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Review of natriuretic peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914211/micrornas-in-cardiovascular-disease-clinical-application
#1
Christian Schulte, Mahir Karakas, Tanja Zeller
microRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known, powerful regulators of gene expression, and their potential to serve as circulating biomarkers is widely accepted. In cardiovascular disease (CVD), numerous studies have suggested miRNAs as strong circulating biomarkers with high diagnostic as well as prognostic power. In coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), miRNAs have been suggested as reliable biomarkers matching up to established protein-based such as cardiac troponins (cT) or natriuretic peptides. Also, in other CVD entities, miRNAs were identified as surprisingly specific biomarkers - with great potential for clinical applicability, especially in those entities that lack specific protein-based biomarkers such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute pulmonary embolism (APE)...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902575/veterans-voice-through-the-lens-of-their-medical-records-what-it-reveals-about-congestive-heart-failure-readmissions
#2
Carl W Stevenson, Kattie Payne
PURPOSE OF STUDY: The medical record is a sea of information that can reveal what patients are trying to tell us about their health condition. It can reveal hints and trends as to why veterans with congestive heart failure (CHF) are being readmitted within 30 days after hospital discharge. These hints and trends lead caregivers to key contributing variables to veterans' readmission. Furthermore, these variables can be used to predict patient outcomes such as readmission and even prognosis...
January 2017: Professional Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898523/role-of-corin-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#3
Hui Li, Yue Zhang, Qingyu Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important hormone in regulating salt-water balance and blood pressure. This review focuses on the regulation of corin function and potential roles of corin defects in hypertensive, heart, and renal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 has been identified as a primary enzyme that converts zymogen corin to an active protease. Genetic variants that impair corin intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and zymogen activation have been found in patients with hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and pre-eclampsia...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894126/brain-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-amino-terminal-pro-brain-type-natriuretic-peptide-discharge-thresholds-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-a-systematic-review
#4
Casey N McQuade, Marisa Mizus, Joyce W Wald, Lee Goldberg, Mariell Jessup, Craig A Umscheid
Background: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) requiring hospitalization is associated with high postdischarge mortality and readmission rates. Purpose: To examine the association between achieving predischarge natriuretic peptide (NP) thresholds and mortality and readmission rates in adults hospitalized for ADHF. Data Sources: Multiple databases from 1947 to October 2016 (English-language studies only). Study Selection: Trials and observational studies that compared mortality and readmission outcomes between patients with ADHF achieving a specific predischarge NP goal and those not achieving the goal...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892684/angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-lcz696-pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-development
#5
Yue Hua, Ian Wang, Bin Liu, Darren J Kelly, Christopher Reid, Danny Liew, Yingchun Zhou, Bing H Wang
Heart failure still has a significant disease burden with poor outcomes worldwide despite advances in therapy. The standard therapies have been focused on blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid antagonists and the sympathetic nervous system with β-blockers. The natriuretic peptide system is a potential counter-regulatory system that promotes vasodilatation and natriuresis. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors are a new class drug capable of blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and enhancing the natriuretic peptide system to improve neurohormonal balance...
November 28, 2016: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879531/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-predicts-morbidity-and-long-term-mortality-in-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-and-valve-surgery
#6
Kendal M Endicott, Richard L Amdur, Michael D Greenberg, Gregory D Trachiotis
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are a useful predictor of morbidity and mortality as well as long-term survival in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of CABG and/or valve surgery patients from 2012 to 2015 at a single center was conducted. A total of 432 patients were identified (CABG, 295 patients; valve, 82 patients; and CABG + valve, 55 patients). B-type natriuretic peptide levels were divided into quartiles (Q1-Q4)...
November 22, 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876563/preoperative-optimization-of-the-heart-failure-patient-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Maxime Pichette, Mark Liszkowski, Anique Ducharme
Heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery are exposed to significant perioperative complications and high mortality. We herein review the literature concerning preoperative optimization of these patients. Salient findings are that end-organ dysfunction and medication should be optimized before surgery. Specifically: (1) reversible causes of anemia should be treated and a preoperative hemoglobin level of 100 g/L obtained; (2) renal function and volume status should be optimized; (3) liver function must be carefully evaluated; (4) nutritional status should be assessed and cachexia treated to achieve a preoperative albumin level of at least 30 g/L and a body mass index > 20; and (5) medication adjustments performed, such as withholding inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before surgery and continuing, but not starting, β-blockers...
August 6, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872082/evolving-use-of-natriuretic-peptides-as-part-of-strategies-for-heart-failure-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Ken McDonald, Mark Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) remains one of the major cardiovascular challenges to the Western world. Once established, HF is characterized by compromised life expectancy and quality of life with considerable dependence on hospital care for episodic clinical deterioration. Much is understood about the risk factors that predispose to the development of HF. With such a broad range of factors, it is clear that there is a large population at risk, potentially in excess of 25% of the adult population...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865304/brain-natriuretic-peptide-counteracting-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-accelerated-malignant-hypertension
#9
Hitoshi Nakagawa, Yuji Mizuno, Eisaku Harada, Yoshinobu Morikawa, Koichiro Kuwahara, Yoshihiko Saito, Hirofumi Yasue
We describe 2 patients, a 52-year-old woman and a 57-year-old man, with rapidly progressive hypertension and marked elevation of brain natriuretic peptide who exhibited polyuria, natriuresis, hypokalemia, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and left ventricular dysfunction together with retinopathy and nephropathy, which were attenuated in a short time span of 1-2 months with normalization of blood pressure after the antihypertensive treatment. The possible role of brain natriuretic peptide in the pathophysiology of accelerated malignant hypertension was discussed and a review of the literature was completed...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860834/regulation-of-mammalian-oocyte-meiosis-by-intercellular-communication-within-the-ovarian-follicle
#10
Laurinda Jaffe, Jeremy R Egbert
Meiotic progression in mammalian preovulatory follicles is controlled by the granulosa cells around the oocyte. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) generated in the granulosa cells diffuses through gap junctions into the oocyte, maintaining meiotic prophase arrest. Luteinizing hormone then acts on receptors in outer granulosa cells to rapidly decrease cGMP. This occurs by two complementary pathways: cGMP production is decreased by dephosphorylation and inactivation of the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase, and cGMP hydrolysis is increased by activation of the PDE5 phosphodiesterase...
November 14, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858837/effect-of-recombinant-human-brain-natriuretic-peptide-rhbnp-versus-nitroglycerin-in-patients-with-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Sijie Zhang, Zhiqian Wang
BACKGROUND: This study was the first to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) versus nitroglycerin (NIT) in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: The electronic databases were systematically searched to identify available studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were analyzed to assess the mortality, readmission, hypotension, and renal dysfunction in the comparison of rhBNP and NIT therapies...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855811/heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection%C3%A2-fraction-and%C3%A2-atrial-fibrillation-vicious-twins
#12
REVIEW
Dipak Kotecha, Carolyn S P Lam, Dirk J Van Veldhuisen, Isabelle C Van Gelder, Adriaan A Voors, Michiel Rienstra
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are age-related conditions that are increasing in prevalence, commonly coexist, and share clinical features. This review provides a practical update on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of patients with concomitant HFpEF and AF. Epidemiological studies highlight the close and complex links between HFpEF and AF, the shared risk factors, the high AF occurrence in the natural history of HFpEF, and the independent contribution of each condition to poor outcomes...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837397/from-arb-to-arni-in-cardiovascular-control
#13
REVIEW
Estrellita Uijl, Lodi C W Roksnoer, Ewout J Hoorn, A H Jan Danser
Coexistence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease synergistically aggravates the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. These high-risk, multi-morbid patient populations benefit less from currently available anti-hypertensive treatment. Simultaneous angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and neprilysin inhibition ('ARNI') with valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696) might potentiate the beneficial effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition by reinforcing its endogenous counterbalance, the natriuretic peptide system...
December 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832993/the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-diabetes-and-its-complications
#14
REVIEW
Ying Feng, Da Wang, Huili Bi, Huijuan Zhang
This review aimed to summarize recent findings on the role of natriuretic peptides (NPs) in diabetes and its important complications. Although the treatment of diabetes mellitus has benefited from recent advances, aggressive glycemic control can increase the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Therefore, innovative therapies are required to address this issue. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) may have such novel therapeutic potential. NPs comprise a family of structurally related peptides, including atrial, brain, C-type, and dendroaspis...
November 7, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830098/a-pregnancy-with-severe-hypertrophic-obstructive-cardiomyopathy-after-surgery-for-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Takashi Mitsui, Hisashi Masuyama, Kentaro Ejiri, Kei Hayata, Hiroshi Ito, Yuji Hiramatsu
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is cardiac hypertrophy of ventricular myocardium with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. We report a pregnancy with HOCM after defibrillator implantation surgery. The patient was a 33-year-old nulligravida and was categorized as New York Heart Association class II. Her brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level was 724.6 pg/dL at preconception. She received careful pregnancy management. However, because frequent uterine contractions were observed at 25 weeks and 6 days of pregnancy, she was hospitalized, and magnesium sulfate was started as a tocolytic agent...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826709/risk-factors-for-cardiac-arrest-or-mechanical-circulatory-support-in-children-with-fulminant-myocarditis
#16
Joseph R Casadonte, Mjaye L Mazwi, Katheryn E Gambetta, Hannah L Palac, Mary E McBride, Osama M Eltayeb, Michael C Monge, Carl L Backer, John M Costello
In children with fulminant myocarditis (FM), we sought to describe presenting characteristics and clinical outcomes, and identify risk factors for cardiac arrest and mechanical circulatory support (MCS). A retrospective review of patients with FM admitted at our institution between January 1, 2004, and June 31, 2015, was performed. We compared characteristics and outcomes of FM patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and/or were placed on MCS (CPR/MCS group) to those who did not develop these outcomes (Control group)...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815307/state-of-the-art-blood-biomarkers-for-risk-stratification-in-patients-with-stable-ischemic-heart-disease
#17
REVIEW
Torbjørn Omland, Harvey D White
BACKGROUND: Multiple circulating biomarkers have been associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and proposed as potential tools for risk stratification in stable ischemic heart disease (IHD), yet current guidelines do not make any firm recommendations concerning the use of biomarkers for risk stratification in this setting. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of biomarkers for risk stratification in stable IHD. CONTENT: Circulating biomarkers associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable IHD reflect different pathophysiological processes, including myocardial injury, myocardial stress and remodeling, metabolic status, vascular inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813305/global-left-atrial-failure-in-heart-failure
#18
REVIEW
Filippos Triposkiadis, Burkert Pieske, Javed Butler, John Parissis, Gregory Giamouzis, John Skoularigis, Dirk Brutsaert, Harisios Boudoulas
The left atrium plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular and neurohumoral homeostasis in heart failure. However, with progressive left ventricular dysfunction, left atrial (LA) dilation and mechanical failure develop, which frequently culminate in atrial fibrillation. Moreover, LA mechanical failure is accompanied by LA endocrine failure [deficient atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) processing-synthesis/development of ANP resistance) and LA regulatory failure (dominance of sympathetic nervous system excitatory mechanisms, excessive vasopressin release) contributing to neurohumoral overactivity, vasoconstriction, and volume overload (global LA failure)...
November 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811207/interpreting-cardiac-biomarkers-in-the-setting-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Christopher R deFilippi, Charles A Herzog
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, particularly in those of advanced age. Because patients with CKD frequently have cardiac comorbidities and acute or chronic symptoms that may represent heart failure or an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), testing for concentrations of cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides is frequent. Interpretation of these biomarkers can be challenging when differentiating acute from chronic processes, potentially resulting in missed opportunities to direct appropriate treatment...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804880/snake-venom-peptides-and-low-mass-proteins-molecular-tools-and-therapeutic-agents
#20
J R Almeida L M Resende, R K Watanabe, V C Corassola, S Huancahuire-Vega, C A da S Caldeira, A Coutinho-Neto, A M Soares, N Vale, P A de C Gomes, S Marangoni, L de A Calderon, S L Da Silva
Snake venoms are natural sources of biologically active molecules that are able to act selectively and specifically on different cellular targets, modulating physiological functions. Thus, these mixtures, composed mainly of proteins and peptides, provide ample and challenging opportunities and a diversified molecular architecture to design and develop tools and agents of scientific and therapeutic interest. Among these components, peptides and small proteins play diverse roles in numerous physiological processes, exerting a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, antihypertensive, analgesic, antitumor, analgesic, among others...
October 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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