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PROTECT TRIAL 2011

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723852/effects-of-a-skin-barrier-cream-on-management-of-incontinence-associated-dermatitis-in-older-women-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yuka Kon, Yoshie Ichikawa-Shigeta, Terumi Iuchi, Yukari Nakajima, Gojiro Nakagami, Keiko Tabata, Hiromi Sanada, Junko Sugama
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a skin barrier cream with moisturization and skin-protectant characteristics for improving the severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) pertaining to the skin physiology and appearance. We measured the following outcomes: (1) skin physiological characteristics indicating skin protection and enhancement of the skin's moisture barrier (stratum corneum hydration, dermis hydration level, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH); and (2) changes in skin appearance (the degree of erythema and pigmentation, and the sulcus cutis condition)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699558/beyond-efficacy-in-water-containers-temephos-and-household-entomological-indices-in-six-studies-between-2005-and-2013-in-managua-nicaragua
#2
Jorge Arosteguí, Josefina Coloma, Carlos Hernández-Alvarez, Harold Suazo-Laguna, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Neil Andersson, Robert J Ledogar
BACKGROUND: A cluster-randomized controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua reported, as a secondary finding, a higher risk of dengue virus infection in households where inspectors found temephos in water containers. Data from control sites in the preceding pilot study and the Nicaragua trial arm provided six time points (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2011, 2012, 2013) to examine potentially protective effects of temephos on entomological indices under every day conditions of the national vector control programme...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681535/microbleeds-in-the-secondary-prevention-of-small-subcortical-strokes-trial-stroke-mortality-and-treatment-interactions
#3
Ashkan Shoamanesh, Lesly A Pearce, Carlos Bazan, Luciana Catanese, Leslie A McClure, Mukul Sharma, Joan Marti-Fabregas, David C Anderson, Carlos S Kase, Robert G Hart, Oscar R Benavente
OBJECTIVE: To characterize cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in lacunar stroke patients in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) trial and to assess their relationship with recurrent stroke and death, and response to assigned treatment. METHODS: SPS3 is a randomized, clinical trial conducted between 2003 and 2011. Patients with recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented lacunar infarcts were randomly assigned in a factorial design to target levels of systolic blood pressure (130-149mmHg vs <130mmHg; open label) and to antiplatelet treatment (aspirin/clopidogrel vs aspirin/placebo; double-blinded)...
July 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679389/fertility-intentions-and-contraceptive-practices-among-clinic-users-living-with-hiv-in-kenya-a-mixed-methods-study
#4
Susannah H Mayhew, Manuela Colombini, James Kelly Kimani, Keith Tomlin, Charlotte E Warren, Richard Mutemwa
BACKGROUND: Preventing unwanted pregnancies in Women Living with HIV (WLHIV) is a recognised HIV-prevention strategy. This study explores the fertility intentions and contraceptive practices of WLHIV using services in Kenya. METHODS: Two hundred forty women self-identifying as WLHIV who attended reproductive health services in Kenya were interviewed with a structured questionnaire in 2011; 48 were also interviewed in-depth. STATA SE/13.1, Nvivo 8 and thematic analysis were used...
July 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631283/assessing-causal-effects-of-early-life-course-factors-on-early-childhood-caries-in-5-year-old-ugandan-children-using-directed-acyclic-graphs-dags-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Nancy Birungi, Lars T Fadnes, Arabat Kasangaki, Victoria Nankabirwa, Isaac Okullo, Stein A Lie, James K Tumwine, Anne N Åstrøm
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of distal and proximal early life-course factors on early childhood caries (ECC) in 5-year-old Ugandan children, particularly focusing on the causal effect of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) on ECC using directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) for confounder selection. METHODS: This study had a nested prospective cohort design, focusing on 5 years of follow-ups of caregiver-children pairs from the PROMISE-EBF trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150) conducted in 2011 in Eastern Uganda...
June 20, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612389/biochar-potential-in-intensive-cultivation-of-capsicum-anuum-l-sweet-pepper-crop-yield-and-plant-protection
#6
Abhay Kumar, Yigal Elad, Ludmila Tsechansky, Vikas Abrol, Beni Lew, Rivka Offenbach, Ellen R Graber
BACKGROUND: The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum anuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high-input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011 to 2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. RESULTS: Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in number and weight of pepper fruits over three years...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608597/perineal-techniques-during-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-reducing-perineal-trauma
#7
REVIEW
Vigdis Aasheim, Anne Britt Vika Nilsen, Liv Merete Reinar, Mirjam Lukasse
BACKGROUND: Most vaginal births are associated with trauma to the genital tract. The morbidity associated with perineal trauma can be significant, especially when it comes to third- and fourth-degree tears. Different interventions including perineal massage, warm or cold compresses, and perineal management techniques have been used to prevent trauma. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of perineal techniques during the second stage of labour on the incidence and morbidity associated with perineal trauma...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575286/efficacy-of-maternal-influenza-vaccination-against-all-cause-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-hospitalizations-in-young-infants-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Marta C Nunes, Clare L Cutland, Stephanie Jones, Sarah Downs, Adriana Weinberg, Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil, Eric A F Simões, Keith P Klugman, Shabir A Madhi
Background: Influenza immunization of pregnant women protects their young infants against laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. Influenza infection might predispose to subsequent bacterial infections that cause severe pneumonia. In a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial (RCT), we evaluated the effect of maternal vaccination on infant hospitalizations for all-cause acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). Methods: Infants born to women who participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled RCT in 2011 and 2012 on the efficacy of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) during pregnancy were followed during the first 6 months of life...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573250/the-use-of-rheum-palmatum-l-in-the-treatment-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Tie-Zhu Yang, Yan Liu, Yue-Yun Liu, Xiu-Fang Ding, Jia-Xu Chen, Mei-Jing Kou, Xiao-Juan Zou
BACKGROUND: Chinese medicine theory shows that "lung being connected with large intestine", and the modern western medicine also shows that the lung and intestinal tract affect each other in physiological and pathological conditions. If the lung ventilation dysfunction is caused by inflammatory exudate or secretions obstruction of the small airway ventilation, blood gas partial pressure is increased and intestinal gas absorption difficulty may lead to intestinal inflation and dysfunction (Wang N et al...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555946/comparative-effectiveness-of-oral-antiplatelet-agents-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#10
Kibum Kim, Todd A Lee, Amer K Ardati, Robert J DiDomenico, Daniel R Touchette, Surrey M Walton
OBJECTIVE: In randomized controlled trials, prasugrel and ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular complications in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to clopidogrel. However, there have been limited head-to-head comparisons across the three anti-platelet agents using real-world data. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of three strategies during a 1-year post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) period. METHODS: Rates of all-cause and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) related hospitalizations were retrospectively compared using an insurance claims database...
May 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544101/belatacept-combined-with-transient-calcineurin-inhibitor-therapy-prevents-rejection-and-promotes-improved-long-term-renal-allograft-function
#11
A B Adams, J Goldstein, C Garrett, R Zhang, R E Patzer, K A Newell, N A Turgeon, A S Chami, A Guasch, A D Kirk, S O Pastan, T C Pearson, C P Larsen
Belatacept, a T cell costimulation blocker, demonstrated superior renal function, lower cardiovascular risk, and improved graft and patient survival in renal transplant recipients. Despite the potential benefits, adoption of belatacept has been limited in part due to concerns regarding higher rates and grades of acute rejection in clinical trials. Since July 2011, we have utilized belatacept-based immunosuppression regimens in clinical practice. In this retrospective analysis of 745 patients undergoing renal transplantation at our center, we compared patients treated with belatacept (n = 535) with a historical cohort receiving a tacrolimus-based protocol (n = 205)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543165/recognition-of-early-mortality-in-multiple-myeloma-by-a-prediction-matrix
#12
Howard Terebelo, Shankar Srinivasan, Mohit Narang, Rafat Abonour, Cristina Gasparetto, Kathleen Toomey, James W Hardin, Gail Larkins, Amani Kitali, Robert M Rifkin, Jatin J Shah
Early mortality (EM; death ≤ 6 months from diagnosis) has been reported in several newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) trials. Before the era of novel agents, the incidence was 10%-14%. Causes of death included infections/pneumonia, renal failure, refractory disease, and cardiac events. Staging systems, such as the revised International Staging System (r-ISS), and prognostic factors including cytogenetics, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and myeloma-specific factors, are useful to assess overall prognosis; however, they cannot predict EM...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533053/exploring-evidence-for-behavioral-risk-compensation-among-participants-in-an-hiv-vaccine-clinical-trial
#13
Julia E Painter, Ralph J DiClemente, Lauren Jimenez, Theron Stuart, Jessica M Sales, Mark J Mulligan
BACKGROUND: HIV vaccine trial participants may engage in behavioral risk compensation due to a false sense of protection. We conducted an ancillary study of an HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) vaccine efficacy trial to explore risk compensation among trial participants compared to persons who were willing to participate but ineligible based on previous exposure to the Ad5 virus (Ad5+) across three timepoints. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Atlanta, GA site of the HVTN 505 vaccine trial...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513876/the-inter-play-between-facilitation-and-context-in-the-promoting-action-on-research-implementation-in-health-services-framework-a-qualitative-exploratory-implementation-study-embedded-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-to-reduce-restraint-in-nursing-homes
#14
Tone Elin Mekki, Christine Øye, Bodil Margrete Kristensen, Helen Dahl, Astrid Haaland, Kristin Aas Nordin, Marta R Strandos, Toril Marie Terum, Arnt Egil Ydstebø, Brendan Mccormack
AIM: To explore the inter-play between external facilitation and nursing home contexts relative to intervention outcomes. BACKGROUND: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework is frequently used to theoretically inform implementation and research in nursing and recent reviews indicate high face validity for health services. However, the inter-play and relationship between framework sub- elements of evidence, context and facilitation and the prospective utility in non-English speaking contexts warrant further illumination...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494067/association-of-dietary-vitamin-k1-intake-with-the-incidence-of-cataract-surgery-in-an-adult-mediterranean-population-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
María L Camacho-Barcia, Mònica Bulló, Jesús F Garcia-Gavilán, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Dolores Corella, Ramón Estruch, Montserrat Fitó, Alfredo García-Layana, Fernando Arós, Miquel Fiol, José Lapetra, Lluis Serra-Majem, Xavier Pintó, Ana García-Arellano, Ernest Vinyoles, José Vicente Sorli, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Importance: Cataract, one of the most frequent causes of blindness in developed countries, is strongly associated with aging. The exact mechanisms underlying cataract formation are still unclear, but growing evidence suggests a potential role of inflammatory and oxidative processes. Therefore, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factors of the diet, such as vitamin K1, could play a protective role. Objective: To examine the association between dietary vitamin K1 intake and the risk of incident cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480799/the-relationship-between-employment-status-and-depression-symptomatology-among-women-at-risk-for-postpartum-depression
#16
Beth A Lewis, Lauren Billing, Katie Schuver, Dwenda Gjerdingen, Melissa Avery, Bess H Marcus
Approximately 13%-19% of new mothers report depression during the postpartum period. Returning to work after childbirth is associated with depression; however, it is unclear if this finding applies to women who are at high risk for postpartum depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment status and depression symptomatology among women at risk for postpartum depression (defined as personal or maternal history of depression). This study was a post hoc analysis from a previously conducted randomized controlled trial...
April 2017: Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475278/anticoagulation-bridge-therapy-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-recent-updates-providing-a-rebalance-of-risk-and-benefit
#17
Candice L Garwood, Bianca Korkis, Domenico Grande, Claudia Hanni, Amy Morin, Lynette R Moser
In 2011 we reviewed clinical updates and controversies surrounding anticoagulation bridge therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Since then, options for oral anticoagulation have expanded with the addition of four direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) agents available in the United States. Nonetheless, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy continues to be the treatment of choice for patients who are poor candidates for a DOAC and for whom bridge therapy remains a therapeutic dilemma. This literature review identifies evidence and guideline and consensus statements from the last 5 years to provide updated recommendations and insight into bridge therapy for patients using a VKA for AF...
June 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475248/effectiveness-of-an-evidence-based-induction-therapy-protocol-revision-in-adult-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
Jillian P Casale, Dave J Taber, Carmelina Staino, Kimberly Boyle, Kelly Covert, Nicole A Pilch, Caitlin Mardis, Holly B Meadows, Kenneth D Chavin, John W McGillicuddy, Prabhakar K Baliga, James N Fleming
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Induction immunosuppression significantly improves graft outcomes following kidney transplantation, but protocols vary among transplant centers due to the lack of data identifying an optimal induction agent. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an evidence-based protocol change in induction therapy in adult kidney transplant recipients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large tertiary care academic medical center...
May 5, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470683/how-healthy-are-the-healthy-volunteers-penetrance-of-nafld-in-the-biomedical-research-volunteer-pool
#19
Varun Takyar, Anand Nath, Andrea Beri, Ahmed M Gharib, Yaron Rotman
INTRODUCTION: Healthy volunteers are crucial for biomedical research. Inadvertent inclusion of subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as controls can compromise study validity and subject safety. Given the rising prevalence of NAFLD in the general population, we sought to identify its prevalence and potential impact in volunteers for clinical trials. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of subjects with "Healthy Volunteer" diagnosis between 2011-2015 and no known liver disease...
May 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460021/hypothermia-and-cerebral-protection-strategies-in-aortic-arch-surgery-a-comparative-effectiveness-analysis-from-the-sts-adult-cardiac-surgery-database
#20
Brian R Englum, Xia He, Brian C Gulack, Asvin M Ganapathi, Joseph P Mathew, J Matthew Brennan, T Brett Reece, W Brent Keeling, Bradley G Leshnower, Edward P Chen, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Vinod H Thourani, G Chad Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Hypothermic circulatory arrest is essential to aortic arch surgery, although consensus regarding optimal cerebral protection strategy remains lacking. We evaluated the current use and comparative effectiveness of hypothermia/cerebral perfusion (CP) strategies in aortic arch surgery. METHODS: Using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database, cases of aortic arch surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest from 2011 to 2014 were categorized by hypothermia strategy-deep/profound (D/P; ≤20°C), low-moderate (L-M; 20...
April 29, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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