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hemoglobine mass in swimmers

Ferran A Rodríguez, Xavier Iglesias, Belén Feriche, Carmen Calderón-Soto, Diego Chaverri, Nadine B Wachsmuth, Walter Schmidt, Benjamin D Levine
INTRODUCTION: This controlled, nonrandomized, parallel-groups trial investigated the effects on performance, V˙O2 and hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) of four preparatory in-season training interventions: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 and 4 wk (Hi-Hi3, Hi-Hi), living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo, 4 wk), and living and training at sea level (SL) (Lo-Lo, 4 wk). METHODS: From 61 elite swimmers, 54 met all inclusion criteria and completed time trials over 50- and 400-m crawl (TT50, TT400), and 100 (sprinters) or 200 m (nonsprinters) at best stroke (TT100/TT200)...
September 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
I I Ambrazhuk, M Iu Iakovlev
The efficiency of the correction of diet using dietary supplements and special foods for athletes has been evaluated in 21 highly qualified swimmers, aged 17 to 26 years, during training cycle in midlands (altitude 1792 m above sea level). A personalized approach, consisting of the timely correction of individual programs of biomedical support, especially nutritional correction is directly linked to the performance of the functional state of an athlete in the most important period of training in midlands. At the end of training gathering the increase in AcT, ALT blood plasma activity by 18-42% and the reduction in the activity of creatine kinase by 26% in the normal ranges (p < 0...
2013: Voprosy Pitaniia
Thomas Christian Bonne, Carsten Lundby, Susanne Jørgensen, Lars Johansen, Monija Mrgan, Signe Refsgaard Bech, Mikael Sander, Marcelo Papoti, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
PURPOSE: This study tested whether 3-4 weeks of classical "Live High-Train High" (LHTH) altitude training increases swim-specific VO2max through increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). METHODS: Ten swimmers lived and trained for more than 3 weeks between 2,130 and 3,094 m of altitude, and a control group of ten swimmers followed the same training at sea-level (SL). Body composition was examined using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Hbmass was determined by carbon monoxide rebreathing...
2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Michael Chia, Chin-An Liao, Chih-Yang Huang, Wen-Chih Lee, Chien-Wen Hou, Szu-Hsien Yu, M Brennan Harris, Tung-Shiung Hsu, Shin-Da Lee, Chia-Hua Kuo
Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time...
February 28, 2013: Chinese Journal of Physiology
N B Wachsmuth, C Völzke, N Prommer, A Schmidt-Trucksäss, F Frese, O Spahl, A Eastwood, J Stray-Gundersen, W Schmidt
Aim of the study was to determine the influence of classic altitude training on hemoglobin mass (Hb-mass) in elite swimmers under the following aspects: (1) normal oscillation of Hb-mass at sea level; (2) time course of adaptation and de-adaptation; (3) sex influences; (4) influences of illness and injury; (5) interaction of Hb-mass and competition performance. Hb-mass of 45 top swimmers (male 24; female 21) was repeatedly measured (~6 times) over the course of 2 years using the optimized CO-rebreathing method...
May 2013: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Clare E Gough, Philo U Saunders, John Fowlie, Bernard Savage, David B Pyne, Judith M Anson, Nadine Wachsmuth, Nicole Prommer, Christopher J Gore
We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level...
September 2012: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Eileen Y Robertson, Robert J Aughey, Judith M Anson, Will G Hopkins, David B Pyne
The effect of repeated exposures to natural and simulated moderate altitude on physiology and competitive performance of elite athletes warrants further investigation. This study quantified changes in hemoglobin mass, performance tests, and competitive performance of elite swimmers undertaking a coach-prescribed program of natural and simulated altitude training. Nine swimmers (age 21.1 +/- 1.4 years, mean +/- SD) completed up to four 2-week blocks of combined living and training at moderate natural altitude (1,350 m) and simulated live high-train low (2,600-600 m) altitude exposure between 2 National Championships...
February 2010: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
A Kabasakalis, K Kalitsis, G Tsalis, V Mougios
The aim of the present study was to monitor the nutritional status of 9 Greek national top-level swimmers during a competitive season of eight months. The swimmers were assessed through recording of food and supplement intake, blood sampling, and anthropometry at four landmarks: in the beginning of the season (baseline), after completing a phase of intensive and voluminous training (at 10 weeks), at a minor taper (19 weeks), and during the major taper (32 weeks). Energy and macronutrient intake did not change significantly over time, and only a few significant changes were found in micronutrient intakes...
September 2007: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Heidi L Petersen, C Ted Peterson, Manju B Reddy, Kathy B Hanson, James H Swain, Rick L Sharp, D Lee Alekel
This study determined the effect of training on body composition, dietary intake, and iron status of eumenorrheic female collegiate swimmers (n = 18) and divers (n = 6) preseason and after 16 wk of training. Athletes trained on dryland (resistance, strength, flexibility) 3 d/wk, 1.5 h/d and in-water 6 d/wk, nine, 2-h sessions per week (6400 to 10,000 kJ/d). Body-mass index (kg/m2; P = 0.05), waist and hip circumferences (P < or = 0.0001), whole body fat mass (P = 0.0002), and percentage body fat (P < or = 0...
June 2006: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
B Friedmann, F Frese, E Menold, F Kauper, J Jost, P Bärtsch
OBJECTIVES: Inter-individual variations in sea level performance after altitude training have been attributed, at least in part, to an inter-individual variability in hypoxia induced erythropoiesis. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the variability in the increase in total haemoglobin mass after training at moderate altitude could be predicted by the erythropoietin response after 4 h exposure to normobaric hypoxia at an ambient Po(2) corresponding to the training altitude...
March 2005: British Journal of Sports Medicine
A Santos-Silva, M I Rebelo, E M Castro, L Belo, A Guerra, C Rego, A Quintanilha
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the lipid profile and the levels of leukocyte activation, red blood cell (RBC) damage and of oxidative stress in two groups of adolescents, with similar body mass index: high competition swimmers and adolescents practising moderate regular physical exercise. METHODS: As markers of leukocyte activation, we measured plasma lactoferrin, elastase and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor. We studied RBC membrane band 3 profile and membrane-bound hemoglobin, as markers of RBC damage and aging; total and differential leukocyte count and RBC count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and hematimetric indexes were also measured...
April 2001: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
R G McMurray
The hemodynamic and diuretic responses of six swimmers were evaluated during 35 min of resting immersion, free swimming, and land bicycle ergometry at approximately 70% exercise specific maximal oxygen uptake. Venous blood, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 min of each trials, was analyzed for hemoglobin. hematocrit, and total plasma protein concentration. Urine output was also measured. Resting immersion resulted in a significant (p less than 0.05) hemodilution (plasma volume = +2.5 +/- 1.5%) during the first 25 min and a return towards resting levels at the termination...
1983: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
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