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Monica Mazzarino, Franziska L Khevenhüller-Metsch, Ilaria Fiacco, Maria Kristina Parr, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè
The potential consequences of drug-drug interactions on the excretion profile of the anabolic androgenic steroid methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) are discussed here. More specifically, we have evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments the effects of seven non-prohibited drugs (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, fluoxetine, paroxetine and nefazodone) on the main metabolic pathways of methandienone. These are selected among those most commonly used by the athletes...
May 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Amer A Almaiman, Sulaiman H Almaiman, Elsayed I Elagamy, Osama Al Wutayd, Mohammed Almarzuqi, Rayyan Alzunaidi, Sami Alhatlani, Eltayeb E Eid
BACKGROUND: A large number of Saudi athletes are recently shown to use androgenic anabolic steroid (AAS) products to achieve rapid muscle growth without realizing the serious health risks of these drugs. Aim of this study was to elucidate the side effects encountered with prolonged use of AAS products by Saudi athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which 16 regular gym members, 12 of them used AAS, were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide blood samples following current AAS course completion...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Sandra Sýkorová, Lucie Fojtíková, Martin Kuchař, Petra Mikšátková, Ludmila Karamonová, Ladislav Fukal, Oldřich Lapčík, Barbora Holubová
Methandienone is a synthetic exogenous steroid which, like other anabolic steroids, is strictly regulated in many countries. In recent years, increasing numbers have been detected of illegal additions into dietary supplements of methandienone and other anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). In this work, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been constructed for the detection of methandienone using an antiserum against methandienone. Under optimal experimental conditions, the ELISA achieved a limit of detection of 0...
March 30, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Nicolas Fabresse, Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Isabelle Etting, Jean-Claude Alvarez
We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry...
July 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Michael Polet, Wim Van Gansbeke, Peter Van Eenoo, Koen Deventer
Identification of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is a vital issue in doping control and toxicology, and searching for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task. Recently, a gas chromatography chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) method was introduced, and CI, in comparison with electron ionization (EI), proved to be capable of increasing the sensitivity significantly. In addition, correlations between AAS structure and fragmentation behavior could be revealed...
July 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
S Rzeppa, G Heinrich, P Hemmersbach
Improvements in doping analysis can be effected by speeding up analysis time and extending the detection time. Therefore, direct detection of phase II conjugates of doping agents, especially anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), is proposed. Besides direct detection of conjugates with glucuronic acid, the analysis of sulfate conjugates, which are usually not part of the routine doping control analysis, can be of high interest. Sulfate conjugates of methandienone and methyltestosterone metabolites have already been identified as long-term metabolites...
November 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Hervé Rebiere, Céline Ghyselinck, Laurent Lempereur, Charlotte Brenier
The use of performance enhancing drugs is a widespread phenomenon in professional and leisure sports. A spectroscopic study was carried out on anabolic tablets labelled as 5 mg methandienone tablets provided by police departments. The analytical approach was based on a two-step methodology: a fast analysis of tablets using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sample homogeneity based on their global composition, followed by Raman chemical imaging of one sample per NIR profile to obtain information on sample formulation...
March 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sara Odoardi, Erika Castrignanò, Simona Martello, Marcello Chiarotti, Sabina Strano-Rossi
A sensitive method for the identification and quantification of anabolic steroids and clenbuterol at trace levels in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in atmospheric pressure ionisation (APCI) mode using a single-stage Orbitrap analyser operating at a resolution power of 100 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) was developed and validated. A total of 1 g of dietary supplement was added with testosterone-d3 as internal standard, dissolved in methanol, evaporated to dryness, diluted in sodium hydroxide solution and extracted with a mixture of pentane/ethyl ether 9:1...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Shane Darke, Michelle Torok, Johan Duflou
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are frequently misused. To determine causes of death, characteristics, toxicology, and pathology of AAS positive cases, all cases (n = 24) presenting to the New South Wales Department of Forensic Medicine (1995-2012) were retrieved. All were male, and the mean age was 31.7 years. Deaths were mainly due to accidental drug toxicity (62.5%), then suicide (16.7%) and homicide (12.5%). Abnormal testosterone/epitestosterone ratios were reported in 62.5%, followed by metabolites of nandrolone (58...
July 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Donata Favretto, Franca Castagna, Sergio Maietti, Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Santo Davide Ferrara
The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1...
September 2013: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
John R Basile, Nada O Binmadi, Hua Zhou, Ying-Hua Yang, Antonio Paoli, Patrizia Proia
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yan-Yi Xing, Xin Liu, Yu-Mei Zhang, Xiao-Bing Wang, You-Xuan Xu
A method was evaluated for determination of twenty-one doping (including nandrolone, boldenone and methandienone) in human urine by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction, concentrated, TMS derivatization and limit of detection at ng x mL(-1) by MID/GC/HRMS. According to the code of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), precision and recoveries of the procedure were evaluated by replicate analysis (n = 6), the recoveries in the range of 66%-103%, with the RSD below 10...
December 2012: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Zhenling Zeng, Rong Liu, Jiahui Zhang, Jingxian Yu, Limin He, Xianguang Shen
A cheap, reliable and practical high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anabolic steroids in eggs, including trenbolone, boldenone, nandrolone, stanozolol, methandienone, testosterone and methyl testosterone. The analytes were extracted from the egg samples using methanol. The extracts were subjected to the removal of fat by freezing-lipid filtration and then further purified by liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether...
March 2013: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Wei Liu, Lan Zhang, Liangbiao Fan, Zian Lin, Yimin Cai, Zhenyi Wei, Guonan Chen
In this paper, a convenient and self-assembled hollow fiber solvent-stir bar microextraction (HF-SSBME) device was developed, which could stir by itself. In the extraction process, the proposed device made the solvent "bar" not floating at the sample solution and exposing to air while organic solvents outside hollow fiber always wrapped with donor phase solvent, which reduced the vaporization of organic solvents. This design could improve the precisions and recoveries of experiments. For evaluating the device, seven anabolic steroids (prasterone, 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol, methandriol, 19-norandrostenediol, androstenediol, methyltestosterone and methandienone) were used as model analytes and extraction conditions such as type and volume of organic solvents, agitation speed, extraction time, extraction temperature and salt addition were studied in detail...
April 13, 2012: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yvonne Lood, Arne Eklund, Mats Garle, Johan Ahlner
Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are considered drugs of abuse and are controlled substances in Sweden since 1999. Traditionally AAS have been used by elite athletes to enhance performance, but in recent years it has become an increasing problem outside elite sport among athletes, bodybuilders and criminals. Use of AAS is associated with psychiatric side effects such as aggression, depression and violent behavior. Supraphysiological doses and long term use can cause serious physical harm such as cardiovascular toxicity and even premature death...
June 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Stephanie Mosler, Carlos Pankratz, Alexis Seyfried, Marion Piechotta, Patrick Diel
There is increasing evidence that the biological activity of myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of muscle growth, is affected by training but also anabolic steroids. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the frequently abused anabolic steroid methandienone (Md) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and androgen-sensitive tissues in intact rats performing a treadmill training to simulate the situation of abusing athletes. The anabolic effects were correlated with the expression of members of the MSTN signaling cascade...
January 2012: Archives of Toxicology
Oscar J Pozo, Peter Van Eenoo, Koen Deventer, Hisham Elbardissy, Susana Grimalt, Juan V Sancho, Felix Hernandez, Rosa Ventura, Frans T Delbeke
Triple quadrupole (QqQ), time of flight (TOF) and quadrupole-time of flight (QTOF) analysers have been compared for the detection of anabolic steroids in human urine. Ten anabolic steroids were selected as model compounds based on their ionization and the presence of endogenous interferences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were evaluated. QqQ allowed for the detection of all analytes at the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (between 2 and 10 ng mL(-1) in urine)...
January 17, 2011: Analytica Chimica Acta
Oscar J Pozo, Leen Lootens, Peter Van Eenoo, Koen Deventer, Philip Meuleman, Geert Leroux-Roels, Maria K Parr, Wilhelm Schänzer, Frans T Delbeke
Anabolic steroids are among the most frequently detected compounds in doping analysis. They are extensively metabolized and therefore an in-depth knowledge about steroid metabolism is needed. In this study, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectometry (LC-MS/MS) method based on a precursor ion scan with a uPA-SCID mouse with humanized liver (a chimeric mouse) was explored for the detection of steroid metabolism. Methandienone was used as a model compound. The application of the precursor ion scan method in positive human samples and chimeric mice samples after methandienone administration allowed the detection of most steroid metabolites without any structural restriction...
November 2009: Drug Testing and Analysis
Leen Lootens, Peter Van Eenoo, Philip Meuleman, Oscar J Pozo, Pieter Van Renterghem, Geert Leroux-Roels, Frans T Delbeke
Anabolic androgenic steroids are considered to be doping agents and are prohibited in sports. Their metabolism needs to be elucidated to allow for urinary detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Steroid metabolism was assessed using uPA(+/+) SCID mice with humanized livers (chimeric mice). This study presents the results of 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (19-norAD) administration to these in vivo mice. As in humans, 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone are the major detectable metabolites of 19-norAD in the urine of chimeric mice...
November 2009: Drug Testing and Analysis
Leen Lootens, Philip Meuleman, Oscar J Pozo, Peter Van Eenoo, Geert Leroux-Roels, Frans T Delbeke
BACKGROUND: Adequate detection of designer steroids in the urine of athletes is still a challenge in doping control analysis and requires knowledge of steroid metabolism. In this study we investigated whether uPA(+/+)-SCID mice carrying functional primary human hepatocytes in their liver would provide a suitable alternative small animal model for the investigation of human steroid metabolism in vivo. METHODS: A quantitative method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the urinary detection of 7 known methandienone metabolites...
October 2009: Clinical Chemistry
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