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Jantsch Michael

Aparna Anantharaman, Mahdieh Jadaliha, Vidisha Tripathi, Shinichi Nakagawa, Tetsuro Hirose, Michael F Jantsch, Supriya G Prasanth, Kannanganattu V Prasanth
Paraspeckles are sub-nuclear domains that are nucleated by long noncoding RNA Neat1. While interaction of protein components of paraspeckles and Neat1 is understood, there is limited information on the interaction of non-structural RNA components with paraspeckles. Here, by varying paraspeckle number and size, we investigate how paraspeckles influence the nuclear organization of their non-structural RNA component Ctn RNA. Our results show that Ctn RNA remains nuclear-retained in the absence of intact paraspeckles, suggesting that they do not regulate nuclear retention of Ctn RNA...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Konstantin Licht, Utkarsh Kapoor, Elisa Mayrhofer, Michael F Jantsch
Alternative splicing and adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA-editing are major factors leading to co- and post-transcriptional modification of genetic information. Both, A to I editing and splicing occur in the nucleus. As editing sites are frequently defined by exon-intron basepairing, mRNA splicing efficiency should affect editing levels. Moreover, splicing rates affect nuclear retention and will therefore also influence the exposure of pre-mRNAs to the editing-competent nuclear environment. Here, we systematically test the influence of splice rates on RNA-editing using reporter genes but also endogenous substrates...
July 27, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Anahita Daryabeigi, Alexander Woglar, Antoine Baudrimont, Nicola Silva, Dimitra Paouneskou, Cornelia Vesely, Manuel Rauter, Alexandra Penkner, Michael Jantsch, Verena Jantsch
SUN (Sad1 and UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology) proteins are constituents of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. They interact in the perinuclear space via C-terminal SUN-KASH domains to form the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex thereby bridging the nuclear envelope. LINC complexes mediate numerous biological processes by connecting chromatin with the cytoplasmic force-generating machinery. Here we show that the coiled-coil domains of SUN-1 are required for oligomerization and retention of the protein in the nuclear envelope, especially at later stages of female gametogenesis...
June 2016: Genetics
Konstantin Licht, Michael F Jantsch
Advances in next-generation sequencing and mass spectrometry have revealed widespread messenger RNA modifications and RNA editing, with dramatic effects on mammalian transcriptomes. Factors introducing, deleting, or interpreting specific modifications have been identified, and analogous with epigenetic terminology, have been designated "writers," "erasers," and "readers." Such modifications in the transcriptome are referred to as epitranscriptomic changes and represent a fascinating new layer of gene expression regulation that has only recently been appreciated...
April 11, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Mansoureh Tajaddod, Michael F Jantsch, Konstantin Licht
Adenosine to inosine editing (A to I editing) is a cotranscriptional process that contributes to transcriptome complexity by deamination of adenosines to inosines. Initially, the impact of A to I editing has been described for coding targets in the nervous system. Here, A to I editing leads to recoding and changes of single amino acids since inosine is normally interpreted as guanosine by cellular machines. However, more recently, new roles for A to I editing have emerged: Editing was shown to influence splicing and is found massively in Alu elements...
March 2016: Chromosoma
Jonas Jennewein, Jasmin Matuszak, Steffi Walter, Boas Felmy, Kathrin Gendera, Valentin Schatz, Monika Nowottny, Gregor Liebsch, Michael Hensel, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Roman G Gerlach, Jonathan Jantsch
In Salmonella infection, the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2)-encoded type three secretion system (T3SS2) is of key importance for systemic disease and survival in host cells. For instance, in the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model SPI-2-dependent Salmonella replication in lamina propria CD11c(-)CXCR1(-) monocytic phagocytes/macrophages (MΦ) is required for the development of colitis. In addition, containment of intracellular Salmonella in the gut critically depends on the antimicrobial effects of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX), and possibly type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)...
December 2015: Cellular Microbiology
Jonathan Jantsch, Valentin Schatz, Diana Friedrich, Agnes Schröder, Christoph Kopp, Isabel Siegert, Andreas Maronna, David Wendelborn, Peter Linz, Katrina J Binger, Matthias Gebhardt, Matthias Heinig, Patrick Neubert, Fabian Fischer, Stefan Teufel, Jean-Pierre David, Clemens Neufert, Alexander Cavallaro, Natalia Rakova, Christoph Küper, Franz-Xaver Beck, Wolfgang Neuhofer, Dominik N Muller, Gerold Schuler, Michael Uder, Christian Bogdan, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
Immune cells regulate a hypertonic microenvironment in the skin; however, the biological advantage of increased skin Na(+) concentrations is unknown. We found that Na(+) accumulated at the site of bacterial skin infections in humans and in mice. We used the protozoan parasite Leishmania major as a model of skin-prone macrophage infection to test the hypothesis that skin-Na(+) storage facilitates antimicrobial host defense. Activation of macrophages in the presence of high NaCl concentrations modified epigenetic markers and enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK)-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) activation...
March 3, 2015: Cell Metabolism
Niamh M Mannion, Sam M Greenwood, Robert Young, Sarah Cox, James Brindle, David Read, Christoffer Nellåker, Cornelia Vesely, Chris P Ponting, Paul J McLaughlin, Michael F Jantsch, Julia Dorin, Ian R Adams, A D J Scadden, Marie Ohman, Liam P Keegan, Mary A O'Connell
The ADAR RNA-editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs. Aberrant interferon expression occurs in patients in whom ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) or dystonia arising from striatal neurodegeneration. Adar1 mutant mouse embryos show aberrant interferon induction and die by embryonic day E12.5. We demonstrate that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued to live birth in Adar1; Mavs double mutants in which the antiviral interferon induction response to cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is prevented...
November 20, 2014: Cell Reports
Cornelia Vesely, Stefanie Tauber, Fritz J Sedlazeck, Mansoureh Tajaddod, Arndt von Haeseler, Michael F Jantsch
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) deaminate adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs including miRNA precursors. A to I editing is widespread and required for normal life. By comparing deep sequencing data of brain miRNAs from wild-type and ADAR2 deficient mouse strains, we detect editing sites and altered miRNA processing at high sensitivity. We detect 48 novel editing events in miRNAs. Some editing events reach frequencies of up to 80%. About half of all editing events depend on ADAR2 while some miRNAs are preferentially edited by ADAR1...
October 29, 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Dominik Muggenhumer, Cornelia Vesely, Simon Nimpf, Nan Tian, Jin Yongfeng, Michael F Jantsch
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼21-nucleotide-long, single-stranded noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Biogenesis of miRNAs is mediated by the two RNase III-like enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. Here we study miRNA biogenesis during maturation of Xenopus oocytes to eggs using microinjection of pri-miRNAs. We show that processing of exogenous and endogenous primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) is strongly enhanced upon maturation of oocytes to eggs. Overexpression of cloned Xenopus Drosha in oocytes, however, boosts pri-miRNA processing dramatically, indicating that Drosha is a rate-limiting factor in Xenopus oocytes...
July 1, 2014: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Pierre Barraud, Silpi Banerjee, Weaam I Mohamed, Michael F Jantsch, Frédéric H-T Allain
The human RNA-editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) carries a unique nuclear localization signal (NLS) that overlaps one of its double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). This dsRBD-NLS is recognized by the nuclear import receptor transportin 1 (Trn1; also called karyopherin-β2) in an RNA-sensitive manner. Most Trn1 cargos bear a well-characterized proline-tyrosine-NLS, which is missing from the dsRBD-NLS. Here, we report the structure of the dsRBD-NLS, which reveals an unusual dsRBD fold extended by an additional N-terminal α-helix that brings the N- and C-terminal flanking regions in close proximity...
May 6, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maja Stulić, Michael F Jantsch
RNA editing by ADARs can change the coding potential of protein-coding mRNAs. So far, this type of RNA editing has mainly been shown to affect RNAs expressed in the nervous system with much lower editing levels being observed in other tissues. The actin crosslinking proteins filamin α and filamin β are widely expressed in most tissues. The mRNAs encoding either protein are edited at the same position leading to a conserved Q to R exchange in both proteins. Using bar-coded next generation sequencing, we show that editing of filamin α is most abundant in the gastrointestinal tract and only to a lesser extent in the nervous system...
October 2013: RNA Biology
Helge Wiig, Agnes Schröder, Wolfgang Neuhofer, Jonathan Jantsch, Christoph Kopp, Tine V Karlsen, Michael Boschmann, Jennifer Goss, Maija Bry, Natalia Rakova, Anke Dahlmann, Sven Brenner, Olav Tenstad, Harri Nurmi, Eero Mervaala, Hubertus Wagner, Franz-Xaver Beck, Dominik N Müller, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Friedrich C Luft, David G Harrison, Kari Alitalo, Jens Titze
The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which enhances electrolyte clearance via cutaneous lymph vessels and increases eNOS expression in blood vessels. It is unclear whether this local MPS response to osmotic stress is important to systemic blood pressure control...
July 2013: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Wojciech Garncarz, Aamira Tariq, Cornelia Handl, Oliver Pusch, Michael F Jantsch
Adenosine to inosine deamination of RNA is widespread in metazoa. Inosines are recognized as guanosines and, therefore, this RNA-editing can influence the coding potential, localization and stability of RNAs. Therefore, RNA editing contributes to the diversification of the transcriptome in a flexible manner. The editing reaction is performed by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs), which are essential for normal life and development in many organisms. Changes in editing levels are observed during development but also in neurological pathologies like schizophrenia, depression or tumors...
February 2013: RNA Biology
Christoph Kopp, Peter Linz, Anke Dahlmann, Matthias Hammon, Jonathan Jantsch, Dominik N Müller, Roland E Schmieder, Alexander Cavallaro, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Michael Uder, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
High dietary salt intake is associated with hypertension; the prevalence of salt-sensitive hypertension increases with age. We hypothesized that tissue Na(+) might accumulate in hypertensive patients and that aging might be accompanied by Na(+) deposition in tissue. We implemented (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging to measure Na(+) content of soft tissues in vivo earlier, but had not studied essential hypertension. We report on a cohort of 56 healthy control men and women, and 57 men and women with essential hypertension...
March 2013: Hypertension
Aamira Tariq, Wojciech Garncarz, Cornelia Handl, Ales Balik, Oliver Pusch, Michael F Jantsch
RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) diversifies the transcriptome by changing adenosines to inosines. In mammals, editing levels vary in different tissues, during development, and also in pathogenic conditions. From a screen for repressors of editing we have isolated three proteins that repress ADAR2-mediated RNA editing. The three proteins RPS14, SFRS9 and DDX15 interact with RNA. Overexpression or depletion of these proteins can decrease or increase editing levels by 15%, thus allowing a modulation of RNA editing up to 30%...
February 1, 2013: Nucleic Acids Research
Steffen Wittmeier, Cristiano Alessandro, Nenad Bascarevic, Konstantinos Dalamagkidis, David Devereux, Alan Diamond, Michael Jäntsch, Kosta Jovanovic, Rob Knight, Hugo Gravato Marques, Predrag Milosavljevic, Bhargav Mitra, Bratislav Svetozarevic, Veljko Potkonjak, Rolf Pfeifer, Alois Knoll, Owen Holland
Anthropomimetic robotics differs from conventional approaches by capitalizing on the replication of the inner structures of the human body, such as muscles, tendons, bones, and joints. Here we present our results of more than three years of research in constructing, simulating, and, most importantly, controlling anthropomimetic robots. We manufactured four physical torsos, each more complex than its predecessor, and developed the tools required to simulate their behavior. Furthermore, six different control approaches, inspired by classical control theory, machine learning, and neuroscience, were developed and evaluated via these simulations or in small-scale setups...
2013: Artificial Life
Aamira Tariq, Michael F Jantsch
RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA converts adenosines to inosines in coding and non-coding regions of mRNAs. Inosines are interpreted as guanosines and hence, this type of editing can change codons, alter splice patterns, or influence the fate of an RNA. A to I editing is most abundant in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, targets for this type of nucleotide modification frequently encode receptors and channels. In many cases, the editing-induced amino acid exchanges alter the properties of the receptors and channels...
2012: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Julia Fruehwald-Pallamar, Marion Jantsch, Katja Pinker, Ricarda Hofmeister, Friedrich Semturs, Kathrin Piegler, Daniel Staribacher, Michael Weber, Thomas H Helbich
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility of sending uncompressed digital mammograms in a teleradiologic setting without loss of information by comparing image quality, lesion detection, and BI-RADS assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CDMAM phantoms were sent bidirectionally to two hospitals via the network. For the clinical aspect of the study, 200 patients were selected based on the BI-RAD system: 50% BI-RADS I and II; and 50% BI-RADS IV and V...
March 2013: European Journal of Radiology
Cornelia Vesely, Stefanie Tauber, Fritz J Sedlazeck, Arndt von Haeseler, Michael F Jantsch
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA bind double-stranded and structured RNAs and convert adenosines to inosines by hydrolytic deamination. Inosines are recognized as guanosines, and, hence, RNA editing alters the sequence information but also structure of RNAs. Editing by ADARs is widespread and essential for normal life and development. Precursors of miRNAs are abundantly edited by ADARs, but neither the abundance nor the consequences of miRNA editing has been firmly established. Using transgenic mouse embryos that are deficient in the two enzymatically active editing enzymes ADAR and ADARB1, we compare relative frequencies but also sequence composition of miRNAs in these genetically modified backgrounds to wild-type mice by "next-generation sequencing...
August 2012: Genome Research
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