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pre-exercise carbohydrate

Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Andreas Zafeiridis, Anastasia Chrysovalantou Chatziioannou, Haralambos Sarivasiliou, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Ioannis S Vrabas, Alexandros Pechlivanis, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Constantinos Baskakis, Konstantina Dipla, Georgios A Theodoridis
The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
R Andrew Shanely, David C Nieman, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Dru A Henson, Mary P Meaney, Amy M Knab, Lynn Cialdell-Kam
Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study...
2016: Nutrients
Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Xiaomin Sun, Mitsuru Higuchi
OBJECTIVE: The independent effects of acute endurance exercise on FGF21 metabolism are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether acute endurance exercise modulates serum postprandial FGF21 levels in an age-dependent manner. DESIGN: Exercise intervention trial. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight subjects participated in the experiment, of whom 13 were excluded mainly because of a serum FGF21 level below the limit of detection...
July 25, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Claire E Badenhorst, Brian Dawson, Gregory R Cox, Marc Sim, Coby M Laarakkers, Dorine W Swinkels, Peter Peeling
PURPOSE: This investigation examined if a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet, maintained across a seven-day training period, could attenuate post-exercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum hepcidin levels. METHODS: Twelve endurance-trained male athletes completed two seven-day running training blocks whilst consuming either a high (8 g kg(-1)) versus a low (3 g kg(-1)) CHO isoenergetic diet. Each training block consisted of five running sessions performed on days 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7, with the intensity and duration of each session matched between training weeks...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Matt Kleven, Ben Besch, Paul Mellick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Daniel A Baur, Fernanda de C S Vargas, Christopher W Bach, Jordan A Garvey, Michael J Ormsbee
While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS) before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1) a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G) 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h(-1)); (2) HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS); and (3) HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h(-1); Low HMS)...
June 25, 2016: Nutrients
Hood Thabit, Lalantha Leelarathna
Exercise poses significant challenges to glucose management in type 1 diabetes. In spite of careful planning and manipulation of subcutaneous insulin administration, increased risk of hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability during and after exercise may occur as a result of inherent delays in insulin action and impaired counter-regulatory hormone responses. Various strategies to mitigate this issue have been advocated in clinical practice, including ingestion of supplementary carbohydrate prior to exercise, reducing background and pre-meal insulin bolus and performing bouts of resistance/high intensity exercise before aerobic exercise...
August 2016: Diabetologia
Angela DelPrete, Christin Giordano, Analia Castiglioni, Caridad Hernandez
Introduction This study seeks to explore whether the documented decline in medical student empathy can be prevented or slowed using simulated patient-role activities and small-group discussions about the patient experience of living with a chronic illness. Methods First-year students (M1, n = 118) at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine (UCFCOM) participated in a simulated patient-role activity resembling the experience of a patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The activity included taking daily "medication," participating in moderate exercise, and maintaining a low carbohydrate diet...
2016: Curēus
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Claire Stewart, Marie Limb, Kenneth Smith, Andrew Philp, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
Using an amalgamation of previously studied "train-low" paradigms, we tested the effects of reduced carbohydrate (CHO) but high leucine availability on cell-signaling responses associated with exercise-induced regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle protein synthesis (MPS). In a repeated-measures crossover design, 11 males completed an exhaustive cycling protocol with high CHO availability before, during, and after exercise (HIGH) or alternatively, low CHO but high protein (leucine enriched) availability (LOW + LEU)...
May 2016: Physiological Reports
Yufuko Kataoka, Yoshi-Ichiro Kamijo, Yu Ogawa, Eri Sumiyoshi, Mari Nakae, Shigeki Ikegawa, Kazumasa Manabe, Mayuko Morikawa, Masashi Nagata, Satoshi Takasugi, Shizue Masuki, Hiroshi Nose
The incidence of heat illness in older people has rapidly increased during midsummer for the last decade in Japan, and we suggested that whey-protein + carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic training increased plasma volume (PV) to enhance thermoregulatory adaptation in older men (J Appl Physiol, 107: 725-733, 2009); however, >60% of people age 65 and older suffer from hypertension and the symptoms may be worsened by the hypervolemia. To examine this, we randomly divided 21 older men (~69 years) with ~160 mmHg for systolic and ~90 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure at rest into two groups; Glc (N=11) consuming glucose alone (25g) and Pro-Glc (N=10) consuming whey-protein (10g) + glucose (15g), immediately after cycling exercise at 60-75% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) for 60 min·day(-1), 3 days·week(-1), for 8 weeks...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Paul A Roberts, John Fox, Nicholas Peirce, Simon W Jones, Anna Casey, Paul L Greenhaff
Muscle glycogen availability can limit endurance exercise performance. We previously demonstrated 5 days of creatine (Cr) and carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion augmented post-exercise muscle glycogen storage compared to CHO feeding alone in healthy volunteers. Here, we aimed to characterise the time-course of this Cr-induced response under more stringent and controlled experimental conditions and identify potential mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. Fourteen healthy, male volunteers cycled to exhaustion at 70 % VO2peak...
August 2016: Amino Acids
Tanja Oosthuyse, Aletta M E Millen
Cardiac function is often suppressed following prolonged strenuous exercise and this may occur partly because of an energy deficit. This study compared left ventricular (LV) function by 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) before and after ∼2.5 h of cycling (2-h steady-state 60% peak aerobic power output plus 16 km time trial) in 8 male cyclists when they ingested either placebo, carbohydrate-only (CHO-only), carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate (CHO-casein), or carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate (CHO-whey)...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Sybil A McAuley, Jodie C Horsburgh, Glenn M Ward, André La Gerche, Judith L Gooley, Alicia J Jenkins, Richard J MacIsaac, David N O'Neal
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise, vs rest, on circulating insulin and glucose, following pre-exercise insulin pump basal rate reduction. METHODS: This was an open-label, two-stage randomised crossover study of 14 adults (seven women, seven men) with type 1 diabetes established on insulin pump therapy. In each stage, participants fasted and insulin delivery was halved following a single insulin basal rate overnight...
August 2016: Diabetologia
Douglas A Keen, Eleni Constantopoulos, John P Konhilas
BACKGROUND: Dehydration caused by prolonged exercise impairs thermoregulation, endurance and exercise performance. Evidence from animal and human studies validates the potential of desalinated deep-ocean mineral water to positively impact physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we hypothesize that deep-ocean mineral water drawn from a depth of 915 m off the Kona, HI coast enhances recovery of hydration and exercise performance following a dehydrating exercise protocol compared to mountain spring water and a carbohydrate-based sports drink...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Maxwell Ruby, Chris P Repka, Paul J Arciero
BACKGROUND: Yoga/Stretching (YS) and functional resistance (FR) training are popular exercise routines. A protein-pacing (PP) diet is a common dietary regimen. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness of a PP diet alone and in combination with either YS or FR to improve body composition and cardiometabolic health. METHODS: Twenty-seven overweight women (age = 43.2 ± 4.6 years) were randomized into 3 groups: yoga (YS, n = 8) or resistance (FR, n = 10) training (3 days/week) in conjunction with PP diet (50% carbohydrate, 25% protein, and 25% fat) or PP diet-only (PP, n = 9) throughout 12-week study...
July 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Samuel L Torrens, José L Areta, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley
PURPOSE: We determined the effect of suppressing lipolysis via administration of Nicotinic acid (NA) and pre-exercise feeding on rates of whole-body substrate utilisation and cycling time trial (TT) performance. METHODS: In a randomised, single-blind, crossover design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes completed two series of TTs in which they performed a predetermined amount of work calculated to last ~60, 90 and 120 min. TTs were undertaken after a standardised breakfast (2 g kg(-1) BM of carbohydrate (CHO)) and ingestion of capsules containing either NA or placebo (PL)...
April 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jenna Sessions, Kelsey Bourbeau, Mattina Rosinski, Taylor Szczygiel, Rachael Nelson, Naveen Sharma, Micah Zuhl
UNLABELLED: The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise in the heat by measuring markers of gastrointestinal damage and inflammation. METHODS: Active subjects (n = 7) completed two 60-min running trials in a heated environment (70% VO2max, 30°C). At minute 20 of exercise, subjects consumed a carbohydrate gel (Cho) (27 g), or a non-carbohydrate placebo (nCho). Plasma endotoxin, I-FABP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and MCP-1 were measured pre-exercise, 20-min post-exercise, and again 2-h, and 4-h post-exercise...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
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