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Biology of natriuretic peptides

Christopher M Celano, Eleanor E Beale, Scott R Beach, Arianna M Belcher, Laura Suarez, Shweta R Motiwala, Parul U Gandhi, Hanna Gaggin, James L Januzzi, Brian C Healy, Jeff C Huffman
OBJECTIVE: Psychological constructs are associated with cardiovascular health, but the biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown. We examined relationships between psychological constructs and markers of inflammation, endothelial function, and myocardial strain in a cohort of post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. METHODS: Participants (N = 164) attended study visits 2 weeks and 6 months after ACS. During these visits, they completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, optimism, and gratitude; and blood samples were collected for measurement of biomarkers reflecting inflammation, endothelial function, and myocardial strain...
September 30, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Derek L Chappell, Anita Yh Lee, Harold S Bernstein, Michael E Lassman, Omar F Laterza
AIM: Patients with elevated levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and/or NT-proBNP as measured by clinical tests have an elevated risk of heart failure (HF). Despite utility in large clinical studies, both assays are plagued by large biological variability and specificity issues. To address these concerns and further investigate BNP in the HF setting, we developed an LC/MS assay to characterize the ratio of active to total BNP. RESULTS: We have developed and validated a novel immunoaffinity LC/MS assay to measure BNP-derived fragments, as well as 'total BNP' in human plasma...
October 7, 2016: Bioanalysis
Anjali Tiku Owens, Susan Brozena, Mariell Jessup
Biologically active natriuretic peptides (NPs) are an integral part of cardiac homeostasis as they help to maintain sodium and fluid balance. When homeostasis is perturbed by neurohormonal activation in heart failure, levels of NPs rise in response. Neprilysin (NEP) is a naturally occuring enzyme that breaks down NPs. Scientists have recently discovered a novel pharmacologic agent that combines a NEP inhibitor and an angiotensin receptor blocker. In a large clinical trial, this new drug was found to reduce hospitalization and mortality in systolic heart failure...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Alan H B Wu
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP are widely used plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure and prognosis for future cardiac disease. The clinical performance of these tests for management of chronic heart failure is somewhat limited by the markers' high biological variation. Biomarkers such as galectin-3 and soluble ST2 that reflect ongoing remodeling via cardiac fibrosis of the heart may provide complementary information to the natriuretic peptides in the management of chronic heart failure with regards to risk stratification for future adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, and need for heart transplantation)...
October 2012: EJIFCC
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Riccardo Sarzani
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are the cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP), true "cardiometabolic" hormones well known for their renal, endocrine and cardiovascular activities leading to reduced sodium reabsorption and arterial blood pressure. These effects are mainly mediated by the second messenger cGMP that also stimulates lipolysis, mitochondriogenesis and a thermogenic program with potency similar to catecholamines. Two distinct NP receptors modulate the final response to cardiac NP: the cGMP-signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Guoliang Meng, Yujiao Xiao, Yan Ma, Xin Tang, Liping Xie, Jieqiong Liu, Yue Gu, Ying Yu, Chung-Min Park, Ming Xian, Xin Wang, Albert Ferro, Rui Wang, Philip K Moore, Zhiren Zhang, Hong Wang, Yi Han, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter that regulates multiple cardiovascular functions. Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) exerts diverse functions in the cardiovascular system. Whether and how H2S regulates KLF5 in myocardial hypertrophy is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In our study, hypertrophic myocardial samples in the clinic were collected and underwent histological and molecular biological analysis. Spontaneously hypertensive rats and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were studied for functional and signaling responses to GYY4137, an H2S-releasing compound...
September 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
M Bordicchia, M Ceresiani, M Pavani, R Sarzani
OBJECTIVE: Natriuretic peptides (NP), ANP and BNP, regulate not only the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system but also lipid metabolism in adipocytes by promoting lipolysis and thermogenesis. NP circulating levels and therefore their systemic effects are largely dependent on the expression ratio between NPRA (principal biologically active receptor) and NPRC (clearance receptor). Adipocytes affect NP levels and their cardio-renal effects through the expression of NPRC. AIM: To evaluate the role of insulin and ANP on lipolysis, looking for a common mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome and hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
K Anttila, T Streng, J Pispa, M Vainio, M Nikinmaa
AIM: We studied if available oxygen without induced mechanical stretch regulates the release of the biologically active B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from Langendorff heart. METHODS: Rat hearts were isolated and perfused with a physiological Krebs-Henseleit solution at a constant hydrostatic pressure in Langendorff setup. The basal O2 level of perfusate (24.4±0.04 mg L(-1) ) was gradually lowered to 3.0±0.01 mg L(-1) over 20 minutes using N2 gas (n=7). BNP and O2 level were measured from coronary flow...
August 6, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Luigino Calzetta, Augusto Orlandi, Clive Page, Paola Rogliani, Barbara Rinaldi, Giuseppe Rosano, Mario Cazzola, Maria Gabriella Matera
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) modulates several biological processes by activating the natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A). Atria and ventricles secrete BNP. BNP increases natriuresis, diuresis and vasodilatation, thus resulting in a decreased cardiac workload. BNP and NT-proBNP, which is the biologically inactive N-terminal portion of its pro-hormone, are fast and sensitive biomarkers for diagnosing heart failure. The plasma concentrations of both BNP and NT-proBNP also correlate with left ventricular function in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, even without history of heart failure...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
R B Gilchrist, A M Luciano, D Richani, H T Zeng, X Wang, M De Vos, S Sugimura, J Smitz, F J Richard, J G Thompson
The cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, are the key molecules controlling mammalian oocyte meiosis. Their roles in oocyte biology have been at the forefront of oocyte research for decades, and many of the long-standing controversies in relation to the regulation of oocyte meiotic maturation are now resolved. It is now clear that the follicle prevents meiotic resumption through the actions of natriuretic peptides and cGMP - inhibiting the hydrolysis of intra-oocyte cAMP - and that the pre-ovulatory gonadotrophin surge reverses these processes...
November 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Borwin Bandelow, David Baldwin, Marianna Abelli, Blanca Bolea-Alamanac, Michel Bourin, Samuel R Chamberlain, Eduardo Cinosi, Simon Davies, Katharina Domschke, Naomi Fineberg, Edna Grünblatt, Marek Jarema, Yong-Ku Kim, Eduard Maron, Vasileios Masdrakis, Olya Mikova, David Nutt, Stefano Pallanti, Stefano Pini, Andreas Ströhle, Florence Thibaut, Matilde M Vaghi, Eunsoo Won, Dirk Wedekind, Adam Wichniak, Jade Woolley, Peter Zwanzger, Peter Riederer
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network...
July 15, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Miguel Eduardo Sogbe-Díaz, Emilia Elena Díaz-López
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent vasodilatory 52-aminoacid peptide hormone, ubiquitous with multiple physiological effects which contribute to homeostatic responses. Significantly, it is distributed in the adrenal gland, lung, cardiovascular and renal system. The biological effects of AM are directly mediated by specific receptors as heterodimers composed of the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CLR) and one of two receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMP2 or RAMP3). The CLR/RAMP2 (AM1 receptor) is more highly AM-specific than The CLR/RAMP3 (AM2 receptor)...
March 2016: Investigación Clínica
Yan Liu, Wenjun An, Aibao Gao
BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome is a complicated and bidirectional interrelationship between the heart and kidneys. Naringenin (NG) is a naturally occurring flavonoid possessing various biological and pharmacological properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested whether NG could improve cardiac and renal function in a rat model of cardiorenal syndrome. RESULTS: The results showed that NG-attenuated cardiac remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in rats with cardiorenal syndrome, as evidenced by decrease of left ventricle weight (LVW), increase of body weight (BW), decrease of LVW/BW, decrease of concentrations of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, type-B natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, angiotensin (Ang) II, C-reactive protein, and urine protein, increase of left ventricular systolic pressure and falling rates of left ventricular pressure (dp/dtmax), and decrease of left ventricular diastolic pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and -dp/dtmax...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is primarily synthesized by the ventricles of the heart as a 108-amino acid polypeptide precursor (i.e., proBNP), which is then cleaved into a 76-amino acid biologically inert N-terminal fragment (NT-proBNP) and a biologically active 32-amino acid peptide (BNP). The generation of BNP is considerably enhanced in response to high ventricular filling pressures, so that the measurement of either the active hormone or NT-proBNP has become a mainstay in patients with congestive heart failure...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Anne Marie Dupuy, Corentin Curinier, Nils Kuster, Fabien Huet, Florence Leclercq, Jean Marc Davy, Jean Paul Cristol, François Roubille
Natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-proBNP) are recognized as gold-standard predictive markers in Heart Failure (HF). However, currently ST2 (member of the interleukin 1 receptor family) has emerged as marker of inflammation, fibrosis and cardiac stress. We evaluated ST2 and CRP as prognostic markers in 178 patients with chronic heart failure in comparison with other classical markers such as clinical established parameters but also biological markers: NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT alone or in combination. In multivariate analysis, subsequent addition of ST2 led to age, CRP and ST2 as the only remaining predictors of all-cause mortality (HR 1...
2016: PloS One
Romina di Giuseppe, Ronald Biemann, Janine Wirth, Juliane Menzel, Berend Isermann, Gabriele I Stangl, Andreas Fritsche, Heiner Boeing, Matthias B Schulze, Cornelia Weikert
Heart failure (HF) is a disabling condition involving complex vascular, neurohormonal and immune systems' interactions. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a bone-regulatory cytokine, has been suggested to play a key role in skeletal, vascular, and immune biology, with elevated levels observed in both experimental and clinical HF. In the present study we aimed to identify clinical OPG correlates and investigated whether elevated OPG, as a marker of HF vascular and immune activation, may interact with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a marker of HF neurohormonal activation, thus synergistically increasing HF risk...
June 15, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
José Fernando Vilela-Martin
Heart failure is a global problem with elevated prevalence, and it is associated with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treating heart-failure patients has been a very challenging task. This review highlights the main pharmacological developments in the field of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, giving emphasis to a drug that has a dual-acting inhibition of the neprilysin and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Neprilysin is an enzyme that participates in the breakdown of biologically active natriuretic peptides and several other vasoactive compounds...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Christine Henri, Therese Heinonen, Jean-Claude Tardif
With the improvement of cancer therapy, survival related to malignancy has improved, but the prevalence of long-term cardiotoxicity has also increased. Cancer therapies with known cardiac toxicity include anthracyclines, biologic agents (trastuzumab), and multikinase inhibitors (sunitinib). The most frequent presentation of cardiac toxicity is dilated cardiomyopathy associated with poorest prognosis. Monitoring of cardiac toxicity is commonly performed by assessment of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, which requires a significant amount of myocardial damage to allow detection of cardiac toxicity...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
Martin Risch, Lorenz Risch, Mette-Triin Purde, Harald Renz, Patrice Ambühl, Thomas Szucs, Yuki Tomonaga
The ratio of cystatin C to creatinine (cysC/crea) is regarded as a marker of glomerular filtration quality and predicts mortality. It has been hypothesized that increased mortality may be mediated by the retention of biologically active substances due to shrinking glomerular pores. The present study investigated whether cysC/crea is independently associated with the levels of two renally cleared hormones, which have been linked to increased mortality. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study with a random selection of general practitioners (GPs) from all GP offices in seven Swiss cantons...
September 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
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