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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#1
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960389/the-other-face-of-an-editor-adar1-functions-in-editing-independent-ways
#2
REVIEW
Konstantin Licht, Michael F Jantsch
The RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 seemingly has more functions besides RNA editing. Mouse models lacking ADAR1 and sensors of foreign RNA show that RNA editing by ADAR1 plays a crucial role in the innate immune response. Still, RNA editing alone cannot explain all observed phenotypes. Thus, additional roles for ADAR1 must exist. Binding of ADAR1 to RNA is independent of its RNA editing function. Thus, ADAR1 may compete with other RNA-binding proteins. A very recent manuscript elaborates on this and reports competition of ADAR1 with STAUFEN1, thereby modulating RNA-degradation...
September 28, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939438/comparative-whole-genome-analysis-of-three-consecutive-salmonella-diarizonae-isolates
#3
Roman G Gerlach, Steffi Walter, Michael McClelland, Christiane Schmidt, Matthias Steglich, Rita Prager, Jennifer K Bender, Stephan Fuchs, Christoph Schoerner, Wolfgang Rabsch, Werner Lang, Jonathan Jantsch
Infections of very young children or immunocompromised people with Salmonella of higher subspecies are a well-known phenomenon often associated with contact to cold-blooded animals. We describe the molecular characterization of three S. enterica subsp. diarizonae strains, isolated consecutively over a period of several months from a hospital patient suffering from diarrhea and sepsis with fatal outcome. With the initial isolate the first complete genome sequence of a member of subsp. diarizonae is provided and based on this reference we revealed the genomic differences between the three isolates by use of next-generation sequencing and confirmed by phenotypical tests...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566301/understanding-rna-modifications-the-promises-and-technological-bottlenecks-of-the-epitranscriptome
#4
REVIEW
Matthias Schaefer, Utkarsh Kapoor, Michael F Jantsch
The discovery of mechanisms that alter genetic information via RNA editing or introducing covalent RNA modifications points towards a complexity in gene expression that challenges long-standing concepts. Understanding the biology of RNA modifications represents one of the next frontiers in molecular biology. To this date, over 130 different RNA modifications have been identified, and improved mass spectrometry approaches are still adding to this list. However, only recently has it been possible to map selected RNA modifications at single-nucleotide resolution, which has created a number of exciting hypotheses about the biological function of RNA modifications, culminating in the proposition of the 'epitranscriptome'...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402218/rna-in-disease-and-development
#5
Andrea Barta, Michael F Jantsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375511/na-deposition-in-the-fibrotic-skin-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients-detected-by-23na-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Christoph Kopp, Christian Beyer, Peter Linz, Anke Dahlmann, Matthias Hammon, Jonathan Jantsch, Patrick Neubert, Daniela Rosenhauer, Dominik N Müller, Alexander Cavallaro, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Georg Schett, Friedrich C Luft, Michael Uder, Jörg H W Distler, Jens Titze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346055/a-to-i-editing-in-disease-is-not-fake-news
#7
Prajakta Bajad, Michael F Jantsch, Liam Keegan, Mary O'Connell
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are zinc-containing enzymes that deaminate adenosine bases to inosines within dsRNA regions in transcripts. In short, structured dsRNA hairpins individual adenosine bases may be targeted specifically and edited with up to one hundred percent efficiency, leading to the production of alternative protein variants. However, the majority of editing events occur within longer stretches of dsRNA formed by pairing of repetitive sequences. Here, many different adenosine bases are potential targets but editing efficiency is usually much lower...
March 27, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053121/adar2-regulates-rna-stability-by-modifying-access-of-decay-promoting-rna-binding-proteins
#8
Aparna Anantharaman, Vidisha Tripathi, Abid Khan, Je-Hyun Yoon, Deepak K Singh, Omid Gholamalamdari, Shuomeng Guang, Johan Ohlson, Helene Wahlstedt, Marie Öhman, Michael F Jantsch, Nicholas K Conrad, Jian Ma, Myriam Gorospe, Supriya G Prasanth, Kannanganattu V Prasanth
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the editing of adenosine residues to inosine (A-to-I) within RNA sequences, mostly in the introns and UTRs (un-translated regions). The significance of editing within non-coding regions of RNA is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that association of ADAR2 with RNA stabilizes a subset of transcripts. ADAR2 interacts with and edits the 3΄UTR of nuclear-retained Cat2 transcribed nuclear RNA (Ctn RNA). In absence of ADAR2, the abundance and half-life of Ctn RNA are significantly reduced...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013199/na-deposition-in-the-fibrotic-skin-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients-detected-by-23na-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christoph Kopp, Christian Beyer, Peter Linz, Anke Dahlmann, Matthias Hammon, Jonathan Jantsch, Patrick Neubert, Daniela Rosenhauer, Dominik N Müller, Alexander Cavallaro, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Georg Schett, Friedrich C Luft, Michael Uder, Jörg H W Distler, Jens Titze
Objective.: Skin fibrosis is the predominant feature of SSc and arises from excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Glycosaminoglycans are macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, which facilitate Na + accumulation in the skin. We used 23 Na-MRI to quantify Na + in skin. We hypothesized that skin Na + might accumulate in SSc and might be a biomarker for skin fibrosis. Methods.: In this observational case-control study, skin Na + was determined by 23 Na-MRI using a Na + volume coil in 12 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 21 control subjects...
April 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782844/transcriptome-wide-effects-of-inverted-sines-on-gene-expression-and-their-impact-on-rna-polymerase-ii-activity
#10
Mansoureh Tajaddod, Andrea Tanzer, Konstantin Licht, Michael T Wolfinger, Stefan Badelt, Florian Huber, Oliver Pusch, Sandy Schopoff, Michael Janisiw, Ivo Hofacker, Michael F Jantsch
BACKGROUND: Short interspersed elements (SINEs) represent the most abundant group of non-long-terminal repeat transposable elements in mammalian genomes. In primates, Alu elements are the most prominent and homogenous representatives of SINEs. Due to their frequent insertion within or close to coding regions, SINEs have been suggested to play a crucial role during genome evolution. Moreover, Alu elements within mRNAs have also been reported to control gene expression at different levels...
October 25, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665741/paraspeckles-modulate-the-intranuclear-distribution-of-paraspeckle-associated-ctn-rna
#11
Aparna Anantharaman, Mahdieh Jadaliha, Vidisha Tripathi, Shinichi Nakagawa, Tetsuro Hirose, Michael F Jantsch, Supriya G Prasanth, Kannanganattu V Prasanth
Paraspeckles are sub-nuclear domains that are nucleated by long noncoding RNA Neat1. While interaction of protein components of paraspeckles and Neat1 is understood, there is limited information on the interaction of non-structural RNA components with paraspeckles. Here, by varying paraspeckle number and size, we investigate how paraspeckles influence the nuclear organization of their non-structural RNA component Ctn RNA. Our results show that Ctn RNA remains nuclear-retained in the absence of intact paraspeckles, suggesting that they do not regulate nuclear retention of Ctn RNA...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112566/adenosine-to-inosine-editing-frequency-controlled-by-splicing-efficiency
#12
Konstantin Licht, Utkarsh Kapoor, Elisa Mayrhofer, Michael F Jantsch
Alternative splicing and adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA-editing are major factors leading to co- and post-transcriptional modification of genetic information. Both, A to I editing and splicing occur in the nucleus. As editing sites are frequently defined by exon-intron basepairing, mRNA splicing efficiency should affect editing levels. Moreover, splicing rates affect nuclear retention and will therefore also influence the exposure of pre-mRNAs to the editing-competent nuclear environment. Here, we systematically test the influence of splice rates on RNA-editing using reporter genes but also endogenous substrates...
July 27, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098914/nuclear-envelope-retention-of-linc-complexes-is-promoted-by-sun-1-oligomerization-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-germ-line
#13
Anahita Daryabeigi, Alexander Woglar, Antoine Baudrimont, Nicola Silva, Dimitra Paouneskou, Cornelia Vesely, Manuel Rauter, Alexandra Penkner, Michael Jantsch, Verena Jantsch
SUN (Sad1 and UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology) proteins are constituents of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. They interact in the perinuclear space via C-terminal SUN-KASH domains to form the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex thereby bridging the nuclear envelope. LINC complexes mediate numerous biological processes by connecting chromatin with the cytoplasmic force-generating machinery. Here we show that the coiled-coil domains of SUN-1 are required for oligomerization and retention of the protein in the nuclear envelope, especially at later stages of female gametogenesis...
June 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044895/rapid-and-dynamic-transcriptome-regulation-by-rna-editing-and-rna-modifications
#14
REVIEW
Konstantin Licht, Michael F Jantsch
Advances in next-generation sequencing and mass spectrometry have revealed widespread messenger RNA modifications and RNA editing, with dramatic effects on mammalian transcriptomes. Factors introducing, deleting, or interpreting specific modifications have been identified, and analogous with epigenetic terminology, have been designated "writers," "erasers," and "readers." Such modifications in the transcriptome are referred to as epitranscriptomic changes and represent a fascinating new layer of gene expression regulation that has only recently been appreciated...
April 11, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26148686/the-dynamic-epitranscriptome-a-to-i-editing-modulates-genetic-information
#15
REVIEW
Mansoureh Tajaddod, Michael F Jantsch, Konstantin Licht
Adenosine to inosine editing (A to I editing) is a cotranscriptional process that contributes to transcriptome complexity by deamination of adenosines to inosines. Initially, the impact of A to I editing has been described for coding targets in the nervous system. Here, A to I editing leads to recoding and changes of single amino acids since inosine is normally interpreted as guanosine by cellular machines. However, more recently, new roles for A to I editing have emerged: Editing was shown to influence splicing and is found massively in Alu elements...
March 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26104016/low-oxygen-tensions-found-in-salmonella-infected-gut-tissue-boost-salmonella-replication-in-macrophages-by-impairing-antimicrobial-activity-and-augmenting-salmonella-virulence
#16
Jonas Jennewein, Jasmin Matuszak, Steffi Walter, Boas Felmy, Kathrin Gendera, Valentin Schatz, Monika Nowottny, Gregor Liebsch, Michael Hensel, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Roman G Gerlach, Jonathan Jantsch
In Salmonella infection, the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2)-encoded type three secretion system (T3SS2) is of key importance for systemic disease and survival in host cells. For instance, in the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model SPI-2-dependent Salmonella replication in lamina propria CD11c(-)CXCR1(-) monocytic phagocytes/macrophages (MΦ) is required for the development of colitis. In addition, containment of intracellular Salmonella in the gut critically depends on the antimicrobial effects of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX), and possibly type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)...
December 2015: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25738463/cutaneous-na-storage-strengthens-the-antimicrobial-barrier-function-of-the-skin-and-boosts-macrophage-driven-host-defense
#17
Jonathan Jantsch, Valentin Schatz, Diana Friedrich, Agnes Schröder, Christoph Kopp, Isabel Siegert, Andreas Maronna, David Wendelborn, Peter Linz, Katrina J Binger, Matthias Gebhardt, Matthias Heinig, Patrick Neubert, Fabian Fischer, Stefan Teufel, Jean-Pierre David, Clemens Neufert, Alexander Cavallaro, Natalia Rakova, Christoph Küper, Franz-Xaver Beck, Wolfgang Neuhofer, Dominik N Muller, Gerold Schuler, Michael Uder, Christian Bogdan, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
Immune cells regulate a hypertonic microenvironment in the skin; however, the biological advantage of increased skin Na(+) concentrations is unknown. We found that Na(+) accumulated at the site of bacterial skin infections in humans and in mice. We used the protozoan parasite Leishmania major as a model of skin-prone macrophage infection to test the hypothesis that skin-Na(+) storage facilitates antimicrobial host defense. Activation of macrophages in the presence of high NaCl concentrations modified epigenetic markers and enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK)-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) activation...
March 3, 2015: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25456137/the-rna-editing-enzyme-adar1-controls-innate-immune-responses-to-rna
#18
Niamh M Mannion, Sam M Greenwood, Robert Young, Sarah Cox, James Brindle, David Read, Christoffer Nellåker, Cornelia Vesely, Chris P Ponting, Paul J McLaughlin, Michael F Jantsch, Julia Dorin, Ian R Adams, A D J Scadden, Marie Ohman, Liam P Keegan, Mary A O'Connell
The ADAR RNA-editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs. Aberrant interferon expression occurs in patients in whom ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) or dystonia arising from striatal neurodegeneration. Adar1 mutant mouse embryos show aberrant interferon induction and die by embryonic day E12.5. We demonstrate that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued to live birth in Adar1; Mavs double mutants in which the antiviral interferon induction response to cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is prevented...
November 20, 2014: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25260591/adar2-induces-reproducible-changes-in-sequence-and-abundance-of-mature-micrornas-in-the-mouse-brain
#19
Cornelia Vesely, Stefanie Tauber, Fritz J Sedlazeck, Mansoureh Tajaddod, Arndt von Haeseler, Michael F Jantsch
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) deaminate adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs including miRNA precursors. A to I editing is widespread and required for normal life. By comparing deep sequencing data of brain miRNAs from wild-type and ADAR2 deficient mouse strains, we detect editing sites and altered miRNA processing at high sensitivity. We detect 48 novel editing events in miRNAs. Some editing events reach frequencies of up to 80%. About half of all editing events depend on ADAR2 while some miRNAs are preferentially edited by ADAR1...
October 29, 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24829383/drosha-protein-levels-are-translationally-regulated-during-xenopus-oocyte-maturation
#20
Dominik Muggenhumer, Cornelia Vesely, Simon Nimpf, Nan Tian, Jin Yongfeng, Michael F Jantsch
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼21-nucleotide-long, single-stranded noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Biogenesis of miRNAs is mediated by the two RNase III-like enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. Here we study miRNA biogenesis during maturation of Xenopus oocytes to eggs using microinjection of pri-miRNAs. We show that processing of exogenous and endogenous primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) is strongly enhanced upon maturation of oocytes to eggs. Overexpression of cloned Xenopus Drosha in oocytes, however, boosts pri-miRNA processing dramatically, indicating that Drosha is a rate-limiting factor in Xenopus oocytes...
July 1, 2014: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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