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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932163/insect-mimetic-imaging-system-based-on-a-microlens-array-fabricated-by-a-patterned-layer-integrating-soft-lithography-process
#1
Minwon Seo, Jong-Mo Seo, Dong-Il Dan Cho, Kyoin Koo
In nature, arthropods have evolved to utilize a multiaperture vision system with a micro-optical structure which has advantages, such as compact size and wide-angle view, compared to that of a single-aperture vision system. In this paper, we present a multiaperture imaging system using a microlens array fabricated by a patterned-layer integrating soft lithography (PLISL) process which is based on a molding technique that can transfer three-dimensional structures and a gold screening layer simultaneously. The imaging system consists of a microlens array, a lens-adjusting jig, and a conventional (charge-coupled device) CCD image sensor...
June 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930295/development-of-a-novel-backbone-cyclic-peptide-inhibitor-of-the-innate-immune-tlr-il1r-signaling-protein-myd88
#2
Shira Dishon, Adi Schumacher, Joseph Fanous, Alaa Talhami, Ibrahim Kassis, Dimitrios Karussis, Chaim Gilon, Amnon Hoffman, Gabriel Nussbaum
MyD88 is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that plays a central role in signaling downstream of the TLRs and the IL1R superfamily. We previously demonstrated that MyD88 plays a critical role in EAE, the murine model of multiple sclerosis, and showed that the MyD88 BB-loop decoy peptide RDVLPGT ameliorates EAE. We now designed and screened a library of backbone cyclized peptides based on the linear BB loop peptide, to identify a metabolically stable inhibitor of MyD88 that retains the binding properties of the linear peptide...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930081/p38%C3%AE-mapk-regulates-aggresome-biogenesis-by-phosphorylating-sqstm1-in-response-to-proteasomal-stress
#3
Chenliang Zhang, Ju Gao, Mengen Li, Yongkang Deng, Changan Jiang
Aggresome formation is a major strategy for cells to cope with proteasomal stress. Misfolded proteins are assembled into micro-aggregates and transported to microtubule organization center (MTOC) to form perinuclear aggresomes before their degradation through autophagy. So far multiple factors have been identified as the activators of micro-aggregate formation, but much less is known about the regulatory mechanisms of their transport. Here we report that proteasomal stress leads to the activation of p38 MAPK family members...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929449/aspirin-another-caloric-restriction-mimetic
#4
Federico Pietrocola, Francesca Castoldi, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Guido Kroemer
The capacity of cells and organisms to sustain, and to eventually adapt to, environmental and genetic insults declines with age. Because macroautophagy/autophagy is regarded as one of the major determinants of cellular fitness in vitro and in vivo, maneuvers that aim at promoting autophagy may slow down aging and promote health span. Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition, efficiently counteracts aging-associated features, yet is difficult to be applied to humans. Caloric-restriction mimetics (CRMs) are pharmacological agents that recapitulate the main biochemical properties of CR, namely a global reduction of protein acetylation and the induction of autophagy...
June 21, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928797/radical-scavenging-activities-of-biomimetic-catechol-chitosan-films
#5
Chunhua Cao, Eunkyoung Kim, Yi Liu, Mijeong Kang, Jinyang Li, Jun-Jie Yin, Huan Liu, Xue Qu, Changsheng Liu, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne
Recent studies showed that melanin-mimetic catechol-chitosan films are redox-active and their ability to exchange electrons confers pro-oxidant activities for the sustained, in situ generation of reactive oxygen species for antimicrobial bandages. Here we electrofabricated catechol-chitosan films, demonstrate these films are redox-active, and show their ability to exchange electrons confers sustained radical scavenging activities that could be useful for protective coatings. Electrofabrication was performed in two steps: cathodic electrodeposition of a chitosan film followed by anodic grafting of catechol to chitosan...
June 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928565/modified-calix-4-crowns-as-molecular-receptors-for-barium
#6
Janine Steinberg, David Bauer, Falco Reissig, Martin Köckerling, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch, Constantin Mamat
Invited for this month's cover picture is the group around Dr. Constantin Mamat at the Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany) together with Prof. Martin Köckerling from the University of Rostock (Germany). The cover picture shows the ability of special functionalized calix[4]crown-6 derivatives to stably bind group 2 metals like barium. This binding mode is highly important for radiopharmaceutical applications not to lose the respective radiometal in vivo to avoid high background signals and/or false positive results and damages in other tissues...
June 2018: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928488/mechanisms-for-mtorc1-activation-and-synergistic-induction-of-apoptosis-by-ruxolitinib-and-bh3-mimetics-or-autophagy-inhibitors-in-jak2-v617f-expressing-leukemic-cells-including-newly-established-pvtl-2
#7
Shinya Ishida, Hiroki Akiyama, Yoshihiro Umezawa, Keigo Okada, Ayako Nogami, Gaku Oshikawa, Toshikage Nagao, Osamu Miura
The activated JAK2-V617F mutant is very frequently found in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), and its inhibitor ruxolitinib has been in clinical use, albeit with limited efficacies. Here, we examine the signaling mechanisms from JAK2-V617F and responses to ruxolitinib in JAK2-V617F-positive leukemic cell lines, including PVTL-2, newly established from a patient with post-MPN secondary acute myeloid leukemia, and the widely used model cell line HEL. We have found that ruxolitinib downregulated the mTORC1/S6K/4EBP1 pathway at least partly through inhibition of the STAT5/Pim-2 pathway with concomitant downregulation of c-Myc, MCL-1, and BCL-xL as well as induction of autophagy in these cells...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927116/glycocalyx-scaffolding-to-control-cell-surface-glycan-displays
#8
Mia L Huang, Ember M Tota, Stephen Verespy, Kamil Godula
This article describes a protocol for remodeling cells with synthetic glycoprotein and glycolipid mimetics that are functionalized with lipid anchors, allowing for cell surface display of specific glycan structures in predefined nanoscale arrangements. The complex chemical heterogeneity of glycans found on the cell surface or the glycocalyx renders analysis of the individual contributions of glycans difficult. This technique allows for the precise study of individual glycans at different regions of the glycocalyx, and may be useful for interrogating glycan interactions in infection or immunity or in stem cell differentiation...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926215/hdl-mimetics-infusion-and-regression-of-atherosclerosis-is-it-still-considered-a-valid-therapeutic-option
#9
REVIEW
I Karalis, J W Jukema
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and discuss the recent findings in the field of using HDL mimetics for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the largely disappointing results with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, focus moved to HDL functionality rather than absolute HDL cholesterol values. A number of HDL/apoA-I mimicking molecules were developed, aiming to enhance reverse cholesterol transport that has been associated with an atheroprotective effect...
June 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924730/selective-bh3-mimetics-targeting-bcl-2-bcl-xl-or-mcl-1-induce-severe-mitochondrial-perturbations
#10
Kristina Henz, Aoula Al-Zebeeby, Marion Basoglu, Simone Fulda, Gerald M Cohen, Shankar Varadarajan, Meike Vogler
Induction of apoptosis by selective BH3-mimetics is currently investigated as a novel strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we report that selective BH3-mimetics induce apoptosis in a variety of hematological malignancies. Apoptosis is accompanied by severe mitochondrial toxicities upstream of caspase activation. Specifically, the selective BH3-mimetics ABT-199, A-1331852 and S63845, which target BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1, respectively, induce comparable ultrastructural changes including mitochondrial swelling, a decrease of mitochondrial matrix density and severe loss of cristae structure...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924628/on-the-behavior-of-most-widely-spread-lipids-in-isotropic-bicelles
#11
Erik F Kot, Alexander Sergeevich Arseniev, Konstantin S Mineev
Isotropic bicelles are a widely used membrane mimetic for structural studies of membrane proteins and their transmembrane domains. Simple and cheap in preparation, they contain a patch of lipid bilayer that reproduces the native environment of membrane proteins. Despite the obvious power of bicelles in reproducing the various kinds of environments, the vast majority of structural studies employ the single lipid/detergent system. On the other hand, even if the alternative bicelle composition is used, the properties of mixtures are not characterized and the mere presence of lipid bilayer and discoidal shape of bicelle particles is not confirmed...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922876/effect-of-complexes-and-microemulsions-on-the-permeability-of-drugs-determination-using-a-new-biomimetic-artificial-membrane
#12
Carolina Aloisio, Micaela Ponce-Ponte, Gladys E Granero, Marcela R Longhi
The aim of this work was to predict the permeability of two model drugs, sulfamerazine (SMR) and indomethacin (INM), and to determine the effect on their apparent permeabilities by complexation with cyclodextrins and/or meglumine or incorporation in microemulsions. Permeation experiments were performed using two-chamber diffusion cells with a new composition of bio-mimetic membrane composed of 80% of Lipoid® S100 and 20% of cholesterol in n-octanol 10% w/w solution, at 37 ± 0.5°C and 14,000 rpm. The predictive capacity of the permeability of passive diffusion absorbed compounds was evaluated using 20 drug standards and showed an exponential correlation between the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp ) and the fraction absorbed percentages in humans (Fa%), with an R2 value of 0...
June 19, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920480/age-related-dry-eye-lactoferrin-and-lactobionic-acid
#13
Dario Rusciano, Salvatore Pezzino, Melania Olivieri, Martina Cristaldi, Caterina Gagliano, Gabriella Lupo, Carmelina Daniela Anfuso
Dry eye is the most prominent pathology among those involving the ocular surface: a decrease of the aqueous (less frequent) or the lipid (more frequent) component of the tear film is the cause of the diminished stability of tears that is observed in this pathology. Dry eye shows a clear distribution linked to both sex (being more frequent among women) and age (increasing with aging). Therefore, specific treatments taking into account the etiology of the disease would be desired. The role of lactoferrin and its functional mimetic lactobionic acid are reported here as a possible remedy for age-related dry eye...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920293/rational-design-and-development-of-a-peptide-inhibitor-for-the-pd-1-pd-l1-interaction
#14
Rebecca J Boohaker, Vijaya Sambandam, Isaac Segura, James Miller, Mark Suto, Bo Xu
We report here the rational design and validation of a peptide inhibitor to the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction as an attempt to develop a viable alternative to current inhibitory antibodies. We demonstrated, by biolayer interferometry and in silico docking simulations, that a PD-L1 peptide mimetic (PL120131) can interfere with the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by binding to PD-1. We show that PL120131 is capable of inhibiting PD-1 mediated apoptotic signaling pathway and rescuing Jurkat cells and primary lymphocytes from apoptosis...
June 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917264/rational-design-of-a-310-helical-pip-box-mimetic-targeting-pcna-the-human-sliding-clamp
#15
Kate L Wegener, Amy E McGrath, Nicholas E Dixon, Aaron J Oakley, Denis B Scanlon, Andrew D Abell, John Bruning
The human sliding clamp (PCNA) controls access to DNA for many proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. Proteins are recruited to the PCNA surface by means of a short, conserved peptide motif known as the PCNA-interacting protein box (PIP-box). Inhibitors of these essential protein-protein interactions may be useful as cancer therapeutics by disrupting DNA replication and repair in these highly proliferative cells. PIP-box peptide mimetics have been identified as a potentially rapid route to potent PCNA inhibitors...
June 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915222/a-cd4-mimetic-compound-enhances-vaccine-efficacy-against-stringent-immunodeficiency-virus-challenge
#16
Navid Madani, Amy M Princiotto, Linh Mach, Shilei Ding, Jérémie Prevost, Jonathan Richard, Bhavna Hora, Laura Sutherland, Connie A Zhao, Brandon P Conn, Todd Bradley, M Anthony Moody, Bruno Melillo, Andrés Finzi, Barton F Haynes, Amos B Smith Iii, Sampa Santra, Joseph Sodroski
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer ((gp120/gp41)3 ) mediates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) entry into cells. The "closed," antibody-resistant Env trimer is driven to more open conformations by binding the host receptor, CD4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved elements of the closed Env are potentially protective, but are elicited inefficiently. HIV-1 has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade readily elicited antibodies against more open Env conformations. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds (CD4mc) bind the HIV-1 gp120 Env and promote conformational changes similar to those induced by CD4, exposing conserved Env elements to antibodies...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914066/connexin-43-based-therapeutics-for-dermal-wound-healing
#17
REVIEW
Jade Montgomery, Gautam S Ghatnekar, Christina L Grek, Kurtis E Moyer, Robert G Gourdie
The most ubiquitous gap junction protein within the body, connexin 43 (Cx43), is a target of interest for modulating the dermal wound healing response. Observational studies found associations between Cx43 at the wound edge and poor healing response, and subsequent studies utilizing local knockdown of Cx43 found improvements in wound closure rate and final scar appearance. Further preclinical work conducted using Cx43-based peptide therapeutics, including alpha connexin carboxyl terminus 1 (αCT1), a peptide mimetic of the Cx43 carboxyl terminus, reported similar improvements in wound healing and scar formation...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913874/activation-of-trpm8-cold-receptor-triggers-allodynia-like-behavior-in-spinally-injured-rats
#18
Tianle Gao, Jingxia Hao, Zsuzsanna Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Xiao-Jun Xu
Aims Pain in response to innocuous cold stimulation (cold allodynia) is a common symptom in patients with neuropathic pain. Cold allodynia is difficult to treat and its mechanisms are poorly understood. Several transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been shown to be the molecular sensors for cold stimulation in a temperature-dependent manner, but the contribution of various TRP channels in mediating cold allodynia in neuropathic pain is unclear. We have previously shown that spinally injured rats developed neuropathic pain-like behaviors, including marked cold allodynia...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912982/discovery-of-a-novel-potent-peptide-agonist-to-adiponectin-receptor-1
#19
Sunghwan Kim, Younho Lee, Jun Woo Kim, Young-Jin Son, Min Jung Ma, Jee-Hyun Um, Nam Doo Kim, Sang Hyun Min, Dong Il Kim, Brian B Kim
Activation of adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) by its natural ligand, adiponectin has been known to be involved in modulating critical metabolic processes such as glucose metabolism and fatty acid oxidation as demonstrated by a number of in vitro and in vivo studies over last two decades. These findings suggest that AdipoRs' agonists could be developed into a potential therapeutic agent for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, especially for type II diabetes, a long-term metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908235/the-effect-of-antibiotics-on-social-aversion-following-early-life-inflammation
#20
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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