations, in which cognitive processes are described as random walks on the network of links among ideas or concepts, and an innovation corresponds to the first visit of a node. The transition matrix of the random walk depends on the network weights, while in turn the weight of an edge is reinforced by the passage of a walker. The presence of the network naturally accounts for the mechanism of the "adjacent possible," and the model reproduces both the rate at which novelties emerge and the correlations among them observed empirically...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436774/oxytocin-structure-and-function-in-new-world-monkeys-from-pharmacology-to-behavior
#11
Aaryn Mustoe, Jack H Taylor, Jeffrey A French
Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic nonapeptide that mediates a host of physiological and behavioral processes including reproductive physiology and social attachments. While the OT sequence structure is highly conserved among mammals, New World monkeys (NWMs) represent an unusual 'hot spot' in OT structure variability among mammals. At least six distinct OT ligand variants among NWMs exist, yet it is currently unclear whether these evolved structural changes result in meaningful functional consequences. NWMs offer a new area to explore how these modifications to OT and its canonical G-protein coupled OT receptor (OTR) may mediate specific cellular, physiological, and behavioral outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414253/recombinant-poliovirus-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
Matthias Gromeier, Smita K Nair
Mechanisms to elicit antiviral immunity, a natural host response to viral pathogen challenge, are of eminent relevance to cancer immunotherapy. "Oncolytic" viruses, naturally existing or genetically engineered viral agents with cell type-specific propagation in malignant cells, were ostensibly conceived for their tumor cytotoxic properties. Yet, their true therapeutic value may rest in their ability to provoke antiviral signals that engage antitumor immune responses within the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403495/differing-house-finch-cytokine-expression-responses-to-original-and-evolved-isolates-of-mycoplasma-gallisepticum
#13
Michal Vinkler, Ariel E Leon, Laila Kirkpatrick, Rami A Dalloul, Dana M Hawley
The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes (IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15, and CXCLi2, syn...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390140/positively-selected-effector-genes-and-their-contribution-to-virulence-in-the-smut-fungus-sporisorium-reilianum
#14
Gabriel Schweizer, Karin Münch, Gertrud Mannhaupt, Jan Schirawski, Regine Kahmann, Julien Y Dutheil
Plants and fungi display a broad range of interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. These ecological interactions result in coevolution between genes belonging to different partners. A well-understood example are secreted fungal effector proteins and their host targets, which play an important role in pathogenic interactions. Biotrophic smut fungi (Basidiomycota) are well-suited to investigate the evolution of plant pathogens, because several reference genomes and genetic tools are available for these species...
January 30, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386702/a-review-of-thanatosis-death-feigning-as-an-anti-predator-behaviour
#15
REVIEW
Rosalind K Humphreys, Graeme D Ruxton
Abstract: Thanatosis-also known as death-feigning and, we argue more appropriately, tonic immobility (TI)-is an under-reported but fascinating anti-predator strategy adopted by diverse prey late on in the predation sequence, and frequently following physical contact by the predator. TI is thought to inhibit further attack by predators and reduce the perceived need of the predator to subdue prey further. The behaviour is probably present in more taxa than is currently described, but even within well-studied groups the precise taxonomic distribution is unclear for a number of practical and ethical reasons...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385509/translational-selection-for-speed-is-not-sufficient-to-explain-variation-in-bacterial-codon-usage-bias
#16
Saurabh Mahajan, Deepa Agashe
Increasing growth rate across bacteria strengthens selection for faster translation, concomitantly increasing the total number of tRNA genes and codon usage bias (CUB: enrichment of specific synonymous codons in highly expressed genes). Typically, enriched codons are translated by tRNAs with higher gene copy numbers (GCN). A model of tRNA-CUB coevolution based on fast growth associated selection on translational speed recapitulates these patterns. A key untested implication of the coevolution model is that translational selection should favor higher tRNA GCN for more frequently used amino acids, potentially weakening the effect of growth associated selection on CUB...
January 29, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380351/complex-coevolution-of-wing-tail-and-vocal-sounds-of-courting-male-bee-hummingbirds
#17
Christopher J Clark, Jimmy A McGuire, Elisa Bonaccorso, Jacob S Berv, Richard O Prum
Phenotypic characters with a complex physical basis may have a correspondingly complex evolutionary history. Males in the 'bee' hummingbird clade court females with sound from tail-feathers, which flutter during display dives. On a phylogeny of 35 species, flutter sound frequency evolves as a gradual, continuous character on most branches. But on at least six internal branches fall two types of major, saltational changes: mode of flutter changes, or the feather that is the sound source changes, causing frequency to jump from one discrete value to another...
January 29, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372672/rooted-trnaomes-and-evolution-of-the-genetic-code
#18
Daewoo Pak, Nan Du, Yunsoo Kim, Yanni Sun, Zachary F Burton
We advocate for a tRNA- rather than an mRNA-centric model for evolution of the genetic code. The mechanism for evolution of cloverleaf tRNA provides a root sequence for radiation of tRNAs and suggests a simplified understanding of code evolution. To analyze code sectoring, rooted tRNAomes were compared for several archaeal and one bacterial species. Rooting of tRNAome trees reveals conserved structures, indicating how the code was shaped during evolution and suggesting a model for evolution of a LUCA tRNAome tree...
January 26, 2018: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363884/a-widely-conserved-bacterial-cytoskeletal-component-influences-unique-helical-shape-and-motility-of-the-spirochete-leptospira-biflexa
#19
Katrina M Jackson, Cindi Schwartz, Jenny Wachter, Patricia A Rosa, Philip E Stewart
Leptospires and other members of the evolutionarily ancient phylum of Spirochaetes are bacteria often characterized by long, highly motile spiral- or wave-shaped cells. Morphology and motility are critical factors in spirochete physiology, contributing to the ability of these bacteria to successfully colonize diverse environments. However, the mechanisms conferring the helical structure of Leptospira spp. have yet to be fully elucidated. We have identified 5 L. biflexa bactofilin proteins, a recently characterized protein family with cytoskeletal properties...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363173/mait-cells-an-historical-and-evolutionary-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Olivier Lantz, François Legoux
In humans, MAIT cells represent the most abundant T-cell subset reacting against bacteria. MAIT cells belong to the evolutionarily conserved family of "preset" T cells that includes also NKT cells. Both subsets are selected by double positive thymocytes leading to common features such as PLZF expression. Preset T cells correspond to subsets prepositioned in specific tissue locations with preprogrammed versatile effector functions such as antimicrobial functions and possibly also metabolic control and tissue repair activity...
December 27, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
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