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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036578/the-roles-of-membranes-and-associated-cytoskeleton-in-plant-virus-replication-and-cell-to-cell-movement
#1
Nicolas Pitzalis, Manfred Heinlein, Gian Pietro Di Sansebastiano
The infection of plants by viruses depends on cellular mechanisms that support the replication of the viral genomes, and the cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus via plasmodesmata (PD) and the connected phloem. While the propagation of some viruses requires the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi pathway, others replicate and spread between cells in association with the ER and are independent of this pathway. Using selected viruses as examples, this review re-examines the involvement of membranes and the cytoskeleton during virus infection and proposes potential roles of class VIII myosins and membrane-tethering proteins in controlling viral functions at specific ER subdomains, such as cortical microtubule-associated ER sites, ER-plasma membrane contact sites, and PD...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036225/human-plasma-derived-c1-esterase-inhibitor-concentrate-has-limited-effect-on-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-lung-inflammation-in-mice
#2
Ingrid Stroo, Jack Yang, Adam A Anas, J Daan de Boer, Gerard van Mierlo, Dorina Roem, Diana Wouters, Ruchira Engel, Joris J T H Roelofs, Cornelis van 't Veer, Tom van der Poll, Sacha Zeerleder
C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) can inhibit multiple pathways (complement, contact-kinin, coagulation, and fibrinolysis) that are all implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. We explored the effect of human plasma-derived C1-INH on allergic lung inflammation in a house dust mite (HDM) induced asthma mouse model by daily administration of C1-INH (15 U) during the challenge phase. NaCl and HDM exposed mice had comparable plasma C1-INH levels, while bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels were increased in HDM exposed mice coinciding with slightly reduced activation of complement (C5a)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031797/impact-of-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-on-the-activity-of-anaerobic-granular-sludge-from-macroscopic-to-microcosmic-investigation
#3
Chuan-Shu He, Pan-Pan He, Hou-Yun Yang, Ling-Li Li, Yue Lin, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
The study aimed at evaluating the influence of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) on the activity of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) from both macroscopic and microcosmic aspects using different methodologies. The tolerance response of AGS to nZVI was firstly investigated using short-term and long-term experiments, and also compared with anaerobic flocs. The Fe fate and distribution, the change of contents/structure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and the variation of microbial community in the AGS after exposure to nZVI were further explored...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031215/comprehensive-multipathway-risk-assessment-of-chemicals-associated-with-recycled-crumb-rubber-in-synthetic-turf-fields
#4
Michael K Peterson, Julie C Lemay, Sara Pacheco Shubin, Robyn L Prueitt
BACKGROUND: Thousands of synthetic turf fields in the US are regularly used by millions of individuals (particularly children and adolescents). Although many safety assessments have concluded that there are low or negligible risks related to exposure to chemicals found in the recycled rubber used to make these fields, concerns remain about the safety of this product. Existing studies of recycled rubber's potential health risks have limitations such as small sample sizes and limited evaluation of relevant exposure pathways and scenarios...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030394/ptdins3p-controls-mtorc1-signaling-through-lysosomal-positioning
#5
Zhi Hong, Nina Marie Pedersen, Ling Wang, Maria Lyngaas Torgersen, Harald Stenmark, Camilla Raiborg
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a protein kinase complex that localizes to lysosomes to up-regulate anabolic processes and down-regulate autophagy. Although mTORC1 is known to be activated by lysosome positioning and by amino acid-stimulated production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) by the lipid kinase VPS34/PIK3C3, the mechanisms have been elusive. Here we present results that connect these seemingly unrelated pathways for mTORC1 activation. Amino acids stimulate recruitment of the PtdIns3P-binding protein FYCO1 to lysosomes and promote contacts between FYCO1 lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum that contain the PtdIns3P effector Protrudin...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029310/fragrance-allergens-linalool-and-limonene-allylic-hydroperoxides-in-skin-allergy-mechanisms-of-action-focusing-on-transcription-factor-nrf2
#6
Chloé Raffalli, Elodie Clouet, Salen Kuresepi, Marie-Hélène Damiens, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin, Marc Pallardy, Pierre-Jacques Ferret, Elena Giménez-Arnau, Saadia Kerdine-Römer
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is regarded as the most frequent expression of immunotoxicity in humans. Many odorant terpenes commonly used in fragrance compositions are considered as weak skin sensitizers, whereas some of their autoxidation products, allylic hydroperoxides, are classified as strong sensitizers according to the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). However, the mechanism of their effects on the immune system remains unclear. Since dendritic cells play a key role in ACD, we studied their activation by the frequently used linalool (LINA) and limonene (LIMO), and their respective sensitizing allylic hydroperoxides (LINA-OOH, LIMO-OOH)...
September 29, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023988/molecular-dynamics-simulation-binding-free-energy-calculation-and-unbinding-pathway-analysis-on-selectivity-difference-between-fkbp51-and-fkbp52-insight-into-the-molecular-mechanism-of-isoform-selectivity
#7
Danfeng Shi, Qifeng Bai, Shuangyan Zhou, Xuewei Liu, Huanxiang Liu, Xiaojun Yao
As co-chaperones of the 90-kDa heat shock protein(HSP90), FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) and FK506 binding protein 52 (FKBP52) modulate the maturation of steroid hormone receptor through their specific FK1 domains (FKBP12-like domain 1). The inhibitors targeting FK1 domains are potential therapies for endocrine-related physiological disorders. However, the structural conservation of the FK1 domains between FKBP51 and FKBP52 make it difficult to obtain satisfactory selectivity in FK506-based drug design. Fortunately, a series of iFit ligands synthesized by Hausch et al exhibited excellent selectivity for FKBP51, providing new opportunity for design selective inhibitors...
October 12, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021338/a-daple-akt-feed-forward-loop-enhances-non-canonical-wnt-signals-by-compartmentalizing-%C3%AE-catenin
#8
Nicolas Aznar, Nina Sun, Ying Dunkel, Jason Ear, Matthew D Buschman, Pradipta Ghosh
Cellular proliferation is antagonistically regulated by canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals; their dysbalance triggers cancers. We previously showed that a multimodular signal transducer, Daple, enhances PI3-K→Akt signals within the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway and antagonistically inhibits canonical Wnt responses. Here we demonstrate that the PI3-K→Akt pathway serves as a positive feedback loop that further enhances non-canonical Wnt signals by compartmentalizing β-catenin. By phosphorylating the phosphoinositide(PI)-binding domain of Daple, Akt abolishes Daple's ability to bind PI3-P-enriched endosomes that engage dynein motor complex for long-distance trafficking of β-catenin/E-cadherin complexes to pericentriolar recycling endosomes (PCREs)...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020452/heterogeneous-ice-nucleation-interplay-of-surface-properties-and-their-impact-on-water-orientations
#9
Brittany Glatz, Sapna Sarupria
Ice is ubiquitous in nature and heterogeneous ice nucleation is the most common pathway of ice formation. How surface properties affect the propensity to observe ice nucleation on that surface remains an open question. We present results of molecular dynamics studies of heterogeneous ice nucleation on model surfaces. The models surfaces considered emulate the chemistry of kaolinite, an abundant component of mineral dust. We investigate the interplay of surface lattice and hydrogen bonding properties in affecting ice nucleation...
October 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019352/hot-news-gene-therapy-with-crispr-cas9-coming-to-age-for-hiv-cure
#10
Vicente Soriano
The huge success of current antiretroviral therapy is mediated by a triple effect: (i) Halting progression to AIDS in infected persons; (ii) reducing the risk of transmission to contacts (treatment as prevention); and (iii) minimizing the risk of HIV acquisition treating uninfected persons at risk (pre-exposure prophylaxis). However, UNAIDS has estimated that only 70% of infected people globally are diagnosed, only 53% are treated, and overall 44% have undetectable viral load, which is the necessary request for ensuring any antiretroviral benefit...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018449/mechanisms-cofactors-and-augmenting-factors-involved-in-anaphylaxis
#11
REVIEW
Rosa Muñoz-Cano, Mariona Pascal, Giovanna Araujo, M J Goikoetxea, Antonio L Valero, Cesar Picado, Joan Bartra
Anaphylaxis is an acute and life-threatening systemic reaction. Many triggers have been described, including food, drug, and hymenoptera allergens, which are the most frequently involved. The mechanisms described in anaphylactic reactions are complex and implicate a diversity of pathways. Some of these mechanisms may be key to the development of the anaphylactic reaction, while others may only modify its severity. Although specific IgE, mast cells, and basophils are considered the principal players in anaphylaxis, alternative mechanisms have been proposed in non-IgE anaphylactic reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016952/migraine-does-not-affect-pain-intensity-perception-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Antonio Russo, Alessandro Tessitore, Antonio Bruno, Mattia Siciliano, Laura Marcuccio, Marcello Silvestro, Gioacchino Tedeschi
Objective: To explore perceived pain intensity (PPI) in three drug-naïve patient groups characterized by homogeneous migraine phenotypes-migraine without aura without cutaneous allodynia (MwoA CA-), MwoA with ictal CA (MwoA CA+), and migraine with aura without cutaneous allodynia (MwA CA-)-compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Methods: Using trigeminal heat stimulation (THS) at three different predefined intensities (41 °C, 51 °C, and 53 °C) performed by the contact heat-evoked potential stimulator (CHEPS), PPI was investigated in 34 patients with MwoA CA-, 30 patients with MwoA CA+, and 30 patients with MwA CA- compared with 30 age- and sex-matched HCs...
July 28, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993777/the-procoagulant-activity-of-apoptotic-cells-is-mediated-by-interaction-with-factor-xii
#13
Aizhen Yang, Fengwu Chen, Chao He, Junsong Zhou, Yi Lu, Jihong Dai, Raymond B Birge, Yi Wu
Apoptotic cells, by externalizing phosphatidylserine (PS) as a hallmark feature, are procoagulant. However, the mechanism by which apoptotic cells activate coagulation system remains unknown. Intrinsic coagulation pathway is initiated by coagulation factor XII (FXII) of contact activation system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether FXII is involved in procoagulant activity of apoptotic cells. Using western blotting and chromogenic substrate assay, we found that incubation with apoptotic cells, but not with viable cells, resulted in rapid cleavage and activation of FXII in the presence of prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen (HK), other two components of contact activation system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992928/domestic-dog-roaming-patterns-in-remote-northern-australian-indigenous-communities-and-implications-for-disease-modelling
#14
Emily G Hudson, Victoria J Brookes, Salome Dürr, Michael P Ward
Although Australia is canine rabies free, the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland and other northern Australian communities are at risk of an incursion due to proximity to rabies infected islands of Indonesia and existing disease spread pathways. Northern Australia also has large populations of free-roaming domestic dogs, presenting a risk of rabies establishment and maintenance should an incursion occur. Agent-based rabies spread models are being used to predict potential outbreak size and identify effective control strategies to aid incursion preparedness...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991254/the-draft-genome-of-tropical-fruit-durian-durio-zibethinus
#15
Bin Tean Teh, Kevin Lim, Chern Han Yong, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Sushma Ramesh Rao, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Weng Khong Lim, Choon Kiat Ong, Ki Chan, Vincent Kin Yuen Cheng, Poh Sheng Soh, Sanjay Swarup, Steven G Rozen, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick Tan
Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits...
October 9, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986446/the-seca-protein-deeply-penetrates-into-the-secyeg-channel-during-insertion-contacting-most-channel-transmembrane-helices-and-periplasmic-regions
#16
Tithi Banerjee, Zeliang Zheng, Jane Abolafia, Shelby Harper, Donald B Oliver
The bacterial Sec-dependent system is the major protein-biogenic pathway for protein secretion across the cytoplasmic membrane or insertion of integral membrane proteins into the phospholipid bilayer. The mechanism of SecA-driven protein transport across the SecYEG channel complex has remained controversial with conflicting claims from biochemical and structural studies regarding the depth and extent of SecA insertion into SecYEG during ongoing protein transport. Here we utilized site-specific in vivo photo-crosslinking to thoroughly map SecY regions that are in contact with SecA during its insertion cycle...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985597/human-health-risk-assessment-of-ground-water-contaminated-with-petroleum-pahs-using-monte-carlo-simulations-a-case-study-of-an-indian-metropolitan-city
#17
Bokam Rajasekhar, Indumathi M Nambi, Suresh Kumar Govindarajan
Underground pipelines are frequently used to transport petroleum fuels, through industrial as well as residential zones. Chennai is one of the four largest metropolitan cities of India. The region of interest in this study is located in the northern part of the Chennai. Ground water of this area was contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the leaking oil storage tanks and pipe lines. Health risk assessment was conducted for exposure to PAHs in the ground water using incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) models coupled with benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent method...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984883/synthesis-of-long-hierarchical-mos2-nanofibers-assembled-from-nanosheets-with-an-expanded-interlayer-distance-for-achieving-superb-na-ion-storage-performance
#18
Zhonggui Gao, Xiao Yu, Jiang Zhao, Wenxia Zhao, Ruimei Xu, Yong Liu, Hui Shen
MoS2 material is considered as a promising anode material candidate in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity and layered structure. However, MoS2 nanosheets usually tend to restack or aggregate during the synthesis and cycling process, which makes the advantages of the separated nanosheets disappear. Here, we present a PVP-assisted synthesis for growing long hierarchical MoS2 nanofibers with a length up to 74.5 μm, which were further assembled from intercrossed curly nanosheets with expanded (002) interlayer spacings in the range of 0...
October 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983472/aspartic-proteases-and-major-cell-wall-components-in-candida-albicans-trigger-the-release-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#19
Marcin Zawrotniak, Oliwia Bochenska, Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Karolina Seweryn-Ozog, Wataru Aoki, Mitsuyoshi Ueda, Andrzej Kozik, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Neutrophils use different mechanisms to cope with pathogens that invade the host organism. The most intriguing of these responses is a release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of decondensed chromatin and granular proteins with antimicrobial activity. An important potential target of NETs is Candida albicans-an opportunistic fungal pathogen that employs morphological and phenotype switches and biofilm formation during contact with neutrophils, accompanied by changes in epitope exposition that mask the pathogen from host recognition...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983093/enhanced-unbiased-sampling-of-protein-dynamics-using-evolutionary-coupling-information
#20
Zahra Shamsi, Alexander S Moffett, Diwakar Shukla
One of the major challenges in atomistic simulations of proteins is efficient sampling of pathways associated with rare conformational transitions. Recent developments in statistical methods for computation of direct evolutionary couplings between amino acids within and across polypeptide chains have allowed for inference of native residue contacts, informing accurate prediction of protein folds and multimeric structures. In this study, we assess the use of distances between evolutionarily coupled residues as natural choices for reaction coordinates which can be incorporated into Markov state model-based adaptive sampling schemes and potentially used to predict not only functional conformations but also pathways of conformational change, protein folding, and protein-protein association...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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