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Aposematism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404819/deimatism-a-neglected-component-of-antipredator-defence
#1
REVIEW
Kate D L Umbers, Sebastiano De Bona, Thomas E White, Jussi Lehtonen, Johanna Mappes, John A Endler
Deimatic or 'startle' displays cause a receiver to recoil reflexively in response to a sudden change in sensory input. Deimatism is sometimes implicitly treated as a form of aposematism (unprofitability associated with a signal). However, the fundamental difference is, in order to provide protection, deimatism does not require a predator to have any learned or innate aversion. Instead, deimatism can confer a survival advantage by exploiting existing neural mechanisms in a way that releases a reflexive response in the predator...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386528/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-its-annotation-for-the-aposematic-wood-tiger-moth-parasemia-plantaginis
#2
Juan A Galarza, Kishor Dhaygude, Johanna Mappes
In this paper we report the public availability of transcriptome resources for the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis). A comprehensive assembly methods, quality statistics, and annotation are provided. This reference transcriptome may serve as a useful resource for investigating functional gene activity in aposematic Lepidopteran species. All data is freely available at the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) under study accession number: PRJEB14172.
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350498/evolutionary-assembly-of-communities-in-butterfly-mimicry-rings
#3
Jahnavi Joshi, Anupama Prakash, Krushnamegh Kunte
Species co-occurrence in ecological communities is thought to be influenced by multiple ecological and evolutionary processes, especially colonization and competition. However, effects of other interspecific interactions and evolutionary relationships are less explored. We examined evolutionary histories of community members and roles of mutualistic and parasitic interactions (Müllerian and Batesian mimicry, respectively) in the assembly of mimetic butterfly communities called mimicry rings in tropical forests of the Western Ghats, India...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335411/how-the-cobra-got-its-flesh-eating-venom-cytotoxicity-as-a-defensive-innovation-and-its-co-evolution-with-hooding-aposematic-marking-and-spitting
#4
Nadya Panagides, Timothy N W Jackson, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Kevin Arbuckle, Rudolf Pretzler, Daryl C Yang, Syed A Ali, Ivan Koludarov, James Dobson, Brittany Sanker, Angelique Asselin, Renan C Santana, Iwan Hendrikx, Harold van der Ploeg, Jeremie Tai-A-Pin, Romilly van den Bergh, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Freek J Vonk, Arno Naude, Morné A Strydom, Louis Jacobsz, Nathan Dunstan, Marc Jaeger, Wayne C Hodgson, John Miles, Bryan G Fry
The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289233/volatile-secondary-metabolites-as-aposematic-olfactory-signals-and-defensive-weapons-in-aquatic-environments
#5
Giuseppe Giordano, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Eleonora Silvano, Margherita Gavagnin, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney, I Wayan Mudianta, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Guido Villani, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Christian Zidorn, Adele Cutignano, Angelo Fontana, Michael T Ghiselin, Ernesto Mollo
Olfaction is considered a distance sense; hence, aquatic olfaction is thought to be mediated only by molecules dissolved in water. Here, we challenge this view by showing that shrimp and fish can recognize the presence of hydrophobic olfactory cues by a "tactile" form of chemoreception. We found that odiferous furanosesquiterpenes protect both the Mediterranean octocoral Maasella edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264255/a-new-species-of-i-oncopeltus-i-st%C3%A3-l-1868-heteroptera-lygaeidae-in-the-nominate-subgenus-from-ecuador
#6
Eduardo I Faúndez, Javiera R Rocca
Oncopeltus Stål is a lygaeine genus currently comprising 39 species classified in two subgenera (Slater & O'Donnell, 1995). Oncopeltus is distributed in both hemispheres in tropical and temperate areas. Species on this genus are commonly known as milkweed bugs, because of their trophic association with plants in the family Apocynaceae (Scudder & Duffey, 1971). From these plants, the bugs sequester cardenolides making them unpalatable for predators (Duffey & Scudder, 1972). These habits are also accompanied with their brightly reddish coloration, which has been interpreted as aposematism (Duffey & Scudder, 1972, O'Rourke, 1979; Faúndez et al...
March 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240773/digest-imperfect-convergence-in-butterfly-wing-patterns
#7
Chandra Earl, Robert P Guralnick, Akito Y Kawahara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145581/phenotypic-similarity-in-sympatric-crow-species-evidence-of-social-convergence
#8
Paola Laiolo
Crows, rooks, and ravens (Corvus spp.) display marked morphological and voice similarities that have been hypothesized to stem from competitive interactions, as a case of nonaposematic mimicry. Here, I test predictions of the mimicry hypothesis at the macrovolutionary scale, examining whether species morphological and acoustic traits covary with those of coexisting congeners, and whether phenotypic similarity has facilitated the coexistence of related species after secondary contact. Body size and the temporal patterns of the commonest call display high levels of similarity among sympatric species, even after controlling for the effect of shared climate and habitat, and phylogenetic constraints in the production of variation...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116068/cryptic-female-strawberry-poison-frogs-experience-elevated-predation-risk-when-associating-with-an-aposematic-partner
#9
Julia Carolina Segami Marzal, Andreas Rudh, Björn Rogell, Anders Ödeen, Hanne Løvlie, Charlotte Rosher, Anna Qvarnström
Population divergence in sexual signals may lead to speciation through prezygotic isolation. Sexual signals can change solely due to variation in the level of natural selection acting against conspicuousness. However, directional mate choice (i.e., favoring conspicuousness) across different environments may lead to gene flow between populations, thereby delaying or even preventing the evolution of reproductive barriers and speciation. In this study, we test whether natural selection through predation upon mate-choosing females can favor corresponding changes in mate preferences...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089841/the-birth-of-aposematism-high-phenotypic-divergence-and-low-genetic-diversity-in-a-young-clade-of-poison-frogs
#10
Rebecca D Tarvin, Emily A Powell, Juan C Santos, Santiago R Ron, David C Cannatella
Rapid radiation coupled with low genetic divergence often hinders species delimitation and phylogeny estimation even if putative species are phenotypically distinct. Some aposematic species, such as poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), have high levels of intraspecific color polymorphism, which can lead to overestimation of species when phenotypic divergence primarily guides species delimitation. We explored this possibility in the youngest origin of aposematism (3-7 MYA) in poison frogs, Epipedobates, by comparing genetic divergence with color and acoustic divergence...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067425/conspicuousness-color-resemblance-and-toxicity-in-geographically-diverging-mimicry-the-pan-amazonian-frog-allobates-femoralis
#11
Adolfo Amézquita, Óscar Ramos, Mabel Cristina González, Camilo Rodríguez, Iliana Medina, Pedro Ivo Simões, Albertina Pimentel Lima
Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063175/bioluminescence-in-dinoflagellates-evidence-that-the-adaptive-value-of-bioluminescence-in-dinoflagellates-is-concentration-dependent
#12
REVIEW
Karen A Hanley, Edith A Widder
Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain why dinoflagellate bioluminescence deters copepod grazing: startle response, aposematic warning, and burglar alarm. These hypotheses propose dinoflagellate bioluminescence (A) startles predatory copepods, (B) warns potential predators of toxicity, and (C) draws the attention of higher order visual predators to the copepod's location. While the burglar alarm is the most commonly accepted hypothesis, it requires a high concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates to be effective, meaning the bioluminescence selective advantage at lower, more commonly observed, dinoflagellate concentrations may result from another function (e...
March 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060944/yellow-and-the-novel-aposematic-signal-red-protect-delias-butterflies-from-predators
#13
Jocelyn Liang Qi Wee, Antónia Monteiro
Butterflies of the South Asian and Australian genus Delias possess striking colours on the ventral wings that are presumed to serve as warning signals to predators. However, this has not been shown empirically. Here we experimentally tested whether the colours of one member of this diverse genus, Delias hyparete, function as aposematic signals. We constructed artificial paper models with either a faithful colour representation of D. hyparete, or with all of its colours converted to grey scale. We also produced models where single colours were left intact, while others were converted to grey-scale or removed entirely...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045959/the-impact-of-detoxification-costs-and-predation-risk-on-foraging-implications-for-mimicry-dynamics
#14
Christina G Halpin, John Skelhorn, Candy Rowe, Graeme D Ruxton, Andrew D Higginson
Prey often evolve defences to deter predators, such as noxious chemicals including toxins. Toxic species often advertise their defence to potential predators by distinctive sensory signals. Predators learn to associate toxicity with the signals of these so-called aposematic prey, and may avoid them in future. In turn, this selects for mildly toxic prey to mimic the appearance of more toxic prey. Empirical evidence shows that mimicry could be either beneficial ('Mullerian') or detrimental ('quasi-Batesian') to the highly toxic prey, but the factors determining which are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028378/the-benefits-of-being-toxic-to-deter-predators-depends-on-prey-body-size
#15
Karen E Smith, Christina G Halpin, Candy Rowe
Many prey have evolved toxins as a defense against predation. Those species that advertise their toxicity to would-be predators with conspicuous warning signals are known as "aposematic." Investment in toxicity by aposematically signaling prey is thought to underpin how aversive prey are to predators; increasing toxicity means that predators learn to avoid prey faster and attack them at lower rates. However, predators' foraging decisions on aposematic prey are determined not only by their toxicity, but also by their nutrient content: predators can trade-off the costs of ingesting toxin with the benefits of acquiring nutrients...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978820/variation-in-cyanogenic-compounds-concentration-within-a-heliconius-butterfly-community-does-mimicry-explain-everything
#16
Mónica Arias, Aimilia Meichanetzoglou, Marianne Elias, Neil Rosser, Donna Lisa de-Silva, Bastien Nay, Violaine Llaurens
BACKGROUND: Aposematic species advertise their unpalatability using warning signals such as striking coloration. Given that predators need to sample aposematic prey to learn that they are unprofitable, prey with similar warning signals share the cost of predator learning. This reduction in predation risk drives evolutionary convergence of warning signals among chemically defended prey (Müllerian mimicry). Whether such warning signal convergence is associated to similar defence levels among co-mimics is still an open question that has rarely been tested in wild populations...
December 15, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886218/revisiting-the-fear-of-snakes-in-children-the-role-of-aposematic-signalling
#17
Jérémie Souchet, Fabien Aubret
Why humans fear snakes is an old, yet unresolved debate. Its innate origin from evolutionary causes is debated against the powerful influence early experience, culture, media and religion may have on people's aversion to snakes. Here we show that the aversion to snakes in human beings may have been mistaken for an aversion to aposematic signals that are commonly displayed by snakes. A total of 635 children were asked to rate single item images as "nice" or "mean". Snakes, pets and smiley emoticon items were not rated as "mean" unless they displayed subtle aposematic signals in the form of triangular (rather than round) shapes...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708481/avoidance-of-an-aposematically-coloured-butterfly-by-wild-birds-in-a-tropical-forest
#18
Denise D Dell'aglio, Martin Stevens, Chris D Jiggins
1. Birds are considered to be the primary selective agents for warning colouration in butterflies, and select for aposematic mimicry by learning to avoid brightly coloured prey after unpleasant experiences. It has long been thought that bright colouration plays an important role in promoting the avoidance of distasteful prey by birds. 2. The hypothesis that warning colouration facilitates memorability and promotes predator avoidance was tested by means of a field experiment using distasteful model butterflies...
October 2016: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701275/four-colorful-new-species-of-dragon-millipedes-genus-desmoxytes-chamberlin-1923-from-northern-thailand-diplopoda-polydesmida-paradoxosomatidae
#19
Ruttapon Srisonchai, Henrik Enghoff, Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Somsak Panha
Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga...
September 22, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484645/aposematism-balancing-salience-and-camouflage
#20
James B Barnett, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, Innes C Cuthill
Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species...
August 2016: Biology Letters
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