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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109686/ketone-diester-ingestion-impairs-time-trial-performance-in-professional-cyclists
#1
Jill J Leckey, Megan L Ross, Marc Quod, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
We investigated the effect of pre- "race" ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT) in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM) carbohydrate (CHO)] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO) with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106812/whey-protein-hydrolysate-supplementation-accelerates-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#2
Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076962/effects-of-a-15-day-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-in-resistance-trained-men
#3
Hunter S Waldman, Ben M Krings, Steven A Basham, JohnEric W Smith, Brent J Fountain, Matthew J McAllister
Waldman, HS, Krings, BM, Basham, SA, Smith, JW, Fountain, BJ, and McAllister, MJ. Effects of a 15-day low carbohydrate, high-fat diet in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study examined the effects of a 15-day isocaloric low carbohydrate (<25% E), high-fat (>50% E) (LCHF) diet on physiological and metabolic alterations in resistance-trained (RT) men. College-aged RT men (n = 11) completed 4 V[Combining Dot Above]O2max tests using treadmill every 5 days during the 15-day trial...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033851/effects-of-alpha-lactalbumin-or-whey-protein-isolate-on-muscle-damage-muscle-pain-and-mood-states-following-prolonged-strenuous-endurance-exercise
#4
Lu Qin, Stephen H S Wong, Feng-Hua Sun, Yu Huang, Sinead Sheridan, Cindy H P Sit
This study compared the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and whey protein on muscle damage, muscle pain, and mood states during short term recovery following strenuous prolonged exercise. In a two-stage crossover counterbalanced design, 12 endurance male runners were recruited (age: 30.4 ± 2.8 year, height: 172.7 ± 5.6 cm, body mass: 66.7 ± 6.5 kg, VO2max: 58.0 ± 6.9 ml/kg(-)/min), ran for 90 min at 70% VO2max, and followed by a 4-h recovery. Two treatments (carbohydrate+alpha-lactalbumin, CA; carbohydrate+whey protein isolate, CW) were applied during the main trials...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980345/exercise-physiology-and-nutritional-perspectives-of-elite-soccer-refereeing
#5
REVIEW
Kai Schenk, Mario Bizzini, Hannes Gatterer
Referees are an integral part of soccer and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity and training load...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972854/the-effect-of-milk-on-recovery-from-repeat-sprint-cycling-in-female-team-sport-athletes
#6
Paula Rankin, Michael J Lawlor, Frank A Hills, Phillip G Bell, Emma J Stevenson, Emma Cockburn
The consumption of milk post-eccentric exercise attenuates the effects of muscle damage in team-sport athletes. However, participation in team sport involves both concentric-eccentric loading and metabolic stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a cycling protocol designed to simulate the metabolic demands of team sport. Ten female team-sport athletes participated in a randomised cross-over investigation. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500ml of milk (MILK) or 500ml of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink...
October 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952831/perception-of-breakfast-ingestion-enhances-high-intensity-cycling-performance
#7
Stephen A Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay, Lewis J James
PURPOSE: To examine the effect on short duration, high intensity cycling time trial performance when a semi-solid breakfast containing carbohydrate or a taste and texture matched placebo is ingested 90 minutes pre-exercise compared to a water control. METHODS: Thirteen well trained cyclists (25 ± 8 years, 71.1 ± 5.9 kg, 1.76 ± 0.04 m, 383 ± 46 Wmax, VO2peak 4.42 ± 0.53 L·min(-1)) performed three experimental trials examining breakfast ingestion 90 minutes before a 10 minute steady state cycle (60% Wmax) and a ~20 minute time trial (to complete a workload target of 376 ± 36 kJ)...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#8
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806275/effects-of-creatine-and-carbohydrate-loading-on-cycling-time-trial-performance
#9
Kristyen A Tomcik, Donny M Camera, Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Nikki A Jeacocke, Bill Tachtsis, Joan Senden, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
INTRODUCTION: Creatine- and carbohydrate-loading are dietary strategies used to enhance exercise capacity. This study examined the metabolic and performance effects of a combined creatine and CHO-loading regiment on time-trial (TT) cycling bouts. METHODS: Eighteen well-trained (~65mL[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min VO2peak) males completed three performance trials (PT) comprised of a 120-km cycling TT interspersed with alternating 1- and 4-km sprints (6 sprints each) performed every 10-km followed by an inclined ride to fatigue (~90% VO2peak)...
August 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#10
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671626/effects-of-carbohydrate-and-glutamine-supplementation-on-oral-mucosa-immunity-after-strenuous-exercise-at-high-altitude-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#11
Aline Venticinque Caris, Edgar Tavares Da Silva, Samile Amorim Dos Santos, Sergio Tufik, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos
This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min), and hypoxia after six days glutamine (20 g/day) and 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min). All procedures were randomized and double-blind. Saliva was collected at rest (basal), before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise (post-exercise), and two hours after exercise...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#12
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605609/effects-of-macro-and-micronutrients-on-exercise-induced-hepcidin-response-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes
#13
Dylan T Dahlquist, Trent Stellingwerff, Brad P Dieter, Donald C McKenzie, Michael S Koehle
Iron deficiency has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise-induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by upregulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micronutrients on blunting exercise-induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postexercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the postexercise hepcidin response. Ten highly trained male cyclists (age: 26...
October 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603468/minimal-dose-of-milk-protein-concentrate-to-enhance-the-anabolic-signalling-response-to-a-single-bout-of-resistance-exercise-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Cameron J Mitchell, Nina Zeng, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Kirsten Aasen, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is a potent stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy. Supplemental protein intake is known to enhance gains in muscle mass through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which initiates protein translation. While the optimal dose of high quality protein to promote post exercise anabolism in young or older men has been investigated, little is known about the minimum doses of protein required to potentiate the resistance exercise activation of anabolic signalling in middle aged men...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503530/caffeine-supplementation-affects-the-immunometabolic-response-to-concurrent-training
#15
Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Paula Aulves Monteiro, José Gerosa-Neto, Érico Chagas Caperuto, Jason Michael Cholewa, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Fábio Santos Lira
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of caffeine (CAF) and carbohydrate (CHO) intake on strength performance and its metabolic and inflammatory responses during concurrent training. Seven active males ingested a double-placebo (P), CAF (capsule 5 mg/kg) or CHO (20% maltodextrin solution) supplementation before strength exercise. Participants performed three randomized sessions of 5,000-m high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise at maximal intensity followed by strength exercise, performing after the P, CHO, and CAF intake...
April 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415067/effect-of-whey-protein-in-conjunction-with-a-caloric-restricted-diet-and-resistance-training
#16
Wesley D Dudgeon, Elizabeth P Kelley, Timothy P Scheett
Dudgeon, WD, Kelley, EP, and Scheett, TP. Effect of whey protein in conjunction with a caloric-restricted diet and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1353-1361, 2017-Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance-trained men (24 ± 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d·wk body building style split resistance training program for 8 weeks in conjunction with a pre-exercise, periexercise, and postexercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON)-based nutritional supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394459/ergogenic-properties-of-metformin-in-simulated-high-altitude
#17
Rebecca L Scalzo, Hunter L Paris, Scott E Binns, Janelle L Davis, Joseph W Beals, Christopher L Melby, Gary J Luckasen, Matthew S Hickey, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Christopher Bell
Metformin augments glucose/glycogen regulation and may acutely promote fatigue resistance during high-intensity exercise. In hypobaric environments, such as high altitude, the important contribution of carbohydrates to physiological function is accentuated as glucose/glycogen dependence is increased. Because hypoxia/hypobaria decreases insulin sensitivity, replenishing skeletal muscle glycogen in high altitude becomes challenging and subsequent physical performance may be compromised. We hypothesized that in conditions where glycogen repletion was critical to physical outcomes, metformin would attenuate hypoxia-mediated decrements in exercise performance...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387576/dietary-microperiodization-in-elite-female-and-male-runners-and-race-walkers-during-a-block-of-high-intensity-precompetition-training
#18
Ida A Heikura, Louise M Burke, Antti A Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff
We investigated one week of dietary microperiodization in elite female (n = 23) and male (n = 15) runners and race-walkers by examining the frequency of training sessions and recovery periods conducted with recommended carbohydrate (CHO) and protein availability. Food and training diaries were recorded in relation to HARD (intense or >90min sessions; KEY) versus RECOVERY days (other-than KEY sessions; EASY). The targets for amount and timing of CHO and protein around KEY sessions were based on current nutrition recommendations...
August 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386239/skeletal-muscle-myomir-are-differentially-expressed-by-endurance-exercise-mode-and-combined-essential-amino-acid-and-carbohydrate-supplementation
#19
Lee M Margolis, Holly L McClung, Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, Stefan M Pasiakos
Skeletal muscle microRNAs (myomiR) expression is modulated by exercise, however, the influence of endurance exercise mode, combined with essential amino acid and carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) supplementation are not well defined. This study determined the effects of weighted versus non-weighted endurance exercise, with or without EAA+CHO ingestion on myomiR expression and their association with muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty five adults performed 90 min of metabolically-matched (2.2 VO2 L·m(-1)) load carriage (LC; performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass) or cycle ergometry (CE) exercise, during which EAA+CHO (10 g EAA and 46 g CHO) or non-nutritive control (CON) drinks were consumed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383695/effect-of-pre-exercise-carbohydrate-diets-with-high-vs-low-glycemic-index-on-exercise-performance-a-meta-analysis
#20
Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Feng-Hua Sun, Ya-Jun Chen, Chunxiao Li, Yan-Jie Zhang, Wendy Ya-Jun Huang
Context: Although pre-exercise consumption of a low-glycemic-index (LGI) carbohydrate meal is generally recommended, the findings regarding subsequent exercise performance are inconsistent. Objective: This meta-analytic study was conducted to determine whether a pre-exercise LGI carbohydrate meal leads to greater endurance performance than a pre-exercise high-glycemic-index (HGI) meal. Data sources: The following electronic databases were searched until April 2016: MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
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