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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690897/a-qualitative-study-of-safe-abortion-and-post-abortion-family-planning-service-experiences-of-women-attending-private-facilities-in-kenya
#1
Suzanne Penfold, Susy Wendot, Inviolata Nafula, Katharine Footman
BACKGROUND: To inform improvements in safe abortion and post-abortion family planning (PAFP) services, this study aimed to explore the pathways, decision-making, experiences and preferences of women receiving safe abortion and post-abortion family planning (PAFP) at private clinics in western Kenya. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 women who had recently used a safe abortion service from a private clinic. Interviews explored abortion-seeking behaviour and decision-making, abortion experience, use and knowledge of contraception, experience of PAFP counselling, and perceived facilitators of and challenges to family planning use...
April 24, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689464/children-s-residential-exposure-to-organophosphate-ester-flame-retardants-and-plasticizers-investigating-exposure-pathways-in-the-tesie-study
#2
Allison L Phillips, Stephanie C Hammel, Kate Hoffman, Amelia M Lorenzo, Albert Chen, Thomas F Webster, Heather M Stapleton
BACKGROUND: Following the phase-out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been increasingly used in consumer products and building materials for their flame retardant and plasticizing properties. As a result, human exposure to these chemicals is widespread as evidenced by common detection of their metabolites in urine. However, little is known about the major exposure pathways, or factors that influence children's exposure to OPEs. Furthermore, little data is available on exposure to the novel aryl OPEs...
April 20, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689363/a-review-of-the-genotoxic-mutagenic-and-carcinogenic-potentials-of-several-lower-acrylates
#3
REVIEW
Mina Suh, Deborah Proctor, Grace Chappell, Julia Rager, Chad Thompson, Susan Borghoff, Lavorgie Finch, Robert Ellis-Hutchings, Karin Wiench
Lower alkyl acrylate monomers include methyl-, ethyl-, n-butyl-, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. These acrylates are used in the manufacture of acrylic polymers and copolymers for plastics, food packaging, adhesives, and cosmetic formulations. Although there is limited potential for human environmental exposure, occupational exposure can occur via inhalation and dermal contact. Recently, new genotoxicity data have been generated, along with in silico and in vitro read-cross analyses, for these acrylates. The availability of high-throughput screening (HTS) data through the ToxCast™/Tox21 databases allows for consideration of computational toxicology and organization of these data according to the ten key characteristics of carcinogens...
April 21, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688006/multi-functional-dithiadiazolyl-radicals-fluorescence-electro-luminescence-and-photo-conducting-behavior-in-pyren-1-yl-dithiadiazolyl
#4
Yassine Beldjoudi, Mitchell Nascimento, Yong Joo Cho, Hyeonghwa Yu, Hany Aziz, Daiki Tonouchi, Keitaro Eguchi, Michio Matsushita, Kunio Awaga, Igor O Osorio-Roman, Christos P Constantinides, Jeremy M Rawson
The pyren-1'-yl-functionalized dithiadiazolyl radical, C16 H9 CNSSN (1) is monomeric in solution and exhibits fluorescence in the deep-blue region of the visible spectrum (440 nm) upon excitation at 241 nm. The salt [1][GaCl4 ] exhibits similar emission, reflecting the largely spectator nature of the radical in the fluorescence process although the presence of the radical leads to a modest quenching of emission (QY = 98% for 1+ and 50% for 1). TD-DFT on 1 coupled with the similar emission profiles of both 1+ and 1 are consistent with the initial excitation of predominantly pyrene pi-pi* character...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686270/spatial-patterning-of-the-notch-ligand-dll4-controls-endothelial-sprouting-in-vitro
#5
L A Tiemeijer, J-P Frimat, O M J A Stassen, C V C Bouten, C M Sahlgren
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a vital process for tissue growth and development. The Notch cell-cell signalling pathway plays an important role in endothelial cell specification during angiogenesis. Dll4 - Notch1 signalling directs endothelial cells into migrating tip or proliferating stalk cells. We used the directing properties of Dll4 to spatially control endothelial cell fate and the direction of endothelial sprouts. We created linear arrays of immobilized Dll4 using micro contact printing...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684634/interactive-electronic-decision-trees-for-the-integrated-primary-care-management-of-febrile-children-in-low-resource-settings-review-of-existing-tools
#6
REVIEW
Kristina Keitel, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. AIMS: This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684431/an-adverse-outcome-pathway-aop-for-forestomach-tumors-induced-by-non-genotoxic-initiating-events
#7
Deborah M Proctor, Mina Suh, Grace Chappell, Susan J Borghoff, Chad M Thompson, Karin Wiench, Lavorgie Finch, Robert Ellis-Hutchings
The utility of rodent forestomach tumor data for hazard and risk assessment has been examined for decades because humans do not have a forestomach, and these tumors occur by varying modes of action (MOAs). We have used the MOA for ethyl acrylate (EA) to develop an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for forestomach tumors caused by non-genotoxic initiating events. These tumors occur secondary to site of contact induced epithelial cytotoxicity and regenerative repair-driven proliferation. For EA, the critical initiating event (IE) is epithelial cytotoxicity, and supporting key events (KEs) at the cellular and tissue level are increased cell proliferation (KE1) resulting in sustained hyperplasia (KE2), with the adverse outcome of forestomach papillomas and carcinomas...
April 20, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684026/entomopathogenic-fungal-infection-leads-to-temporospatial-modulation-of-the-mosquito-immune-system
#8
José L Ramirez, Christopher A Dunlap, Ephantus J Muturi, Ana B F Barletta, Alejandro P Rooney
Alternative methods of mosquito control are needed to tackle the rising burden of mosquito-borne diseases while minimizing the use of synthetic insecticides, which are threatened by the rapid increase in insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Fungal biopesticides show great promise as potential alternatives because of their ecofriendly nature and ability to infect mosquitoes on contact. Here we describe the temporospatial interactions between the mosquito Aedes aegypti and several entomopathogenic fungi...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679720/enhancement-of-peri-implant-bone-osteogenic-activity-induced-by-a-peptidomimetic-functionalization-of-titanium
#9
F Ravanetti, F Gazza, D D'Arrigo, G Graiani, A Zamuner, M Zedda, E Manfredi, M Dettin, A Cacchioli
Osteoblast cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is established through two main pathways: one is mediated by the binding between integrin and a minimal adhesion sequence (RGD) on the extracellular protein, the other is based on the interactions between transmembrane proteoglycans and heparin-binding sequences found in many matrix proteins. The aim of this study is the evaluation in an in vivo endosseous implant model of the early osteogenic response of the peri-implant bone to a biomimetic titanium surface functionalized with the retro-inverso 2DHVP peptide, an analogue of Vitronectin heparin binding site...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678674/the-role-of-the-micro-pattern-and-nano-topography-of-hydroxyapatite-bioceramics-on-stimulating-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Cancan Zhao, Xiaoya Wang, Long Gao, Linguo Jing, Quan Zhou, Jiang Chang
The micro/nano hybrid structure is considered to be a biomaterial characteristic to stimulate osteogenesis by mimicking the three-dimensional structure of the bone matrix. However, the mechanism of the hybrid structure induced osteogenic differentiation of stem cells is still unknown. For elucidating the mechanisms, one of the challenge is to directly fabricate micro/nano hybrid structure on bioceramics because of its brittleness. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with the micro/nano hybrid structure were firstly fabricated via a hydrothermal treatment and template method, and the effect of the different surface structures on the expression of integrins, BMP2 signaling pathways and cell-cell communication was investigated...
April 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678621/activation-of-the-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p52-pathway-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-by-rankl-elicits-pro-calcific-signalling-in-co-cultured-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Emma Harper, Keith D Rochfort, Hannah Forde, Colin Davenport, Diarmuid Smith, Philip M Cummins
BACKGROUND: The intimal endothelium is known to condition the underlying medial smooth muscle cell (SMC) layer of the vessel wall, and is highly responsive to receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), pro-calcific and anti-calcific agents, respectively. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that RANKL-induced activation of endothelial NF-κB signalling is essential for pro-calcific activation of the underlying SMCs...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677100/from-community-to-meta-community-mental-health-care
#12
REVIEW
Nick Bouras, George Ikkos, Thomas Craig
Since the 1960s, we have witnessed the development and growth of community mental health care that continues to dominate mental health policy and practice. Several high-income countries have implemented community mental health care programmes but for many others, including mostly low- and middle-income countries, it remains an aspiration. Although community mental health care has been positive for many service users, it has also had severe shortcomings. Expectations that it would lead to fuller social integration have not been fulfilled and many service users remain secluded in sheltered or custodial environments with limited social contacts and no prospect of work...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676259/mfn2-ubiquitination-by-pink1-parkin-gates-the-p97-dependent-release-of-er-from-mitochondria-to-drive-mitophagy
#13
Gian-Luca McLelland, Thomas Goiran, Wei Yi, Geneviève Dorval, Carol X Chen, Nadine D Lauinger, Andrea I Krahn, Sepideh Valimehr, Aleksandar Rakovic, Isabelle Rouiller, Thomas M Durcan, Jean-François Trempe, Edward A Fon
Despite their importance as signaling hubs, the function of mitochondria-ER contact sites in mitochondrial quality control pathways remains unexplored. Here we describe a mechanism by which Mfn2, a mitochondria-ER tether, gates the autophagic turnover of mitochondria by PINK1 and parkin. Mitochondria-ER appositions are destroyed during mitophagy, and reducing mitochondria-ER contacts increases the rate of mitochondrial degradation. Mechanistically, parkin/PINK1 catalyze a rapid burst of Mfn2 phosphoubiquitination to trigger p97-dependent disassembly of Mfn2 complexes from the outer mitochondrial membrane, dissociating mitochondria from the ER...
April 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671335/a-decision-support-tool-to-inform-local-suicide-prevention-activity-in-greater-western-sydney-australia
#14
Andrew Page, Jo-An Atkinson, William Campos, Mark Heffernan, Shahana Ferdousi, Adrian Power, Geoff McDonnell, Nereus Maranan, Ian Hickie
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the development of a decision support tool to identify the combination of suicide prevention activities and service priorities likely to deliver the greatest reductions in suicidal behaviour in Western Sydney (Australia) over the period 2018-2028. METHODS: A dynamic simulation model for the WentWest - Western Sydney Primary Health Network population-catchment was developed in partnership with primary health network stakeholders based on defined pathways to mental health care and suicidal behaviour, and which represented the current incidence of suicide and attempted suicide in Western Sydney...
April 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669747/the-role-of-the-microglial-cx3cr1-pathway-in-the-post-natal-maturation-of-retinal-photoreceptors
#15
Andrew I Jobling, Michelle Waugh, Kirstan A Vessey, Joanna A Phipps, Lidia Trogrlic, Una Greferath, Samuel A Mills, Zhi L Tan, Michelle M Ward, Erica L Fletcher
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the CNS and their response to infection, injury and disease is well documented. More recently, microglia have been shown to play a role in normal CNS development, with the fractalkine-Cx3cr1 signalling pathway of particular importance. This work describes the interaction between the light sensitive photoreceptors and microglia during eye opening, a time of post-natal photoreceptor maturation. Genetic removal of Cx3cr1 ( Cx3cr1GFP/GFP ), led to an early retinal dysfunction soon after eye opening (P17) and cone photoreceptor loss (P30 onwards) in mice of either sex...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669319/bubbles-induce-endothelial-microparticle-formation-via-a-calcium-dependent-pathway-involving-flippase-inactivation-and-rho-kinase-activation
#16
Xuhua Yu, Jiajun Xu, Wenwu Liu, Weigang Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intravascular bubbles can exert pleiotropic detrimental effects, partly by inducing endothelial microparticles (EMPs) production, which play critical roles in cell communication and vascular inflammation cascades. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to delineate the possible mechanisms involving bubble-induced EMPs formation. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were contacted by bubbles and EMPs level in supernatant were quantified by flow cytometry...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667226/probing-long-range-spin-spin-coupling-constants-in-2-halo-substituted-cyclohexanones-and-cyclohexanethiones-the-role-of-solvent-and-stereoelectronic-effects
#17
Fátima M P de Rezende, Matheus P Freitas, Teodorico C Ramalho
Earlier studies with 2-bromocyclohexanone demonstrated a measurable long-range coupling constant (4 JH2,H6 ) for the equatorial conformer, while 4 JH2,H4 and 4 JH4,H6 were not observed; as a consequence, it is inferred that the carbonyl group plays an important role particularly due to hyperconjugative interactions σC2H2 →π*C=O and σC6H6 →π*C=O. In the present study, NBO analysis and coupling constant calculations were performed to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanethione alpha substituted with F, Cl and Br, aiming to evaluate the halogen effect and acceptor character of the π* orbital on the long-range coupling pathway...
April 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667170/cone-synapses-in-mammalian-retinal-rod-bipolar-cells
#18
Ji-Jie Pang, Zhuo Yang, Roy A Jacoby, Samuel M Wu
Some mammalian rod bipolar cells (RBCs) can receive excitatory chemical synaptic inputs from both rods and cones (DBCR2 ), but anatomical evidence for mammalian cone-RBC contacts has been sparse. We examined anatomical cone-RBC contacts using neurobiotin (NB) to visualize individual mouse cones and standard immuno-markers to identify RBCs, cone pedicles and synapses in mouse and baboon retinas. Peanut agglutinin (PNA) stained the basal membrane of all cone pedicles, and mouse cones were positive for red/green (R/G)-opsin, whereas baboon cones were positive for calbindin D-28k...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666621/the-role-of-aire-in-the-immunity-against-candida-albicans-in-a-model-of-human-macrophages
#19
Jose Antonio Tavares de Albuquerque, Pinaki Prosad Banerjee, Angela Castoldi, Royce Ma, Nuria Bengala Zurro, Leandro Hideki Ynoue, Christina Arslanian, Marina Uchoa Wall Barbosa-Carvalho, Joya Emilie de Menezes Correia-Deur, Fernanda Guimarães Weiler, Magnus Regios Dias-da-Silva, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Luis Alberto Pedroza, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Emily Mace, Jordan Scott Orange, Antonio Condino-Neto
Autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene ( AIRE ). Patients with AIRE mutations are susceptible to Candida albicans infection and present with autoimmune disorders. We previously demonstrated that cytoplasmic AIRE regulates the Syk-dependent Dectin-1 pathway. In this study, we further evaluated direct contact with fungal elements, synapse formation, and the response of macrophage-like THP-1 cells to C...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663284/fluoxetine-modulates-the-activity-of-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-via-mtor-signaling
#20
Ilaria Barone, Riccardo Melani, Marco Mainardi, Gaia Scabia, Manuela Scali, Alessia Dattilo, Giovanni Ceccarini, Paolo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini, Lamberto Maffei, Tommaso Pizzorusso, Margherita Maffei
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are important players in the regulation of energy homeostasis; we previously demonstrated that environmental stimulation excites arcuate nucleus circuits to undergo plastic remodeling, leading to altered ratio between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contacts on these neurons. The widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is known to affect body weight. On the other hand, FLX administration mimics the effects of environmental stimulation on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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