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Crypsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236697/performance-of-dna-metabarcoding-standard-barcoding-and-morphological-approach-in-the-identification-of-host-parasitoid-interactions
#1
Martin Šigut, Martin Kostovčík, Hana Šigutová, Jiří Hulcr, Pavel Drozd, Jan Hrček
Understanding interactions between herbivores and parasitoids is essential for successful biodiversity protection and monitoring and for biological pest control. Morphological identifications employ insect rearing and are complicated by insects' high diversity and crypsis. DNA barcoding has been successfully used in studies of host-parasitoid interactions as it can substantially increase the recovered real host-parasitoid diversity distorted by overlooked species complexes, or by species with slight morphological differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206344/balancing-selection-maintains-cryptic-colour-morphs
#2
Maren Wellenreuther
Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not...
November 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158965/colour-change-of-twig-mimicking-peppered-moth-larvae-is-a-continuous-reaction-norm-that-increases-camouflage-against-avian-predators
#3
Amy Eacock, Hannah M Rowland, Nicola Edmonds, Ilik J Saccheri
Camouflage, and in particular background-matching, is one of the most common anti-predator strategies observed in nature. Animals can improve their match to the colour/pattern of their surroundings through background selection, and/or by plastic colour change. Colour change can occur rapidly (a few seconds), or it may be slow, taking hours to days. Many studies have explored the cues and mechanisms behind rapid colour change, but there is a considerable lack of information about slow colour change in the context of predation: the cues that initiate it, and the range of phenotypes that are produced...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057907/establishing-the-behavioural-limits-for-countershaded-camouflage
#4
Olivier Penacchio, Julie M Harris, P George Lovell
Countershading is a ubiquitous patterning of animals whereby the side that typically faces the highest illumination is darker. When tuned to specific lighting conditions and body orientation with respect to the light field, countershading minimizes the gradient of light the body reflects by counterbalancing shadowing due to illumination, and has therefore classically been thought of as an adaptation for visual camouflage. However, whether and how crypsis degrades when body orientation with respect to the light field is non-optimal has never been studied...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978734/divergence-in-cryptic-leaf-colour-provides-local-camouflage-in-an-alpine-plant
#5
Yang Niu, Zhe Chen, Martin Stevens, Hang Sun
The efficacy of camouflage through background matching is highly environment-dependent, often resulting in intraspecific colour divergence in animals to optimize crypsis in different visual environments. This phenomenon is largely unexplored in plants, although several lines of evidence suggest they do use crypsis to avoid damage by herbivores. Using Corydalis hemidicentra, an alpine plant with cryptic leaf colour, we quantified background matching between leaves and surrounding rocks in five populations based on an approximate model of their butterfly enemy's colour perception...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944039/does-spatial-variation-in-predation-pressure-modulate-selection-for-aposematism
#6
S Tharanga Aluthwattha, Rhett D Harrison, Kithsiri B Ranawana, Cheng Xu, Ren Lai, Jin Chen
It is widely believed that aposematic signals should be conspicuous, but in nature, they vary from highly conspicuous to near cryptic. Current theory, including the honest signal or trade-off hypotheses of the toxicity-conspicuousness relationship, cannot explain why adequately toxic species vary substantially in their conspicuousness. Through a study of similarly toxic Danainae (Nymphalidae) butterflies and their mimics that vary remarkably in their conspicuousness, we show that the benefits of conspicuousness vary along a gradient of predation pressure...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855366/body-size-affects-the-evolution-of-hidden-colour-signals-in-moths
#7
Changku Kang, Reza Zahiri, Thomas N Sherratt
Many cryptic prey have also evolved hidden contrasting colour signals which are displayed to would-be predators. Given that these hidden contrasting signals may confer additional survival benefits to the prey by startling/intimidating predators, it is unclear why they have evolved in some species, but not in others. Here, we have conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of colour traits in the family Erebidae (Lepidoptera), and found that the hidden contrasting colour signals are more likely to be found in larger species...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831050/morph-specific-foraging-behavior-by-a-polymorphic-raptor-under-variable-light-conditions
#8
Gareth J Tate, Arjun Amar
Colour polymorphism may be maintained within a population by disruptive-selection. One hypothesis proposes that different morphs are adapted to different ambient light conditions, with lighter morphs having a selective advantage in bright conditions and darker morphs having advantages in darker conditions. The mechanism for this advantage is proposed to be through enhanced crypsis via background-matching. We explore this hypothesis in a polymorphic raptor, the black sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucus, which exhibits a discrete dark and white-morph...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769717/an-elusive-neotropical-giant-hondurantemna-chespiritoi-gen-n-sp-n-antemninae-mantidae-a-new-lineage-of-mantises-exhibiting-an-ontogenetic-change-in-cryptic-strategy
#9
Henrique M Rodrigues, Julio Rivera, Neil Reid, Gavin J Svenson
We present the description of a new genus and new species of praying mantis, Hondurantemna chespiritoigen. n. & sp. n. This species of cryptic mantis, collected in National parks in Mexico and Honduras, remained unknown despite its considerable body size. Based on a phylogenetic analysis with molecular data and traditional morphological analysis, we place this new genus within Antemninae, a monotypic Mantidae subfamily. We update the subfamily concept for Antemninae and provide a key to the two genera. We describe the external morphology of immatures and adults of the new species as well as the genital complexes of both sexes and the ootheca of Antemna rapax...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769659/first-description-of-the-male-and-redescription-of-the-female-of-parahiranetis-salgadoi-gil-santana-hemiptera-reduviidae-harpactorinae
#10
Hélcio R Gil-Santana, Adriana Trevizoli Salomão, Jader de Oliveira
The male of Parahiranetis salgadoi Gil-Santana, 2015 is described for the first time, with a redescription of the female of this species based on additional specimens. Comments on possible mimicry and crypsis exhibited by adults and nymphs of this species, respectively, are provided.
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702067/quantifying-phenotype-environment-matching-in-the-protected-kerry-spotted-slug-mollusca-gastropoda-using-digital-photography-exposure-to-uv-radiation-determines-cryptic-colour-morphs
#11
Aidan O'Hanlon, Kristina Feeney, Peter Dockery, Michael J Gormally
BACKGROUND: Animal colours and patterns commonly play a role in reducing detection by predators, social signalling or increasing survival in response to some other environmental pressure. Different colour morphs can evolve within populations exposed to different levels of predation or environmental stress and in some cases can arise within the lifetime of an individual as the result of phenotypic plasticity. Skin pigmentation is variable for many terrestrial slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda), both between and within species...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630672/circularly-polarized-reflection-from-the-scarab-beetle-chalcothea-smaragdina-light-scattering-by-a-dual-photonic-structure
#12
Luke T McDonald, Ewan D Finlayson, Bodo D Wilts, Pete Vukusic
Helicoidal architectures comprising various polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose, have been reported in biological systems. In some cases, these architectures exhibit stunning optical properties analogous to ordered cholesteric liquid crystal phases. In this work, we characterize the circularly polarized reflectance and optical scattering from the cuticle of the beetle Chalcothea smaragdina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) using optical experiments, simulations and structural analysis. The selective reflection of left-handed circularly polarized light is attributed to a Bouligand-type helicoidal morphology within the beetle's exocuticle...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615685/repeated-evolution-of-camouflage-in-speciose-desert-rodents
#13
Zbyszek Boratyński, José C Brito, João C Campos, José L Cunha, Laurent Granjon, Tapio Mappes, Arame Ndiaye, Barbara Rzebik-Kowalska, Nina Serén
There are two main factors explaining variation among species and the evolution of characters along phylogeny: adaptive change, including phenotypic and genetic responses to selective pressures, and phylogenetic inertia, or the resemblance between species due to shared phylogenetic history. Phenotype-habitat colour match, a classic Darwinian example of the evolution of camouflage (crypsis), offers the opportunity to test the importance of historical versus ecological mechanisms in shaping phenotypes among phylogenetically closely related taxa...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591156/dark-eyes-in-female-sand-gobies-indicate-readiness-to-spawn
#14
Karin H Olsson, Sandra Johansson, Eva-Lotta Blom, Kai Lindström, Ola Svensson, Helen Nilsson Sköld, Charlotta Kvarnemo
In animals, colorful and conspicuous ornaments enhance individual attractiveness to potential mates, but are typically tempered by natural selection for crypsis and predator protection. In species where males compete for females, this can lead to highly ornamented males competing for mating opportunities with choosy females, and vice versa. However, even where males compete for mating opportunities, females may exhibit conspicuous displays. These female displays are often poorly understood and it may be unclear whether they declare mating intent, signal intrasexual aggression or form a target for male mate preference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540596/the-effect-of-growth-rate-and-ageing-on-colour-variation-of-european-pond-turtles
#15
Alejandro Ibáñez, José Martín, Alfonso Marzal, Albert Bertolero
Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#16
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355309/the-differential-expression-of-mc1r-regulators-in-dorsal-and-ventral-quail-plumages-during-embryogenesis-implications-for-plumage-pattern-formation
#17
Thanh-Lan Gluckman, Nicholas I Mundy
Melanin pigmentation patterns are ubiquitous in animals and function in crypsis, physical protection, thermoregulation and signalling. In vertebrates, pigmentation patterns formed over large body regions as well as within appendages (hair/feathers) may be due to the differential distribution of pigment producing cells (melanocytes) and/or regulation of the melanin synthesis pathway. We took advantage of the pigmentation patterns of Japanese quail embryos (pale ventrum and patterned feathers dorsally) to explore the role of genes and their transcripts in regulating the function of the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) via 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158254/pupal-colour-plasticity-in-a-tropical-butterfly-mycalesis-mineus-nymphalidae-satyrinae
#18
Harshad Vijay Mayekar, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
Lepidopteran insects have provided excellent study systems for understanding adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Although there are a few well-studied examples of adult plasticity among tropical butterflies, our understanding of plasticity of larval and pupal stages is largely restricted to temperate butterflies. The environmental parameters inducing phenotypic plasticity and the selective pressures acting on phenotypes are likely to differ across tropical and temperate climate regimes. We tested the influence of relative humidity (RH), a prominent yet under-appreciated tropical climatic component, along with pupation substrate, larval development time, pupal sex and weight in determining pupal colour in the tropical satyrine butterfly Mycalesis mineus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116068/cryptic-female-strawberry-poison-frogs-experience-elevated-predation-risk-when-associating-with-an-aposematic-partner
#19
Julia Carolina Segami Marzal, Andreas Rudh, Björn Rogell, Anders Ödeen, Hanne Løvlie, Charlotte Rosher, Anna Qvarnström
Population divergence in sexual signals may lead to speciation through prezygotic isolation. Sexual signals can change solely due to variation in the level of natural selection acting against conspicuousness. However, directional mate choice (i.e., favoring conspicuousness) across different environments may lead to gene flow between populations, thereby delaying or even preventing the evolution of reproductive barriers and speciation. In this study, we test whether natural selection through predation upon mate-choosing females can favor corresponding changes in mate preferences...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094029/nanostructures-and-monolayers-of-spheres-reduce-surface-reflections-in-hyperiid-amphipods
#20
Laura E Bagge, Karen J Osborn, Sönke Johnsen
Transparent zooplankton and nekton are often nearly invisible when viewed under ambient light in the pelagic zone [1-3]. However, in this environment, where the light field is directional (and thus likely to cause reflections), and under the bioluminescent searchlights of potential predators, animals may be revealed by reflections from their body surface [4-7]. We investigated the cuticle surfaces of seven species of hyperiids (Crustacea; Amphipoda) using scanning electron microscopy and found two undocumented features that may reduce reflectance...
November 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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