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Aposematism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753659/melanic-variation-underlies-aposematic-color-variation-in-two-hymenopteran-mimicry-systems
#1
Heather M Hines, Paige Witkowski, Joseph S Wilson, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
The stinging hymenopteran velvet ants (Mutillidae) and bumble bees (Apidae: Bombus spp.) have both undergone extensive diversification in aposematic color patterns, including yellow-red hues and contrasting dark-light body coloration, as a result of Müllerian mimicry. Understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying shifts in these mimetic colors requires characterization of their pigmentation. In this study, a combination of solubility, spectrophotometry, and melanin degradation analysis are applied to several color forms and species of these lineages to determine that orange-red colors in both lineages are comprised of primarily dopamine-derived pheomelanins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750851/genealogical-patterns-and-cryptic-diversity-in-an-aposematic-toad-from-nw-argentina
#2
Rute B Clemente-Carvalho, Marcos Vaira, Laura E King, Daria Koscinski, Maria I Bonansea, Stephen C Lougheed
The Yungas Redbelly Toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris, is patchily distributed in Argentina, confined to the upland portion (1000 to 2000 meters above sea level) of the montane forests of northern and central regions of Salta, and in central-eastern and south-eastern Jujuy. This species is known for its striking aposematic color variation across its geographic distribution, and was once treated as a complex of three subspecies based on distinctive color patterns. Here we assess the geographical genetic variation within M...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716921/toll-ligand-sp%C3%A3-tzle3-controls-melanization-in-the-stripe-pattern-formation-in-caterpillars
#3
Yûsuke KonDo, Shinichi Yoda, Takayuki Mizoguchi, Toshiya Ando, Junichi Yamaguchi, Kimiko Yamamoto, Yutaka Banno, Haruhiko Fujiwara
A stripe pattern is an aposematic or camouflage coloration often observed among various caterpillars. However, how this ecologically important pattern is formed is largely unknown. The silkworm dominant mutant Zebra (Ze) has a black stripe in the anterior margin of each dorsal segment. Here, fine linkage mapping of 3,135 larvae revealed a 63-kbp region responsible for the Ze locus, which contained three candidate genes, including the Toll ligand gene spätzle3 (spz-3). Both electroporation-mediated ectopic expression and RNAi analyses showed that, among candidate genes, only processed spz-3 induced melanin pigmentation and that Toll-8 was the candidate receptor gene of spz-3 This Toll ligand/receptor set is also involved in melanization of other mutant Striped (p(S) ), which has broader stripes...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716741/inferring-the-shallow-phylogeny-of-true-salamanders-salamandra-by-multiple-phylogenomic-approaches
#4
Ariel Rodríguez, James D Burgon, Mariana Lyra, Iker Irisarri, Denis Baurain, Leon Blaustein, Bayram Göçmen, Sven Künzel, Barbara K Mable, Arne W Nolte, Michael Veith, Sebastian Steinfartz, Kathryn R Elmer, Hervé Philippe, Miguel Vences
The rise of high-throughput sequencing techniques provides the unprecedented opportunity to analyse controversial phylogenetic relationships in great depth, but also introduces a risk of being misinterpreted by high node support values influenced by unevenly distributed missing data or unrealistic model assumptions. Here, we use three largely independent phylogenomic data sets to reconstruct the controversial phylogeny of true salamanders of the genus Salamandra, a group of amphibians providing an intriguing model to study the evolution of aposematism and viviparity...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716358/the-ability-of-lizards-to-identify-an-artificial-batesian-mimic
#5
Josef Beneš, Petr Veselý
Birds are usually considered the main predators shaping the evolution of aposematic signals and mimicry. Nevertheless, some lizards also represent predominately visually oriented predators, so they may also play an important role in the evolution of aposematism. Despite this fact, experimental evidence regarding the responses of lizards to aposematic prey is very poor compared to such evidence in birds. Lizards possess very similar sensory and cognitive abilities to those of birds and their response to aposematic prey may thus be affected by very similar processes...
June 3, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679722/distance-dependent-pattern-blending-can-camouflage-salient-aposematic-signals
#6
James B Barnett, Innes C Cuthill, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel
The effect of viewing distance on the perception of visual texture is well known: spatial frequencies higher than the resolution limit of an observer's visual system will be summed and perceived as a single combined colour. In animal defensive colour patterns, distance-dependent pattern blending may allow aposematic patterns, salient at close range, to match the background to distant observers. Indeed, recent research has indicated that reducing the distance from which a salient signal can be detected can increase survival over camouflage or conspicuous aposematism alone...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662042/response-of-adult-dragonflies-to-artificial-prey-of-different-size-and-colour
#7
Tammy M Duong, Ann B Gomez, Thomas N Sherratt
Aposematism is an evolved, cross-species association between a preys' unprofitability and the presence of conspicuous signals. Avian predators have been widely employed to understand the evolution of these warning signals However, insect predators are abundant, diverse, and highly visual foragers that have been shown to be capable of learned aversion. Therefore, it is likely that their behaviour also shapes the nature of anti-predator traits. In this study, we evaluated the rates of attack of a community (13 species) of mature adult dragonflies (Odonata) on artificial prey of varying size (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639012/the-effect-of-social-learning-on-avoidance-of-aposematic-prey-in-juvenile-great-tits-parus-major
#8
Eva Landová, Kateřina Hotová Svádová, Roman Fuchs, Pavel Štys, Alice Exnerová
Social learning plays an important role in acquiring new foraging skills and food preferences in many bird species but its potential role in learning to avoid aposematic prey has never been studied. We tested the effect of social learning on the acquisition of avoidance of aposematic insect prey (firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus; Heteroptera) in juvenile, hand-reared great tits (Parus major). Behaviour towards aposematic prey was compared between two groups of birds: (1) the observers that were, prior to encounter with firebugs, allowed to watch the experienced conspecific demonstrator repeatedly refuse to attack the prey, and (2) the control birds that lacked this opportunity...
June 21, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610240/four-new-species-of-terrestrial-breeding-frogs-of-the-genus-i-phrynopus%C3%A2-i-anura-terrarana-craugastoridae-from-r%C3%A3-o-abiseo-national-park-peru
#9
Lily O Rodriguez, Alessandro Catenazzi
We describe four new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs belonging to the genus Phrynopus from specimens collected on the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental (2800-3850 m) near and within Río Abiseo National Park, Provincia Mariscal Cáceres, Departments of San Martín and La Libertad, northeastern Peru. All four species lack a visible tympanum and inhabit the upper ridges and slopes within or adjacent to the Park. Phrynopus anancites sp. nov. and P. capitalis sp. nov. inhabit the wet montane grasslands on the upper ridges and valleys from 3600 to 3850 m...
June 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609910/the-dark-side-of-pumpkin-toadlet-a-new-species-of-i-brachycephalus-i-anura-brachycephalidae-from-serra-do-brigadeiro-southeastern-brazil
#10
Carla Silva Guimarães, Sofia Luz, Pedro Carvalho Rocha, Renato Neves Feio
Brachycephalus is a frog genus endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and characterized by the bright yellow-orange aposematic colors and the high degree of miniaturization. Herein, we describe a new species of Brachycephalus from Serra do Brigadeiro, Municipality of Ervália, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Specimens were collected at high altitudes (i.e., 1266-1498 m above sea level) amidst the leaf litter. The new species is characterized by the presence of black connective tissue covering all dorsal muscles, body completely yellow-orange in life, presence of skull and post-cranial plates, large size (SVL of adults: 14...
May 1, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582579/glowing-worms-biological-chemical-and-functional-diversity-of-bioluminescent-annelids
#11
Aida Verdes, David F Gruber
Bioluminescence, the ability to produce light by living organisms, has evolved independently in numerous lineages across the tree of life. Luminous forms are found in a wide range of taxonomic groups from bacteria to vertebrates, although the great majority of bioluminescent organisms are marine taxa. Within the phylum Annelida, bioluminescence is widespread, present in at least 98 terrestrial and marine species that represent 45 genera distributed in thirteen lineages of clitellates and polychaetes. The ecological diversity of luminous annelids is unparalleled, with species occupying a great variety of habitats including both terrestrial and marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep-sea, in benthic and pelagic habitats from polar to tropical regions...
June 3, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539522/maintaining-mimicry-diversity-optimal-warning-colour-patterns-differ-among-microhabitats-in-amazonian-clearwing-butterflies
#12
Keith R Willmott, Julia C Robinson Willmott, Marianne Elias, Chris D Jiggins
Mimicry is one of the best-studied examples of adaptation, and recent studies have provided new insights into the role of mimicry in speciation and diversification. Classical Müllerian mimicry theory predicts convergence in warning signal among protected species, yet tropical butterflies are exuberantly diverse in warning colour patterns, even within communities. We tested the hypothesis that microhabitat partitioning in aposematic butterflies and insectivorous birds can lead to selection for different colour patterns in different microhabitats and thus help maintain mimicry diversity...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404819/deimatism-a-neglected-component-of-antipredator-defence
#13
REVIEW
Kate D L Umbers, Sebastiano De Bona, Thomas E White, Jussi Lehtonen, Johanna Mappes, John A Endler
Deimatic or 'startle' displays cause a receiver to recoil reflexively in response to a sudden change in sensory input. Deimatism is sometimes implicitly treated as a form of aposematism (unprofitability associated with a signal). However, the fundamental difference is, in order to provide protection, deimatism does not require a predator to have any learned or innate aversion. Instead, deimatism can confer a survival advantage by exploiting existing neural mechanisms in a way that releases a reflexive response in the predator...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386528/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-its-annotation-for-the-aposematic-wood-tiger-moth-parasemia-plantaginis
#14
Juan A Galarza, Kishor Dhaygude, Johanna Mappes
In this paper we report the public availability of transcriptome resources for the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis). A comprehensive assembly methods, quality statistics, and annotation are provided. This reference transcriptome may serve as a useful resource for investigating functional gene activity in aposematic Lepidopteran species. All data is freely available at the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) under study accession number: PRJEB14172.
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350498/evolutionary-assembly-of-communities-in-butterfly-mimicry-rings
#15
Jahnavi Joshi, Anupama Prakash, Krushnamegh Kunte
Species co-occurrence in ecological communities is thought to be influenced by multiple ecological and evolutionary processes, especially colonization and competition. However, effects of other interspecific interactions and evolutionary relationships are less explored. We examined evolutionary histories of community members and roles of mutualistic and parasitic interactions (Müllerian and Batesian mimicry, respectively) in the assembly of mimetic butterfly communities called mimicry rings in tropical forests of the Western Ghats, India...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335411/how-the-cobra-got-its-flesh-eating-venom-cytotoxicity-as-a-defensive-innovation-and-its-co-evolution-with-hooding-aposematic-marking-and-spitting
#16
Nadya Panagides, Timothy N W Jackson, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Kevin Arbuckle, Rudolf Pretzler, Daryl C Yang, Syed A Ali, Ivan Koludarov, James Dobson, Brittany Sanker, Angelique Asselin, Renan C Santana, Iwan Hendrikx, Harold van der Ploeg, Jeremie Tai-A-Pin, Romilly van den Bergh, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Freek J Vonk, Arno Naude, Morné A Strydom, Louis Jacobsz, Nathan Dunstan, Marc Jaeger, Wayne C Hodgson, John Miles, Bryan G Fry
The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289233/volatile-secondary-metabolites-as-aposematic-olfactory-signals-and-defensive-weapons-in-aquatic-environments
#17
Giuseppe Giordano, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Eleonora Silvano, Margherita Gavagnin, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney, I Wayan Mudianta, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Guido Villani, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Christian Zidorn, Adele Cutignano, Angelo Fontana, Michael T Ghiselin, Ernesto Mollo
Olfaction is considered a distance sense; hence, aquatic olfaction is thought to be mediated only by molecules dissolved in water. Here, we challenge this view by showing that shrimp and fish can recognize the presence of hydrophobic olfactory cues by a "tactile" form of chemoreception. We found that odiferous furanosesquiterpenes protect both the Mediterranean octocoral Maasella edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264255/a-new-species-of-i-oncopeltus-i-st%C3%A3-l-1868-heteroptera-lygaeidae-in-the-nominate-subgenus-from-ecuador
#18
Eduardo I Faúndez, Javiera R Rocca
Oncopeltus Stål is a lygaeine genus currently comprising 39 species classified in two subgenera (Slater & O'Donnell, 1995). Oncopeltus is distributed in both hemispheres in tropical and temperate areas. Species on this genus are commonly known as milkweed bugs, because of their trophic association with plants in the family Apocynaceae (Scudder & Duffey, 1971). From these plants, the bugs sequester cardenolides making them unpalatable for predators (Duffey & Scudder, 1972). These habits are also accompanied with their brightly reddish coloration, which has been interpreted as aposematism (Duffey & Scudder, 1972, O'Rourke, 1979; Faúndez et al...
March 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240773/digest-imperfect-convergence-in-butterfly-wing-patterns
#19
Chandra Earl, Robert P Guralnick, Akito Y Kawahara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145581/phenotypic-similarity-in-sympatric-crow-species-evidence-of-social-convergence
#20
Paola Laiolo
Crows, rooks, and ravens (Corvus spp.) display marked morphological and voice similarities that have been hypothesized to stem from competitive interactions, as a case of nonaposematic mimicry. Here, I test predictions of the mimicry hypothesis at the macrovolutionary scale, examining whether species morphological and acoustic traits covary with those of coexisting congeners, and whether phenotypic similarity has facilitated the coexistence of related species after secondary contact. Body size and the temporal patterns of the commonest call display high levels of similarity among sympatric species, even after controlling for the effect of shared climate and habitat, and phylogenetic constraints in the production of variation...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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