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Review of natriuretic peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432659/current-role-of-blood-and-urine-biomarkers-in-the-clinical-care-of-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease
#1
REVIEW
Saurabh Rajpal, Laith Alshawabkeh, Alexander R Opotowsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing number of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). While several biomarkers have been validated and integrated into general cardiology clinical practice, these tests are often applied to adults with CHD in the absence of disease-specific validation. Although these patients are often grouped into a single population, there is heterogeneous pathophysiology, variable disease chronicity, extensive multisystem involvement, and a low event rate relative to acquired heart disease...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427562/cardiokines-as-modulators-of-stress-induced-cardiac-disorders
#2
Anna Planavila, Joaquim Fernández-Solà, Francesc Villarroya
Almost 30 years ago, the protein, atrial natriuretic peptide, was identified as a heart-secreted hormone that provides a peripheral signal from the myocardium that communicates to the rest of the organism to modify blood pressure and volume under conditions of heart failure. Since then, additional peripheral factors secreted by the heart, termed cardiokines, have been identified and shown to coordinate this interorgan cross talk. In addition to this interorgan communication, cardiokines also act in an autocrine/paracrine manner to play a role in intercellular communication within the myocardium...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426470/identification-and-management-of-pleural-effusions-of-multiple-aetiologies
#3
Steven Walker, Nick Maskell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Historically, pleural effusions have been attributed to a single cause. There is growing recognition that a substantial proportion of pleural effusions may have more than one underlying cause. The purpose of this review is to summarise recent findings regarding the diagnosis and treatment of effusions secondary to more than one aetiology. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent prospective study identified that 30% of pleural effusions had more than one underlying aetiology...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425226/a-review-of-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-with-new-guidelines
#4
Serdar Kula, Ayhan Pektaş
This study aims to review pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) by comparing the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN). All three sets of guidelines define PH as having a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and accept the validity of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Every child with a high index of suspicion for PH should undergo an initial work-up of chest X-rays, electrocardiography, and echocardiography...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421484/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-detection-of-cardio-toxicity
#5
REVIEW
Kevin S Shah, Eric H Yang, Alan S Maisel, Gregg C Fonarow
The goal of this paper is to review the current literature on the role of biomarkers in the detection and management of patients with cardio-oncologic disease. The role of biomarker surveillance in patients with known cardiac disease, as a result of chemotherapy or with the potential to develop cardio-toxicity, will be discussed. In addition, the studies surrounding sub-clinical cardiac toxicity monitoring during therapy, identification of high-risk patients prior to therapy, and tailoring oncologic therapies to potential biomarker risk profiles are reviewed...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419972/neprilysin-inhibitors-a-new-hope-to-halt-the-diabetic-cardiovascular-and-renal-complications
#6
REVIEW
Vajir Malek, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
Diabetes is an enormous and ever-growing calamity and a global public health threat of the 21st century. Besides insulin and oral hypoglycaemic drugs, blockage of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) denotes a key pharmacotherapy for the management of cardiovascular (CVD) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD), which are the leading causes of disability and death among diabetic patients. Neprilysin (NEP) inhibition, auxiliary to RAS blockage increases the bioavailability of natriuretic peptides and benefits the cardio-renal system...
April 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413579/metabolic-recovery-of-the-failing-heart-emerging-therapeutic-options
#7
Dale J Hamilton
Heart failure has mortality rates that parallel those of breast cancer. Current management strategies include neurohormonal blockade, rate control measures, natriuretic peptide preservation, implantation of mechanical assist devices, and heart transplantation. Despite these strategies, however, the failing myocardium remains energy depleted. New strategies to promote metabolic recovery are being developed to potentially augment current treatment guidelines. For example, an unexpected finding of our own studies showed that mechanical unloading with assist devices in advanced-stage heart failure restored metabolic flux...
January 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408177/effectiveness-of-natriuretic-peptide-guided-treatment-of-chronic-heart-failure-meta-analysis
#8
Ana-Estela Gamiño-Arroyo, Francisco-Javier Prado-Galbarro, Sonia García-Pérez, Carlos Sánchez-Piedra
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy of natriuretic peptide (NP)-guided therapy compared to clinically-guided therapy reducing mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS: Randomized clinical trials (RCT) were selected through a systematic review. Four meta-analyses were conducted for the outcomes of overall mortality, HF-related mortality, overall hospitalization, and HF-related hospitalization. Heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were assessed...
April 10, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395556/this-patient-is-not-breathing-properly-is-this-copd-heart-failure-or-neither
#9
Pierpaolo Pellicori, Damien Salekin, Daniel Pan, Andrew L Clark
Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two common, heterogeneous, long-term illnesses which cause significant morbidity and mortality. Although they both present with breathlessness, they are treated differently. Treatment of COPD focuses mainly on relieving short-term breathlessness, whilst treatment of HF has focused on long term morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: In this review, we aim to highlight the diagnostic challenges in distinguishing COPD from HF. We also explore the implications of their overlap, and the use of biomarkers and treatments for HF in patients with COPD to improve long-term outcomes...
May 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388237/potential-beneficial-effects-of-sacubitril-valsartan-in-renal-disease-a-new-field-for-a-new-drug
#10
Guillermo Gervasini, Nicolas Roberto Robles
Patients with renal dysfunction are at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which often shares manifestations with heart failure (HF). Last year, the FDA approved the use of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with HF. This dual-acting agent enhances the functions of natriuretic peptides and inhibits the renin-angiotensin system. Areas covered: This review summarizes the existing preclinical and clinical studies carried out with sacubitril-valsartan (and other drugs with similar pharmacological mechanisms) in HF and hypertensive patients...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384411/kallikrein-kinin-system-as-the-dominant-mechanism-to-counteract%C3%A2-hyperactive-renin-angiotensin-system
#11
Domenico Regoli, Fernand Gobeil
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) generates, maintains and makes worse hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through its biologically active component Angiotensin II (Ang II), that causes vasoconstriction, sodium retention and structural alterations of the heart and the arteries. A few endogenous vasodilators, kinins, natriuretic peptides and possibly angiotensin (1-7), exert opposite actions and may provide useful therapeutic agents. As endothelial autacoids, the kinins are potent vasodilators, active natriuretics and protectors of the endothelium...
April 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381400/association-of-plasma-7-ketocholesterol-with-cardiovascular-outcomes-and-total-mortality-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#12
Jiayi Song, Duan Wang, Hongen Chen, Xiuwei Huang, Yuan Zhong, Nan Jiang, Chaogang Chen, Min Xia
Rationale: 7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC), a form of cholesterol oxidation product, plays an essential role in the atherogenesis in animal models. Objective: We sought to determine the association of circulating 7-KC with clinical cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results: We measured the plasma 7-KC levels by high performance liquid chromatography in a prospective cohort study of 1016 patients (mean age 63.2 years, male 61.1%) with stable CAD who were recruited from December 2008 to December 2011, and followed up for a median of 4...
April 5, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378286/resetting-the-neurohormonal-balance-in-heart-failure-hf-the-relevance-of-the-natriuretic-peptide-np-system-to-the-clinical-management-of-patients-with-hf
#13
REVIEW
Speranza Rubattu, Filippos Triposkiadis
The natriuretic peptide (NP) system, which includes atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and C-type natriuretic peptide, has an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, promoting a number of physiological effects including diuresis, vasodilation, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Heart failure (HF) is associated with defects in NP processing and synthesis, and there is a strong relationship between NP levels and disease state. NPs are useful biomarkers in HF, and their use in diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis is well established, particularly in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
April 5, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371221/prediction-of-right-ventricular-failure-after-ventricular-assist-device-implant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#14
REVIEW
Diego Bellavia, Attilio Iacovoni, Cesare Scardulla, Lorenzo Moja, Michele Pilato, Sudhir S Kushwaha, Michele Senni, Francesco Clemenza, Valentina Agnese, Calogero Falletta, Giuseppe Romano, Joseph Maalouf, Michael Dandel
Right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but the identification of LVAD candidates at risk for RVF remains challenging. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of risk factors associated with RVF after LVAD implant. Thirty-six studies published between 1 January 1995 and 30 April 2015, comprising 995 RVF patients out of a pooled final population of 4428 patients, were identified...
March 31, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357505/identification-of-left-ventricle-failure-on-pulmonary-artery-cta-diagnostic-significance-of-decreased-aortic-left-ventricle-enhancement
#15
Abhishek Chaturvedi, Joel P Thompson, Katherine Kaproth-Joslin, Susan K Hobbs, Karl Q Schwarz, Vijay K Krishnamoorthy, Apeksha Chaturvedi, Timothy Baran
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify findings on non-ECG-gated CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) indicating decreased left ventricle (LV) systolic function, later confirmed by echocardiogram. METHODS: After obtaining institutional review board approval, review was performed of emergency department (ED) patients who had CTPA and follow-up echocardiogram within 48 h, over 18 months. Patients with pulmonary embolus, suboptimal CTPA, arrhythmias or pericardial tamponade were excluded...
March 29, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352158/cardioprotection-with-halogenated-gases-how-does-it-occur
#16
REVIEW
Jose Luis Guerrero-Orriach, Juan Jose Escalona Belmonte, Alicia Ramirez Fernandez, Marta Ramirez Aliaga, Manuel Rubio Navarro, Jose Cruz Mañas
Numerous studies have studied the effect of halogenated agents on the myocardium, highlighting the beneficial cardiac effect of the pharmacological mechanism (preconditioning and postconditioning) when employed before and after ischemia in patients with ischemic heart disease. Anesthetic preconditioning is related to the dose-dependent signal, while the degree of protection is related to the concentration of the administered drug and the duration of the administration itself. Triggers for postconditioning and preconditioning might have numerous pathways in common; mitochondrial protection and a decrease in inflammatory mediators could be the major biochemical elements...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341375/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Lijie Ma, Sumei Zhao
BACKGROUND: No consensus exists regarding the factors influencing mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of various patient characteristics on the risk of mortality in such patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central were searched for studies evaluating the risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing HD. The factors included age, gender, diabetes mellitus (DM), body mass index (BMI), previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), HD duration, hemoglobin, albumin, white blood cell, C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), iron, ln ferritin, adiponectin, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), ApoA2, ApoA3, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum phosphate, troponin T (TnT), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326825/role-of-biomarkers-in-predicting-diabetes-complications-with-special-reference-to-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#18
Sivakamasundari Pichu, Bhoomika M Patel, Subbu Apparsundaram, Ramesh K Goyal
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the major complications of diabetes and about 1% of people with diabetes have to go for lower limb amputation. With better understanding of the pathological basis of DFU, number of biomarkers like atrial natriuretic peptides, galectin-3, and cardiac troponins for diabetic cardiomyopathy, cystatin C for diabetics nephropathy and C-reactive protein for infection and procalcitonin could aid in early and noninvasive diagnosis especially when clinical signs are misleading. Predictive role of novel biomarkers in primary prevention however, requires additional studies considering sex, age and multiple complications in DFU...
April 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326642/neprilysin-inhibition-in-heart-failure-mechanisms-and-substrates-beyond-modulating-natriuretic-peptides
#19
REVIEW
Emilia D'Elia, Attilio Iacovoni, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Ferdinando L Lorini, Stefano Perlini, Michele Senni
The autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the natriuretic peptide system represent critical regulatory pathways in heart failure and as such have been the major targets of pharmacological development. The introduction and approval of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi) have broadened the available drug treatments of patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin catalyses the degradation of a number of vasodilator peptides, including the natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and adrenomedullin, as well as vasoconstrictor peptides, including endothelin-1 and angiotensin I and II...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321399/renocardiovascular-biomarkers-from-the-perspective-of-managing-chronic-kidney-disease-and-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Shinichiro Niizuma, Yoshitaka Iwanaga, Takaharu Yahata, Shunichi Miyazaki
Mortality among the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains high because of the very high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary artery disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. Identifying CVD in patients with CKD/ESRD remains a significant hurdle and the early diagnosis and therapy for CVD is crucial in these patients. Therefore, it is necessary for the better management to identify and utilize cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers in profiling CVD risk and enabling stratification of early mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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