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Aposematism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886218/revisiting-the-fear-of-snakes-in-children-the-role-of-aposematic-signalling
#1
Jérémie Souchet, Fabien Aubret
Why humans fear snakes is an old, yet unresolved debate. Its innate origin from evolutionary causes is debated against the powerful influence early experience, culture, media and religion may have on people's aversion to snakes. Here we show that the aversion to snakes in human beings may have been mistaken for an aversion to aposematic signals that are commonly displayed by snakes. A total of 635 children were asked to rate single item images as "nice" or "mean". Snakes, pets and smiley emoticon items were not rated as "mean" unless they displayed subtle aposematic signals in the form of triangular (rather than round) shapes...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708481/avoidance-of-an-aposematically-coloured-butterfly-by-wild-birds-in-a-tropical-forest
#2
Denise D Dell'aglio, Martin Stevens, Chris D Jiggins
1. Birds are considered to be the primary selective agents for warning colouration in butterflies, and select for aposematic mimicry by learning to avoid brightly coloured prey after unpleasant experiences. It has long been thought that bright colouration plays an important role in promoting the avoidance of distasteful prey by birds. 2. The hypothesis that warning colouration facilitates memorability and promotes predator avoidance was tested by means of a field experiment using distasteful model butterflies...
October 2016: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701275/four-colorful-new-species-of-dragon-millipedes-genus-desmoxytes-chamberlin-1923-from-northern-thailand-diplopoda-polydesmida-paradoxosomatidae
#3
Ruttapon Srisonchai, Henrik Enghoff, Natdanai Likhitrakarn, Somsak Panha
Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and      D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by the shape of the gonopods, the sternal process between male coxae 4, the pattern of spines or tubercles on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga...
September 22, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484645/aposematism-balancing-salience-and-camouflage
#4
James B Barnett, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, Innes C Cuthill
Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species...
August 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474371/through-experience-to-boldness-deactivation-of-neophobia-towards-novel-and-aposematic-prey-in-three-european-species-of-tits-paridae
#5
Dana Adamová-Ježová, Eliška Hospodková, Lucie Fuchsová, Pavel Štys, Alice Exnerová
European tits (Paridae) exhibit species-specific levels of initial wariness towards aposematic prey. This wariness may be caused by neophobia, dietary conservatism or innate bias against particular prey traits. We assessed the contribution of these three mechanisms to the behaviour of juvenile tits towards novel palatable prey and novel aposematic prey. We compared levels of initial wariness in great tits (Parus major), blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and coal tits (Periparus ater), and tested how the wariness can be deactivated by experience with a palatable prey...
October 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408550/species-limits-in-polymorphic-mimetic-eniclases-net-winged-beetles-from-new-guinean-mountains-coleoptera-lycidae
#6
Matej Bocek, Ladislav Bocak
Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359246/does-the-whistling-thorn-acacia-acacia-drepanolobium-use-auditory-aposematism-to-deter-mammalian-herbivores
#7
Simcha Lev-Yadun
Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium)...
August 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241010/multitrait-aposematic-signal-in-batesian-mimicry
#8
David Outomuro, Pedro Ángel-Giraldo, Alberto Corral-Lopez, Emilio Realpe
Batesian mimics can parasitize Müllerian mimicry rings mimicking the warning color signal. The evolutionary success of Batesian mimics can increase adding complexity to the signal by behavioral and locomotor mimicry. We investigated three fundamental morphological and locomotor traits in a Neotropical mimicry ring based on Ithomiini butterflies and parasitized by Polythoridae damselflies: wing color, wing shape, and flight style. The study species have wings with a subapical white patch, considered the aposematic signal, and a more apical black patch...
July 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193273/are-aristolochic-acids-responsible-for-the-chemical-defence-of-aposematic-larvae-of-battus-polydamas-l-lepidoptera-papilionidae
#9
A B B Morais, K S Brown, M A Stanton, K F Massuda, J R Trigo
Aristolochic acids (AAs) are thought to be responsible for the chemical protection of the aposematic larvae Battus polydamas (L.) (Papilionidae: Troidini) against predators. These compounds are sequestered by larvae from their Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) host plants. Studying the role of the chemical protection of the second and fifth instars of B. polydamas against potential predators, we found that the consumption of larvae by the carpenter ant Camponotus crassus Mayr and young chicks Gallus gallus domesticus was dependent on larval developmental stage...
December 2013: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096408/acoustic-aposematism-and-evasive-action-in-select-chemically-defended-arctiine-lepidoptera-erebidae-species-nonchalant-or-not
#10
Nicolas J Dowdy, William E Conner
Tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) have experienced intense selective pressure from echolocating, insectivorous bats for over 65 million years. One outcome has been the evolution of acoustic signals that advertise the presence of toxins sequestered from the moths' larval host plants, i.e. acoustic aposematism. Little is known about the effectiveness of tiger moth anti-bat sounds in their natural environments. We used multiple infrared cameras to reconstruct bat-moth interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) space to examine how functional sound-producing organs called tymbals affect predation of two chemically defended tiger moth species: Pygarctia roseicapitis (Arctiini) and Cisthene martini (Lithosiini)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033853/two-defensive-lines-in-juvenile-leaf-beetles-esters-of-3-nitropropionic-acid-in-the-hemolymph-and-aposematic-warning
#11
Gerhard Pauls, Tobias Becker, Peter Rahfeld, Rene R Gretscher, Christian Paetz, Jacques Pasteels, Stephan H von Reuss, Antje Burse, Wilhelm Boland
Juveniles of the leaf beetles in subtribe Chrysomelina have efficient defense strategies against predators. When disturbed, they transiently expose volatile deterrents in large droplets from nine pairs of defensive glands on their back. Here, we report on an additional line of defense consisting of the non-volatile isoxazolin-5-one glucoside and its 3-nitropropanoyl ester in the larval hemolymph. Because isoxazolin-5-one derivatives were not detectable in related leaf beetle taxa, they serve as a diagnostic marker for the Chrysomelina subtribe...
March 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004015/-parasite-induced-aposematism-protects-entomopathogenic-nematode-parasites-against-invertebrate-enemies
#12
Rebecca S Jones, Andy Fenton, Michael P Speed
Aposematism is a well-known strategy in which prey defend themselves from predation by pairing defenses such as toxins, with warning signals that are often visually conspicuous color patterns. Here, we examine the possibility that aposematism can be induced in a host by colonies of infectious parasites in order to protect the parasites from the consequences of attacks on the host. Earlier studies show that avian predators are reluctant to feed on carcasses of host prey that are infected with the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...
March 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911159/both-palatable-and-unpalatable-butterflies-use-bright-colors-to-signal-difficulty-of-capture-to-predators
#13
C E G Pinheiro, A V L Freitas, V C Campos, P J DeVries, C M Penz
Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies...
April 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872531/phylogeography-and-evolution-of-the-red-salamander-pseudotriton-ruber
#14
Brian Folt, Nicole Garrison, Craig Guyer, Juanita Rodriguez, Jason E Bond
Phylogeographic studies frequently result in the elevation of subspecific taxa to species given monophyly, or the synonymy of subspecies that are not monophyletic. However, given limited or incongruent datasets, retention of subspecies can be useful to describe hypothesized incipient species or to illustrate interesting biological phenomena driving morphological diversity. Four subspecific taxa have been used to describe largely allopatric geographic variation within the species Pseudotriton ruber, a plethodontid salamander occupying stream and spring habitats across eastern North America: P...
May 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831358/arthropod-predation-in-a-dendrobatid-poison-frog-does-frog-life-stage-matter
#15
Erin M Murray, Sarah K Bolton, Torsten Berg, Ralph A Saporito
Frogs in the family Dendrobatidae are well known for their conspicuous colors and variable alkaloid-based chemical defenses. The aposematic coloration in dendrobatid frogs appears to deter predators with color vision, but relatively little is known about how these frogs are protected and their defenses are perceived by non-color vision dominated predators. The neotropical bullet ant Paraponera clavata and the red-legged banana spider Cupiennius coccineus are predators that avoid adults of the dendrobatid Oophaga pumilio, but readily consume non-toxic frogs...
June 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26668726/body-size-but-not-warning-signal-luminance-influences-predation-risk-in-recently-metamorphosed-poison-frogs
#16
Eric E Flores, Martin Stevens, Allen J Moore, Hannah M Rowland, Jonathan D Blount
During early development, many aposematic species have bright and conspicuous warning appearance, but have yet to acquire chemical defenses, a phenotypic state which presumably makes them vulnerable to predation. Body size and signal luminance in particular are known to be sensitive to variation in early nutrition. However, the relative importance of these traits as determinants of predation risk in juveniles is not known. To address this question, we utilized computer-assisted design (CAD) and information on putative predator visual sensitivities to produce artificial models of postmetamorphic froglets that varied in terms of body size and signal luminance...
October 2015: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655980/florivory-as-an-opportunity-benefit-of-aposematism
#17
Andrew D Higginson, Michael P Speed, Graeme D Ruxton
Inconspicuous prey pay a cost of reduced feeding opportunities. Flowers are highly nutritious but are positioned where prey would be apparent to predators and often contain toxins to reduce consumption. However, many herbivores are specialized to subvert these defenses by retaining toxins for their own use. Here, we present a model of the growth and life history of a small herbivore that can feed on leaves or flowers during its development and can change its primary defense against visual predators between crypsis and warning coloration...
December 2015: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640666/warning-coloration-can-be-disruptive-aposematic-marginal-wing-patterning-in-the-wood-tiger-moth
#18
Atsushi Honma, Johanna Mappes, Janne K Valkonen
Warning (aposematic) and cryptic colorations appear to be mutually incompatible because the primary function of the former is to increase detectability, whereas the function of the latter is to decrease it. Disruptive coloration is a type of crypsis in which the color pattern breaks up the outline of the prey, thus hindering its detection. This delusion can work even when the prey's pattern elements are highly contrasting; thus, it is possible for an animal's coloration to combine both warning and disruptive functions...
November 2015: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561270/identification-of-the-silkworm-quail-gene-reveals-a-crucial-role-of-a-receptor-guanylyl-cyclase-in-larval-pigmentation
#19
Masashi Yuasa, Takashi Kiuchi, Yutaka Banno, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
Diverse color patterns on the integument of lepidopteran larvae play important roles in their survival through camouflage, mimicry, sexual signaling, and aposematism. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, many color pattern variations have been preserved in inbred strains making them a good model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie color pattern formation. In this study, we focused on the silkworm quail (q) mutant, which exhibits abnormalities in multiple pigment biosynthesis pathways. Positional cloning of the q gene revealed that disruption of a guanylyl cyclase gene, BmGC-I, is responsible for its abnormal pigmentation...
January 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26477885/prey-from-the-eyes-of-predators-color-discriminability-of-aposematic-and-mimetic-butterflies-from-an-avian-visual-perspective
#20
Shiyu Su, Matthew Lim, Krushnamegh Kunte
Predation exerts strong selection on mimetic butterfly wing color patterns, which also serve other functions such as sexual selection. Therefore, specific selection pressures may affect the sexes and signal components differentially. We tested three predictions about the evolution of mimetic resemblance by comparing wing coloration of aposematic butterflies and their Batesian mimics: (a) females gain greater mimetic advantage than males and therefore are better mimics, (b) due to intersexual genetic correlations, sexually monomorphic mimics are better mimics than female-limited mimics, and (c) mimetic resemblance is better on the dorsal wing surface that is visible to predators in flight...
November 2015: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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