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Judith L Ross, Harvey Kushner, Karen Kowal, Martha Bardsley, Shanlee Davis, Allan L Reiss, Nicole Tartaglia, David Roeltgen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of early low-dose androgen on motor, cognitive, and behavioral function in prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind trial of 84 boys, ages 4-12 years, randomized to oxandrolone (Ox; 0.06 mg/kg daily; n = 43) or placebo (Pl; n = 41) for 24 months. Standardized assessments were performed at baseline and every 12 months for 24 months evaluating motor, cognitive, and behavioral function...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Ashley N Guillory, David N Herndon, Michael B Silva, Clark R Andersen, Oscar E Suman, Celeste C Finnerty
The systemic impact of severe burn injury results in a variety of disorders that require therapeutic intervention. Propranolol, a nonselective β1, β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reduces resting heart rate and cardiac work caused by elevated circulating catecholamines. Oxandrolone, a testosterone mimetic, promotes protein synthesis and anabolism to counter muscle wasting. Coadministration of these drugs is expected to synergistically improve patient outcomes. Testosterone administration is known to alter β-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Frederick A Moore, Stuart M Phillips, Craig J McClain, Jayshil J Patel, Robert G Martindale
Despite tremendous advances in critical care, multiple-organ failure continues to be a significant problem. However, in recent years, far fewer patients with multiple-organ failure die early, but many experience ongoing immune dysregulation and are developing persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS). Most PICS patients are discharged to nonhome destinations, fail to rehabilitate, and succumb to indolent death. From a nutrition perspective, patients with PICS experience persistent inflammation-induced cachexia despite evidenced-based recommended intensive care unit nutrition support...
April 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Filippo G Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Gianni Biolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The optimal approach to improve protein metabolism in critical illness is not yet fully defined. Here, we have summarized recent literature dealing with the main catabolic and anabolic factors influencing protein kinetics in acute hypercatabolic patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Protein/amino acid intake levels should be adapted to type and severity of illness, keeping in mind that energy overfeeding is associated with poor outcome. A number of anticatabolic nutraceuticals and drugs have been tested in acute patients...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Shanlee M Davis, Matthew G Cox-Martin, Martha Z Bardsley, Karen Kowal, Philip S Zeitler, Judith L Ross
Context: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a common condition in males, resulting in androgen deficiency and cardiometabolic diseases. These interrelated conditions may be present in prepubertal boys with KS. Objective: To determine whether supplemental low-dose androgen has a beneficial effect on body composition in prepubertal boys with KS. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 93 boys with KS aged 4 to 12 years...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jeanette Prinz, Ingo Vogt, Gianluca Adornetto, Mónica Campillos
The molecular mechanisms that translate drug treatment into beneficial and unwanted effects are largely unknown. We present here a novel approach to detect gene-drug and gene-side effect associations based on the phenotypic similarity of drugs and single gene perturbations in mice that account for the polypharmacological property of drugs. We scored the phenotypic similarity of human side effect profiles of 1,667 small molecules and biologicals to profiles of phenotypic traits of 5,384 mouse genes. The benchmarking with known relationships revealed a strong enrichment of physical and indirect drug-target connections, causative drug target-side effect links as well as gene-drug links involved in pharmacogenetic associations among phenotypically similar gene-drug pairs...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Christopher Wu, Jason R Kovac
There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states...
October 2016: Current Urology Reports
David N Herndon, Charles D Voigt, Karel D Capek, Paul Wurzer, Ashley Guillory, Andrea Kline, Clark R Andersen, Gordon L Klein, Ronald G Tompkins, Oscar E Suman, Celeste C Finnerty, Walter J Meyer, Linda E Sousse
BACKGROUND: The hypercatabolic response in severely burned pediatric patients is associated with increased production of catecholamines and corticosteroids, decreased formation of testosterone, and reduced strength alongside growth arrest for up to 2 years after injury. We have previously shown that, in the pediatric burned population, the administration of the testosterone analog oxandrolone improves lean body mass accretion and bone mineral content and that the administration of the β1-, β2-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol decreases cardiac work and resting energy expenditure while increasing peripheral lean mass...
September 2016: Annals of Surgery
S Rzeppa, L Viet
The direct detection of sulfate conjugates of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can be a powerful tool in doping control analysis. By skipping the solvolysis step analysis time can be reduced, and due to long term sulfate metabolites the detection time can be significantly extended as demonstrated for some AAS. This study presents the successful identification of sulfate metabolites of the doping agents oxandrolone and danazol in excretion urines by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Mette M Berger, Olivier Pantet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After major progress in the 1980s of burn resuscitation resulting, the last years' research has focused on modulation of metabolic response and optimization of substrate utilization. The persisting variability of clinical practice is confirmed and results in difficult comparisons between burn centers. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research explores intracellular mechanisms of the massive metabolic turmoil observed after burns: very early alterations at the mitochondrial level largely explain the hypermetabolic response, with a diminished coupling of oxygen consumption and ATP production...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Mile Stanojcic, Celeste C Finnerty, Marc G Jeschke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A complex network of hormones and other effectors characterize the hypermetabolic response in critical illness; these mediators work together to induce numerous pathophysiologic alterations. Increased incidence of infection, multiorgan failure, long-term debilitation, delays in rehabilitation, and death result from an inability to meet the prohibitively elevated protein and energy requirements, which occur during illness and can persist for several years. Pharmacologic interventions have been successfully utilized to attenuate particular aspects of the hypermetabolic response; these modalities are a component of managing critically ill patients - including those patients with severe burns...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Phillip T Burch, Michael G Spigarelli, Linda M Lambert, Patrick D Loftus, Catherine M Sherwin, Matthew W Linakis, Xiaoming Sheng, L LuAnn Minich, Richard V Williams
OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition and poor weight gain, common in neonates following repair of complex congenital heart disease (CHD), are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Oxandrolone, an anabolic steroid, improves weight gain in older children at high-risk for growth failure. We sought to determine feasibility, safety, and efficacy of oxandrolone therapy in neonates following surgery for complex CHD. DESIGN: Neonates with RACHS-1 score >3 were eligible to receive open-label oxandrolone for 28 days in this prospective pilot trial...
December 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
P I Jewo, I O Fadeyibi
Severe burns trigger a wide range of responses in the victim. Initial vascular changes are followed by hypermetabolic, inflammatory and immunologic changes. The prolonged hypermetabolic response is associated with an elevated resting rate of energy consumption, tissue wasting and altered substrate kinetics. There is increased blood glucose though insulin levels are above normal. The cortisol level is raised and, together with catecholamine, drives the metabolic response. The immune system is typically weakened...
June 30, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Linda E Sousse, David N Herndon, Ronald P Mlcak, Jong O Lee, Clark R Andersen, Andrew J Zovath, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
Pulmonary dysfunction is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric burned population. We have previously reported that the administration of a synthetic testosterone derivative, oxandrolone, significantly reduced hypermetabolism, and significantly increased height percentile, bone mineral content, lean body mass, and strength in pediatric burned patients. We hypothesize that the administration of oxandrolone will improve pulmonary function in burned pediatric subjects. A subset of severely burned pediatric subjects from a prospective clinical trial (n = 222) were included in our study (n = 54, 7-18 years, ≥30% TBSA burn)...
September 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Hudson Polonini, Anderson de Oliveira Ferreira, Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo, Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão
The objective of this study was to evaluate the permeability of oxandrolone in human skin on a preliminary basis for possible future determination of the transdermal route as an alternative to oral treatments. For this purpose, we used a percutaneous absorption assay in Franz diffusion cells coupled with freshly excised human skin. The drug release kinetics were determined to predict the efficiency of this alternative route for the drug. Nearly 236 µg (86.7%, in terms of applied dose) of the product was prevented to permeate due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC); 21...
May 2, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Thomas Reinehr, Anders Lindberg, Christina Toschke, Jose Cara, Dionisis Chrysis, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner
CONTEXT: Girls with Turner Syndrome (TS) treated or not treated with growth hormone (GH) are prone to overweight. Therefore, we hypothesize that puberty induction in TS is associated with weight gain. METHODS: We analyzed weight changes (BMI-SDS) between onset of GH treatment and near adult height (NAH) in 887 girls with TS enrolled in KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). Puberty was induced with estrogens in 646 (72·8%) girls with TS. RESULTS: Weight status did not change significantly between GH treatment start and 1 year later (mean difference -0·02 BMI-SDS), but increased significantly (P < 0·001) until NAH (+0·40 BMI-SDS)...
July 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Lloyd Evans, Matt Larsen, Adam Cox, Rob Skyrme
The authors present a case of a 24-year-old, poorly controlled insulin-dependent type 1 diabetic Caucasian man who presented to the emergency department, with a painful erection of 36 h duration that had failed to resolve with conservative management. This was the patient's seventh priapism, with his most recent attendance 1 week previously for which he underwent a distal cavernosal shunt. He admitted to taking several recreational drugs, including marijuana and cocaine, during the preceding few days, in addition to the long-term use of the oral anabolic steroid oxandrolone...
January 28, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Erkan Sari, Abdullah Bereket, Ediz Yeşilkaya, Firdevs Baş, Rüveyde Bundak, Banu Küçükemre Aydın, Şükran Darcan, Bumin Dündar, Muammer Büyükinan, Cengiz Kara, Erdal Adal, Ayşehan Akıncı, Mehmet Emre Atabek, Fatma Demirel, Nurullah Çelik, Behzat Özkan, Bayram Özhan, Zerrin Orbak, Betül Ersoy, Murat Doğan, Ali Ataş, Serap Turan, Damla Gökşen, Ömer Tarım, Bilgin Yüksel, Oya Ercan, Şükrü Hatun, Enver Şimşek, Ayşenur Ökten, Ayhan Abacı, Hakan Döneray, Mehmet Nuri Özbek, Mehmet Keskin, Hasan Önal, Nesibe Akyürek, Kezban Bulan, Derya Tepe, Hamdi Cihan Emeksiz, Korcan Demir, Deniz Kızılay, Ali Kemal Topaloğlu, Erdal Eren, Samim Özen, Hüseyin Demirbilek, Saygın Abalı, Leyla Akın, Beray Selver Eklioğlu, Sultan Kaba, Ahmet Anık, Serpil Baş, Tolga Unuvar, Halil Sağlam, Semih Bolu, Tolga Özgen, Durmuş Doğan, Esra Deniz Çakır, Yaşar Şen, Nesibe Andıran, Filiz Çizmecioğlu, Olcay Evliyaoğlu, Gülay Karagüzel, Özgür Pirgon, Gönül Çatlı, Hatice Dilek Can, Fatih Gürbüz, Çiğdem Binay, Veysel Nijat Baş, Kürşat Fidancı, Davut Gül, Adem Polat, Cengizhan Acıkel, Peyami Cinaz, Feyza Darendeliler
To evaluate the anthropometric features of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) at birth and presentation and the effect of karyotype on these parameters. Data were collected from 842 patients with TS from 35 different centers, who were followed-up between 1984 and 2014 and whose diagnosis age ranged from birth to 18 years. Of the 842 patients, 122 girls who received growth hormone, estrogen or oxandrolone were excluded, and 720 girls were included in the study. In this cohort, the frequency of small for gestational age (SGA) birth was 33%...
April 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Richard Salcido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Shasha Zhou, Yihang Shen, Linlin Wang, Pin Li
For linear longitudinal bone elongation, the stem-like progenitor chondrocytes distributed in resting zone (RZ) of growth plate have a capacity to differentiate towards the spindle chondrocytes in proliferative zone (PZ), then towards the columnar and tightly adjacent chondrocytes in hypertrophic zone (HZ). We hypothesized this process of endochondral ossification with cells morphological change was occurred along with the inter-conversion between epithelial to mesenchymal cell types. Consistent with this hypothesis, our study demonstrated the chondrocytes highly expressed mesenchymal-like biomarkers and loss of epithelial surface markers in PZ, while converse in RZ and HZ of the growth plate in mice distal tibia in vivo...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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