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Aposematism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067425/conspicuousness-color-resemblance-and-toxicity-in-geographically-diverging-mimicry-the-pan-amazonian-frog-allobates-femoralis
#1
Adolfo Amézquita, Óscar Ramos, Mabel Cristina González, Camilo Rodríguez, Iliana Medina, Pedro Ivo Simões, Albertina Pimentel Lima
Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063175/bioluminescence-in-dinoflagellates-evidence-that-the-adaptive-value-of-bioluminescence-in-dinoflagellates-is-concentration-dependent
#2
Karen A Hanley, Edith A Widder
Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain why dinoflagellate bioluminescence deters copepod grazing: startle response, aposematic warning, and burglar alarm. These hypotheses propose dinoflagellate bioluminescence (A) startles predatory copepods, (B) warns potential predators of toxicity, and (C) draws the attention of higher-order visual predators to the copepod's location. While the burglar alarm is the most commonly accepted hypothesis, it requires a high concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates to be effective, meaning the bioluminescence selective advantage at lower, more commonly observed, dinoflagellate concentrations may result from another function (e...
January 7, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060944/yellow-and-the-novel-aposematic-signal-red-protect-delias-butterflies-from-predators
#3
Jocelyn Liang Qi Wee, Antónia Monteiro
Butterflies of the South Asian and Australian genus Delias possess striking colours on the ventral wings that are presumed to serve as warning signals to predators. However, this has not been shown empirically. Here we experimentally tested whether the colours of one member of this diverse genus, Delias hyparete, function as aposematic signals. We constructed artificial paper models with either a faithful colour representation of D. hyparete, or with all of its colours converted to grey scale. We also produced models where single colours were left intact, while others were converted to grey-scale or removed entirely...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045959/the-impact-of-detoxification-costs-and-predation-risk-on-foraging-implications-for-mimicry-dynamics
#4
Christina G Halpin, John Skelhorn, Candy Rowe, Graeme D Ruxton, Andrew D Higginson
Prey often evolve defences to deter predators, such as noxious chemicals including toxins. Toxic species often advertise their defence to potential predators by distinctive sensory signals. Predators learn to associate toxicity with the signals of these so-called aposematic prey, and may avoid them in future. In turn, this selects for mildly toxic prey to mimic the appearance of more toxic prey. Empirical evidence shows that mimicry could be either beneficial ('Mullerian') or detrimental ('quasi-Batesian') to the highly toxic prey, but the factors determining which are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028378/the-benefits-of-being-toxic-to-deter-predators-depends-on-prey-body-size
#5
Karen E Smith, Christina G Halpin, Candy Rowe
Many prey have evolved toxins as a defense against predation. Those species that advertise their toxicity to would-be predators with conspicuous warning signals are known as "aposematic." Investment in toxicity by aposematically signaling prey is thought to underpin how aversive prey are to predators; increasing toxicity means that predators learn to avoid prey faster and attack them at lower rates. However, predators' foraging decisions on aposematic prey are determined not only by their toxicity, but also by their nutrient content: predators can trade-off the costs of ingesting toxin with the benefits of acquiring nutrients...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978820/variation-in-cyanogenic-compounds-concentration-within-a-heliconius-butterfly-community-does-mimicry-explain-everything
#6
Mónica Arias, Aimilia Meichanetzoglou, Marianne Elias, Neil Rosser, Donna Lisa de-Silva, Bastien Nay, Violaine Llaurens
BACKGROUND: Aposematic species advertise their unpalatability using warning signals such as striking coloration. Given that predators need to sample aposematic prey to learn that they are unprofitable, prey with similar warning signals share the cost of predator learning. This reduction in predation risk drives evolutionary convergence of warning signals among chemically defended prey (Müllerian mimicry). Whether such warning signal convergence is associated to similar defence levels among co-mimics is still an open question that has rarely been tested in wild populations...
December 15, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886218/revisiting-the-fear-of-snakes-in-children-the-role-of-aposematic-signalling
#7
Jérémie Souchet, Fabien Aubret
Why humans fear snakes is an old, yet unresolved debate. Its innate origin from evolutionary causes is debated against the powerful influence early experience, culture, media and religion may have on people's aversion to snakes. Here we show that the aversion to snakes in human beings may have been mistaken for an aversion to aposematic signals that are commonly displayed by snakes. A total of 635 children were asked to rate single item images as "nice" or "mean". Snakes, pets and smiley emoticon items were not rated as "mean" unless they displayed subtle aposematic signals in the form of triangular (rather than round) shapes...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708481/avoidance-of-an-aposematically-coloured-butterfly-by-wild-birds-in-a-tropical-forest
#8
Denise D Dell'aglio, Martin Stevens, Chris D Jiggins
1. Birds are considered to be the primary selective agents for warning colouration in butterflies, and select for aposematic mimicry by learning to avoid brightly coloured prey after unpleasant experiences. It has long been thought that bright colouration plays an important role in promoting the avoidance of distasteful prey by birds. 2. The hypothesis that warning colouration facilitates memorability and promotes predator avoidance was tested by means of a field experiment using distasteful model butterflies...
October 2016: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701275/four-colorful-new-species-of-dragon-millipedes-genus-desmoxytes-chamberlin-1923-from-northern-thailand-diplopoda-polydesmida-paradoxosomatidae
#9
Ruttapon Srisonchai, Henrik Enghoff, Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Somsak Panha
Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga...
September 22, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484645/aposematism-balancing-salience-and-camouflage
#10
James B Barnett, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, Innes C Cuthill
Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species...
August 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474371/through-experience-to-boldness-deactivation-of-neophobia-towards-novel-and-aposematic-prey-in-three-european-species-of-tits-paridae
#11
Dana Adamová-Ježová, Eliška Hospodková, Lucie Fuchsová, Pavel Štys, Alice Exnerová
European tits (Paridae) exhibit species-specific levels of initial wariness towards aposematic prey. This wariness may be caused by neophobia, dietary conservatism or innate bias against particular prey traits. We assessed the contribution of these three mechanisms to the behaviour of juvenile tits towards novel palatable prey and novel aposematic prey. We compared levels of initial wariness in great tits (Parus major), blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and coal tits (Periparus ater), and tested how the wariness can be deactivated by experience with a palatable prey...
October 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408550/species-limits-in-polymorphic-mimetic-eniclases-net-winged-beetles-from-new-guinean-mountains-coleoptera-lycidae
#12
Matej Bocek, Ladislav Bocak
Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359246/does-the-whistling-thorn-acacia-acacia-drepanolobium-use-auditory-aposematism-to-deter-mammalian-herbivores
#13
Simcha Lev-Yadun
Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium)...
August 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241010/multitrait-aposematic-signal-in-batesian-mimicry
#14
David Outomuro, Pedro Ángel-Giraldo, Alberto Corral-Lopez, Emilio Realpe
Batesian mimics can parasitize Müllerian mimicry rings mimicking the warning color signal. The evolutionary success of Batesian mimics can increase adding complexity to the signal by behavioral and locomotor mimicry. We investigated three fundamental morphological and locomotor traits in a Neotropical mimicry ring based on Ithomiini butterflies and parasitized by Polythoridae damselflies: wing color, wing shape, and flight style. The study species have wings with a subapical white patch, considered the aposematic signal, and a more apical black patch...
July 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193273/are-aristolochic-acids-responsible-for-the-chemical-defence-of-aposematic-larvae-of-battus-polydamas-l-lepidoptera-papilionidae
#15
A B B Morais, K S Brown, M A Stanton, K F Massuda, J R Trigo
Aristolochic acids (AAs) are thought to be responsible for the chemical protection of the aposematic larvae Battus polydamas (L.) (Papilionidae: Troidini) against predators. These compounds are sequestered by larvae from their Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) host plants. Studying the role of the chemical protection of the second and fifth instars of B. polydamas against potential predators, we found that the consumption of larvae by the carpenter ant Camponotus crassus Mayr and young chicks Gallus gallus domesticus was dependent on larval developmental stage...
December 2013: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096408/acoustic-aposematism-and-evasive-action-in-select-chemically-defended-arctiine-lepidoptera-erebidae-species-nonchalant-or-not
#16
Nicolas J Dowdy, William E Conner
Tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) have experienced intense selective pressure from echolocating, insectivorous bats for over 65 million years. One outcome has been the evolution of acoustic signals that advertise the presence of toxins sequestered from the moths' larval host plants, i.e. acoustic aposematism. Little is known about the effectiveness of tiger moth anti-bat sounds in their natural environments. We used multiple infrared cameras to reconstruct bat-moth interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) space to examine how functional sound-producing organs called tymbals affect predation of two chemically defended tiger moth species: Pygarctia roseicapitis (Arctiini) and Cisthene martini (Lithosiini)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033853/two-defensive-lines-in-juvenile-leaf-beetles-esters-of-3-nitropropionic-acid-in-the-hemolymph-and-aposematic-warning
#17
Gerhard Pauls, Tobias Becker, Peter Rahfeld, Rene R Gretscher, Christian Paetz, Jacques Pasteels, Stephan H von Reuss, Antje Burse, Wilhelm Boland
Juveniles of the leaf beetles in subtribe Chrysomelina have efficient defense strategies against predators. When disturbed, they transiently expose volatile deterrents in large droplets from nine pairs of defensive glands on their back. Here, we report on an additional line of defense consisting of the non-volatile isoxazolin-5-one glucoside and its 3-nitropropanoyl ester in the larval hemolymph. Because isoxazolin-5-one derivatives were not detectable in related leaf beetle taxa, they serve as a diagnostic marker for the Chrysomelina subtribe...
March 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004015/-parasite-induced-aposematism-protects-entomopathogenic-nematode-parasites-against-invertebrate-enemies
#18
Rebecca S Jones, Andy Fenton, Michael P Speed
Aposematism is a well-known strategy in which prey defend themselves from predation by pairing defenses such as toxins, with warning signals that are often visually conspicuous color patterns. Here, we examine the possibility that aposematism can be induced in a host by colonies of infectious parasites in order to protect the parasites from the consequences of attacks on the host. Earlier studies show that avian predators are reluctant to feed on carcasses of host prey that are infected with the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911159/both-palatable-and-unpalatable-butterflies-use-bright-colors-to-signal-difficulty-of-capture-to-predators
#19
C E G Pinheiro, A V L Freitas, V C Campos, P J DeVries, C M Penz
Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies...
April 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872531/phylogeography-and-evolution-of-the-red-salamander-pseudotriton-ruber
#20
Brian Folt, Nicole Garrison, Craig Guyer, Juanita Rodriguez, Jason E Bond
Phylogeographic studies frequently result in the elevation of subspecific taxa to species given monophyly, or the synonymy of subspecies that are not monophyletic. However, given limited or incongruent datasets, retention of subspecies can be useful to describe hypothesized incipient species or to illustrate interesting biological phenomena driving morphological diversity. Four subspecific taxa have been used to describe largely allopatric geographic variation within the species Pseudotriton ruber, a plethodontid salamander occupying stream and spring habitats across eastern North America: P...
May 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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