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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818547/contracting-infectious-diseases-in-sub-saharan-african-wetlands-a-question-of-use-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Carmen Anthonj, Andrea Rechenburg, Christoph Höser, Thomas Kistemann
Worldwide the pressure on water is increasing. In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), natural wetlands constitute the only accessible water resources, providing water free of charge, agricultural potential and livelihoods in otherwise uninhabitable landscapes, which is why they are being used extensively. The degradation and contamination of water which result from the use of wetlands has the potential to spread disease-causing microorganisms and provide increased breeding habitats for disease vectors, Despite this importance, case studies are lacking and knowledge gaps remain about whether and how different kinds of wetland use influence the exposure to health risks and transmission of infectious diseases...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818232/review-of-the-endothelial-pathogenic-mechanism-of-tie2-related-venous-malformation
#2
REVIEW
Zhong Du, JiaWei Zheng, ZhiYuan Zhang, YanAn Wang
BACKGROUND: Venous malformation (VM) is a type of disease involving vascular morphogenesis in humans. Clinically, VM can be sporadic or inherited. TIE2, also known as TEK or HYK, is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily and is highly conserved among species. In 1996, an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at position 849 (R849W) in TIE2 was found to induce hereditary VM. Additional alterations in TIE2 involved in the pathogenesis of inherited or sporadic VM have since been reported...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817253/cuts-guided-deterministic-buckling-in-arrays-of-soft-parallel-plates-for-multifunctionality
#3
Gaojian Lin, Dengteng Ge, Yichao Tang, Yu Xia, Gaoxiang Wu, Lin Han, Shu Yang, Jie Yin
Harnessing buckling instability in soft materials offers an effective strategy to achieve multifunctionality. Despite great efforts in controlling the wrinkling behaviors of film-based systems and buckling of periodic structures, the benefits of classical plate buckling in soft materials remain largely unexplored. The challenge lies in the intrinsic indeterminate characteristics of buckling, leading to geometric frustration and random orientations. Here, we report the controllable global order in constrained buckling of arrays of parallel plates made of hydrogels and elastomers on rigid substrates...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817117/increased-tumor-infiltrating-cd45ra-ccr7-regulatory-t-cell-subset-with-immunosuppressive-properties-foster-gastric-cancer-progress
#4
Fang-Yuan Mao, Hui Kong, Yong-Liang Zhao, Liu-Sheng Peng, Weisan Chen, Jin-Yu Zhang, Ping Cheng, Ting-Ting Wang, Yi-Pin Lv, Yong-Sheng Teng, Xiao-Long Fu, Yu-Gang Liu, Xiao-Long Wu, Chuan-Jie Hao, Nan You, Ping Luo, Pei-Wu Yu, Quan-Ming Zou, Gang Guo, Yuan Zhuang
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells with potent immunosuppressive properties in gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment. However, different subsets of the Tregs and their relevance to GC are unknown. Here, we found that patients with GC showed a significantly higher Tregs infiltration in tumors, and CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset constituted most tumor-infiltrating Tregs. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset with an effector/memory phenotype accumulated in tumors and expressed low level of HLA-DR...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815941/t3ss-effector-exoy-reduces-inflammasome-related-responses-by-suppressing-bacterial-motility-and-delaying-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-caspase-1
#5
Jisu Jeon, Yong-Jae Kim, Heesung Shin, Un-Hwan Ha
Type III secreted effectors are essential for modulating host immune responses during the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Little is known about the impact of one of the effectors, ExoY, on inflammasome activation, which results in IL-1β production and pyroptotic cell death. In this study, we found that transcriptional expression of Il-1β was induced to a lesser extent in response to an exoY harboring strain than to a deleted mutant. This suppressive effect of ExoY was verified by complementation assay as well as by direct translocation of exoY into host cells...
August 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815533/hijacking-of-membrane-contact-sites-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#6
Isabelle Derré
Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to hijack host cellular processes to promote their survival and replication inside host cells. Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to the strategies employed by these pathogens to manipulate various vesicular trafficking pathways. But in the past 5 years, studies have brought to light that intracellular bacteria also target non-vesicular trafficking pathways. Here we review how three vacuolar pathogens, namely, Legionella, Chlamydia, and Coxiella hijack components of cellular MCS with or without the formation of stable MCS...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815531/mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-mediate-innate-immune-responses
#7
Takuma Misawa, Michihiro Takahama, Tatsuya Saitoh
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are fundamental organelles that coordinate high-order cell functions. Mitochondria are centers of energy production, whereas the ER is responsible for folding, transport, and degradation of proteins. In addition to their specific functions, mitochondria and ER actively communicate with each other to promote a variety of cellular events, such as material transfer and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown the critical involvement of these organelles in regulation of the innate immune system, which functions in host defense...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815530/role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-communication-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Jennifer Rieusset
Although mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and disrupted lipid and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis are classically associated with both insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the interplay between these metabolic stresses is less known. Both organelles interact through contact points known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), in order to exchange both lipids and Ca(2+) and regulate cellular homeostasis. Recent evidences suggest that MAM could be an important hub for hormonal and nutrient signaling in the liver and that ER-mitochondria miscommunication could participate to hepatic insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of MAM in the control of glucose homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814641/ceramide-activation-of-rhoa-rho-kinase-impairs-actin-polymerization-during-aggregated-ldl-catabolism
#9
Rajesh K Singh, Abigail S Haka, Alexandria Brumfield, Inna Grosheva, Priya Bhardwaj, Harvey F Chin, Yuquan Xiong, Timothy Hla, Frederick R Maxfield
Macrophages use an extracellular, hydrolytic compartment formed by local actin polymerization to digest aggregated LDL (agLDL). Catabolism of agLDL promotes foam cell formation and creates an environment rich in LDL catabolites including cholesterol and ceramide. Increased ceramide levels are present in lesional LDL, but the effect of ceramide on macrophage pro-atherogenic processes remains unknown. Here, we show that macrophages accumulate ceramide in atherosclerotic lesions. Using macrophages from Sphingosine Kinase 2 knockout (SK2KO) mice to mimic ceramide rich conditions of atherosclerotic lesions, we show that SK2KO macrophages display impaired actin polymerization and foam cell formation in response to contact with agLDL...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813441/cross-over-endocytosis-of-claudins-is-mediated-by-interactions-via-their-extracellular-loops
#10
Nora Gehne, Agathe Lamik, Martin Lehmann, Reiner F Haseloff, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ingolf E Blasig
Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double membrane vesicles. Super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of Cldns in these vesicles and revealed a distinct separation of Cldns derived from opposing cells within cross-over endocytosed vesicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813241/should-potential-risk-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-be-discussed-with-young-athletes
#11
Kimberly Hornbeck, Kevin Walter, Matthew Myrvik
As participation in youth sports has risen over the past two decades, so has the incidence of youth sports injuries. A common topic of concern is concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, in young athletes and whether concussions sustained at a young age could lead to lifelong impairment such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While the pathway from a concussed young athlete to an adult with CTE remains unknown, current research is attempting to provide more clarity. This article discusses how health care professionals can help foster an informed, balanced decision-making process regarding participation in contact sports that involves the parents as well as the children...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812775/polymorphic-light-eruption-and-il-1-family-members-any-difference-with-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#12
S Lembo, G Caiazzo, N Balato, G Monfrecola, V Patra, P Wolf, A Balato
Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is described as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) toward a de novo light-induced antigen, yet to be identified. In effect, the inflammatory pathways of PLE and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) share common patterns in terms of the mediators involved from the innate and adaptive immune system participating in the DTHR. As we have previously highlighted the role of interleukin (IL)-1 family members in ACD, we hypothesised that the same mediators could have similar functions in PLE...
August 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809921/first-choice-of-treatment-place-in-the-pathways-to-epileptic-care-at-the-outpatient-department-of-university-of-gondar-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-cross-sectional-institutional-based-study
#13
Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Berihun Assefa Dachew, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh, Wondale Getinet Alemu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy treatment gap range from 87% to 98%. In spite of this, there is a gross inadequacy of the availability, accessibility and affordability of Anti-Epileptic Drugs. In countries like Ethiopia, where most populations are less aware about mental health problems, most people seek help for their illness from traditional healers. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the pathways to epilepsy care and associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study design utilized among 409 participants selected by systematic random sampling technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808208/effects-of-bisphenol-compounds-on-the-growth-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-mcf-7-cv-human-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Ji-Youn Kim, Ho-Gyu Choi, Hae-Miru Lee, Geum-A Lee, Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Bisphenol-A (BPA) has been considered as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) because it can exert estrogenic properties. For bisphenol-S (BPS) and bisphenol-F (BPF) that are BPA analogs and substitutes, their risk to estrogen-dependent cancer has been reported rarely compared with the numerous cases of BPA. In this study, we examined whether BPA, BPS, and BPF can lead to the proliferation, migration, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MCF-7 clonal variant (MCF-7 CV) breast cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808131/intercellular-communication-via-the-comx-inducing-peptide-xip-of-streptococcus-mutans
#15
Justin Kaspar, Simon A M Underhill, Robert C Shields, Adrian Reyes, Suzanne Rosenzweig, Stephen J Hagen, Robert A Burne
Gram-positive bacteria utilize exported peptides to coordinate genetic and physiological processes required for biofilm formation, stress responses and ecological competitiveness. One example is activation of natural genetic competence by ComR and the comX-inducing peptide (XIP) in Streptococcus mutans Although the competence pathway can be activated by addition of synthetic XIP in defined medium, the hypothesis that XIP is able to function as an intercellular signal molecule has not been rigorously tested...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806073/transformation-among-aromatic-iodinated-disinfection-byproducts-in-the-presence-of-monochloramine-from-monoiodophenol-to-triiodophenol-and-diiodonitrophenol
#16
Tingting Gong, Yuxian Tao, Xiangru Zhang, Shaoyang Hu, Jinbao Yin, Qiming Xian, Jian Ma, Bin Xu
Aromatic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are a newly identified category of highly toxic DBPs. Among the identified aromatic iodinated DBPs, 2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,6-diiodo-4-nitro- phenol have shown relatively widespread occurrence and high toxicity. In this study, we found that 4-iodophenol underwent transformation to form 2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol in the presence of monochloramine. The transformation pathways were investigated, the decomposition kinetics of 4-iodophenol and the formation of 2,4,6-triiodophenol and 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol were studied, the factors affecting the transformation were examined, the toxicity change during the transformation was evaluated, and the occurrence of the proposed transformation pathways during chloramination of source water was verified...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805214/the-low-populated-folding-intermediate-of-a-mutant-of-the-fyn-sh3-domain-identified-by-a-simple-model
#17
Jing Wu, Guojun Chen, Zhuqing Zhang, Ping Zhang, Tao Chen
Experimental studies indicate that the A39V/N53P/V55L Fyn SH3 domain folds from the unfolded state to the native state via a low-populated on-pathway intermediate, whereas the folding of the wildtype is two-state-like. To get insights into the biophysical basis of their different folding mechanisms, we used native-centric models with and without additional transferrable, sequence-dependent nonnative hydrophobic interactions to study the folding behaviors of the Fyn SH3 domain and its mutant. The pure native-centric model predicts that both the wildtype and the mutant fold in a two-state manner, without any detectable intermediate...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804875/prehospital-pathways-of-occipital-stroke-patients-with-mainly-visual-symptoms
#18
S Räty, K Silvennoinen, T Tatlisumak
OBJECTIVES: Occipital ischemic strokes typically cause homonymous visual field defects, for which means of rehabilitation are limited. Intravenous thrombolysis is increasingly and successfully used for their acute treatment. However, recognition of strokes presenting with mainly visual field defects is challenging for both patients and healthcare professionals. We studied prehospital pathways of occipital stroke patients with mainly visual symptoms to define obstacles in their early recognition...
August 13, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804819/performance-of-activated-partial-thromboplastin-time-aptt-determining-reagent-sensitivity-to-factor-deficiencies-heparin-and-lupus-anticoagulants
#19
Geoffrey Kershaw
The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a useful global assay for the assessment of the contact factor pathway of hemostasis and its inhibitors. The test is usually performed on fully automated analyzers using commercially prepared reagents. The three main clinical areas of interest are detection of factor deficiencies, detection of lupus anticoagulants and in the monitoring of therapy with unfractionated heparin. Methods are described here for assessing APTT reagents for their sensitivity to clotting time prolongation in each of these areas of interest...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804678/capacitively-coupled-arrays-of-multiplexed-flexible-silicon-transistors-for-long-term-cardiac-electrophysiology
#20
Hui Fang, Ki Jun Yu, Christopher Gloschat, Zijian Yang, Chia-Han Chiang, Jianing Zhao, Sang Min Won, Siyi Xu, Michael Trumpis, Yiding Zhong, Enming Song, Seung Won Han, Yeguang Xue, Dong Xu, Gert Cauwenberghs, Matthew Kay, Yonggang Huang, Jonathan Viventi, Igor R Efimov, John A Rogers
Advanced capabilities in electrical recording are essential for the treatment of heart-rhythm diseases. The most advanced technologies use flexible integrated electronics; however, the penetration of biological fluids into the underlying electronics and any ensuing electrochemical reactions pose significant safety risks. Here, we show that an ultrathin, leakage-free, biocompatible dielectric layer can completely seal an underlying layer of flexible electronics while allowing for electrophysiological measurements through capacitive coupling between tissue and the electronics, and thus without the need for direct metal contact...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
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