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Emily A Lemke, Lydia T Madsen, Joyce E Dains
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Women taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as part of the management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer experience more symptoms of sexual dysfunction, including vaginal atrophy, as opposed to postmenopausal women and women treated with tamoxifen (Nolvadex®). Vaginal testosterone could be an alternative to estrogen, which is contraindicated in this population.
. LITERATURE SEARCH: A systematic review was completed by searching PubMed and Scopus databases...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
B Zeidan, K Anderson, L Peiris, D Rainsbury, S Laws
BACKGROUND: In 2006 Nolvadex was discontinued and replaced by a variety of alternative generic tamoxifen brands for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Anecdotally, patients are switching brands and taking alternative medications to reduce treatment related symptoms. Nevertheless, more severe side effects may equate to better relapse prevention. This study evaluates generic tamoxifen adherence and its correlation with side effects and brand switch. METHODS: Consecutive disease free ER positive patients (stage I-III) were invited to respond to a questionnaire...
October 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Meral Günaldı, Melek Erkisi, Ciğdem Usul Afşar, Vehbi Erçolak, Semra Paydas, I Oguz Kara, Berksoy Sahin, Umran Kucukgoz Gulec, Ata Secilmis
BACKGROUND: Several previous studies have examined the effect of CYP2D6 gene polymorphism on the efficacy and metabolism of tamoxifen (Tamoxifen Teva, Nolvadex) in the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, the metabolic profiles associated with various CYP2D6 genotypes were evaluated. METHOD: In the present study 92 Turkish breast cancer patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive tumors treated with adjuvant tamoxifen (20 mg) were evaluated for CYP2D6 genotype and metabolic profiles...
2014: Pharmacology
Chen Mao, Zu-Yao Yang, Ben-Fu He, Shan Liu, Jun-Hua Zhou, Rong-Cheng Luo, Qing Chen, Jin Ling Tang
BACKGROUND: Toremifene (TOR) and tamoxifen (TAM) can both be used as treatments for advanced breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of TOR with TAM in patients with advanced breast cancer. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register was searched (1 July 2011) using the codes for "toremifene", "fareston", "tamoxifen, "nolvadex, and "breast cancer". We also searched MEDLINE (via PubMed) (from inception to 1 July 2011), EMBASE (via Ovid) (from inception to 1 July 2011), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform search portal (1 July 2011)...
2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Joseph P Kitzmiller, David K Groen, Mitch A Phelps, Wolfgang Sadee
Genetics may account for much of the variability in our patients' responses to drug therapies. This article offers the clinician an up-to-date overview of pharmacogenomic testing, discussing implications and limitations of emerging validated tests relevant to the use of warfarin (Coumadin), clopidogrel (Plavix), statins, tamoxifen (Nolvadex), codeine, and psychotropic drugs. It also discusses the future role of pharmacogenomic testing in medicine.
April 2011: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Hazel B Nichols, Amy Berrington de González, James V Lacey, Philip S Rosenberg, William F Anderson
PURPOSE: Contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is the most frequent new malignancy among women diagnosed with a first breast cancer. Although temporal trends for first breast cancers have been well studied, trends for CBC are not so well established. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined temporal trends in CBC incidence using US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1975 to 2006). Data were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status of the first breast cancer for the available time period (1990+)...
April 20, 2011: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
N S Blencowe, C Reichl, J Gahir, I Paterson
INTRODUCTION: Small joint arthralgia has been anecdotally reported for many years by women taking generic Tamoxifen (gT). However, it is a symptom that is absent from the side effect profile of the original Tamoxifen preparation Nolvadex. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of arthralgia in Tamoxifen users and to investigate whether it was associated with the excipient profile of the newer, generic formulations of Tamoxifen. METHODS: Women diagnosed with oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer between 2001 and 2005 were eligible...
June 2010: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
C J H van de Velde, S Verma, J G H van Nes, C Masterman, K I Pritchard
The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), including anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole, have demonstrated improved efficacy versus tamoxifen for the adjuvant endocrine treatment of postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. AIs can be used in several adjuvant endocrine settings: as upfront therapy, switch to an AI after 2-3years of tamoxifen or extended therapy following 5years of tamoxifen. In the switch setting, two different types of study designs have been utilized. One is a late randomization design which randomizes patients who are disease-free after 2-3years of tamoxifen to receive an AI versus continuation of tamoxifen...
February 2010: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Gabriela Kornek, Edgar Selzer
It is now exactly 100 years ago (1908) that Paul Ehrlich, who is regarded as the inventor of the concept of targeted therapy, received the Nobel Prize for Medicine. His initial perception leading to this theory was derived from observations that certain substances are capable of selectively staining either tissues or microorganisms. These observations culminated in the discovery of the inorganic mercury compound arsphenamine (Salvarsan) by Sahachiro Hata in the laboratory of Paul Ehrlich. Salvarsan might be regarded as the first effective "targeted" treatment for syphilis at that time...
2009: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Aman U Buzdar, R Charles Coombes, Paul E Goss, Eric P Winer
Five years of adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen was considered the gold-standard treatment for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer for many years. Data from a core group of clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have challenged this perception. These studies were designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AIs in the following clinical settings: 1) as initial adjuvant therapy (the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination trial, Breast International Group Trial 1-98), 2) in a "switched setting" after 2 to 3 years of treatment with tamoxifen (Arimidex-Nolvadex 95, the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group 8 [ABCSG 8] trial, the Italian Tamoxifen Anastrozole study, the Intergroup Exemestane Study), and 3) in extended settings (National Cancer Institute of Canada Trial MA...
February 1, 2008: Cancer
Walter Jonat, Michael Gnant, Francesco Boccardo, Manfred Kaufmann, Alessandra Rubagotti, Ivan Zuna, Mike Greenwood, Raimund Jakesz
BACKGROUND: For more than 20 years, tamoxifen has been the mainstay of adjuvant endocrine therapy for women with hormone-sensitive early-stage breast cancer. However, not only does tamoxifen have potential side-effects such as an increased risk of endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events, but patients can also develop resistance to the drug. We aimed to investigate whether switching treatment of postmenopausal women with such breast cancer to anastrozole after 2-3 years of tamoxifen would be more effective than continuing on tamoxifen for a total of 5 years...
December 2006: Lancet Oncology
Aman Buzdar, Rowan Chlebowski, Jack Cuzick, Sean Duffy, John Forbes, Walter Jonat, Peter Ravdin
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, data have been published concerning the relative efficacy and safety profiles of tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the adjuvant therapy setting for women with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Recently, debate has centred around trials which have studied primary tamoxifen and AI therapy, switching and sequencing strategies and extended adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Here, a group of 24 breast cancer experts review efficacy and safety data from the recent major trials investigating tamoxifen and the third-generation AIs in postmenopausal women, which have challenged the perception of tamoxifen as optimum adjuvant endocrine therapy...
August 2006: Current Medical Research and Opinion
(no author information available yet)
Preliminary results from a new study, unpublished but reported in a press release from the National Cancer Institute and widely disseminated in the public press, suggest that raloxifene (Evista) might be a better choice than tamoxifen (Nolvadex, and others) for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.
May 8, 2006: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
James N Ingle
Results from multiple clinical trials involving aromatase inhibitors have added to the knowledge base relating to endocrine therapy of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. In the extended adjuvant setting, data from the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group 6a trial showed an advantage for anastrozole following 5 years of tamoxifen treatment, consistent with the more robust MA.17 trial that examined letrozole versus placebo following 5 years of tamoxifen treatment...
February 1, 2006: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Henning T Mouridsen, Nicholas J Robert
The third-generation aromatase inhibitors, letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane, have been shown to be effective both as alternatives to tamoxifen in first-line treatment of hormone-sensitive advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women and following failure of first-line tamoxifen for endocrine therapy. These 3 agents are now being investigated as adjuvant therapy of early breast cancer, as alternative or complementary treatments to the standard, tamoxifen. Three treatment strategies are under investigation: replacement of tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for 5 years (early adjuvant therapy), sequencing of tamoxifen before or after an aromatase inhibitor during the first 5 years (early sequential adjuvant therapy), or following 5 years of tamoxifen (extended adjuvant therapy)...
August 24, 2005: MedGenMed: Medscape General Medicine
Walter Jonat, Felix Hilpert, Nicolai Maass
Clinical evidence supporting the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in adjuvant therapy for hormone-sensitive early breast cancer (EBC) has grown rapidly over the past few years and is reviewed in this article. The results of two studies-the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial and the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial-support the use of AIs as primary adjuvant therapy for EBC, with significantly prolonged disease-free survival, time to recurrence, and time to distant recurrence for both anastrozole and letrozole over tamoxifen...
November 2005: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Anthony Howell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tamoxifen has been available for over 20 years and remains the most commonly recognized endocrine therapy. This review was prompted by a wealth of new data on several newer endocrine agents, including selective oestrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors and a new oestrogen receptor antagonist, fulvestrant, which unlike the selective oestrogen receptor modulators has no oestrogen agonist effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Completed analysis of the 'Arimidex', Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination trial demonstrated that anastrozole as initial adjuvant therapy significantly improved disease-free survival and time to recurrence compared with tamoxifen, as well as reducing the incidence of contralateral breast cancer deaths...
August 2005: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Francesco Boccardo, Alessandra Rubagotti, Giario Conti, Domenico Potenzoni, Antonio Manganelli, Demetrio Del Monaco
OBJECTIVE: A randomized multicenter (14 centers) trial was conducted in 114 men with prostate cancer to determine whether the antiestrogen tamoxifen ('Nolvadex') 20 mg or the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole ('Arimidex') 1 mg prevent gynecomastia and breast pain during treatment with the non-steroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150 mg, without compromising efficacy, safety, or quality of life. Plasma samples were collected in a subgroup of these patients to investigate whether trough (pre-dose) concentrations of bicalutamide 150 mg are influenced by concomitant administration of tamoxifen 20 mg or anastrozole 1 mg; the results of this pilot study are reported in this article...
October 2005: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
D Saltzstein, P Sieber, T Morris, J Gallo
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial involving 107 men receiving bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150 mg/day therapy following radical therapy for prostate cancer assessed tamoxifen ('Nolvadex') 20 mg/day and anastrozole ('Arimidex') 1 mg/day for the prophylaxis and treatment of gynecomastia/breast pain. Tamoxifen, but not anastrozole, significantly reduced the incidence of gynecomastia/breast pain when used prophylactically and therapeutically. Serum testosterone levels increased with tamoxifen relative to placebo but prostate-specific antigen levels declined in all treatment groups...
2005: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Sharon L Bober, Lizbeth A Hoke, Rosemary B Duda, Meredith M Regan, Nadine M Tung
PURPOSE: To explore the health-related and psychological factors that influence decision making about tamoxifen (Nolvadex; AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA) chemoprevention in women at increased risk for developing breast cancer. METHODS: This study involves the assessment of 129 women eligible to take tamoxifen following cancer-risk counseling. Treatment decision and decision satisfaction were measured at 2 and 4 months following counseling. Health-related factors included physician recommendation, personal and family-related health history, and concern about side effects...
December 15, 2004: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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