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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159231/techno-economic-data-for-a-multi-model-approach-to-decarbonisation-of-the-irish-private-car-sector
#1
Eamonn Mulholland, Fionn Rogan, Brian P Ó Gallachóir
These data and analyses support the research article "From technology pathways to policy roadmaps to enabling measures - A multi-model approach" Mulholland et al. (2017) [1]. This article uses 3 models - an optimization model of the Irish energy system (Irish TIMES), a simulation model of the Irish private transport sector (CarSTOCK), and a market share algorithm used to provide a behavior rich representation into the multi-modelling process. Each of these models are linked to provide a technology pathway, policy roadmap, and finally identify the enabling measures of the private transport sector in a low-carbon Ireland moving toward 2050...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150480/effect-of-time-to-diagnostic-testing-for-breast-cervical-and-colorectal-cancer-screening-abnormalities-on-screening-efficacy-a-modeling-study
#2
Carolyn M Rutter, Jane J Kim, Reinier G S Meester, Brian L Sprague, Emily A Burger, Ann G Zauber, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Nicole G Campos, Chyke A Doubeni, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Stephen Sy, Oguz Alagoz, Natasha Stout, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Douglas A Corley, Anna Tosteson
BACKGROUND: Patients who receive an abnormal cancer screening result require follow-up for diagnostic testing, but the time to follow-up varies across patients and practices. METHODS: We used a simulation study to estimate the change in lifetime screening benefits when time to follow-up for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers was increased. Estimates were based on four independently developed microsimulation models that each simulated the life course of adults eligible for breast (women aged 50-74 years), cervical (women aged 21-65 years), or colorectal (adults aged 50-75 years) cancer screening...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#3
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146508/biomechanical-analysis-of-palmar-midcarpal-instability-and-treatment-by-partial-wrist-arthrodesis
#4
Sarah A Shiga, Frederick W Werner, Marc Garcia-Elias, Brian J Harley
PURPOSE: To create a biomechanical model of palmar midcarpal instability by selective ligament sectioning and to analyze treatment by simulated partial wrist arthrodesis. METHODS: Nine fresh-frozen cadaver arms were moved through 3 servohydraulic actuated motions and 2 passive wrist mobilizations. The dorsal radiocarpal, triquetrohamate, scaphocapitate, and scaphotrapeziotrapezoid ligaments were sectioned to replicate palmar midcarpal instability. Kinematic data for the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum were recorded before and after ligament sectioning and again after simulated triquetrohamate arthrodesis (TqHA) and radiolunate arthrodesis (RLA)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145767/addressing-geographic-confounding-through-spatial-propensity-scores-a-study-of-racial-disparities-in-diabetes
#5
Melanie L Davis, Brian Neelon, Paul J Nietert, Kelly J Hunt, Lane F Burgette, Andrew B Lawson, Leonard E Egede
Motivated by a study exploring differences in glycemic control between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white veterans with type 2 diabetes, we aim to address a type of confounding that arises in spatially referenced observational studies. Specifically, we develop a spatial doubly robust propensity score estimator to reduce bias associated with geographic confounding, which occurs when measured or unmeasured confounding factors vary by geographic location, leading to imbalanced group comparisons. We augment the doubly robust estimator with spatial random effects, which are assigned conditionally autoregressive priors to improve inferences by borrowing information across neighboring geographic regions...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140328/retina-simulating-phantom-produced-by-photolithography
#6
Denise Valente, Brian Vohnsen
Cone photoreceptors have a narrow acceptance angle that is well matched to the size of the eye pupil and dampens the visual impact of aberrations and scattering. However, the structure of the human retina is not replicated in existing eye models used to test refractive designs or retinal implants that restore partial vision to the blind. Here, we report on an artificial waveguide-based retinal phantom manufactured by photolithography in photoresist film with dimensions and refractive index contrast similar to the retinal receptor layer...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139001/the-assessment-for-disinvestment-of-intramuscular-interferon-beta-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-in-brazil
#7
REVIEW
Livia Lovato Pires de Lemos, Augusto Afonso Guerra Júnior, Marisa Santos, Carlos Magliano, Isabela Diniz, Kathiaja Souza, Ramon Gonçalves Pereira, Juliana Alvares, Brian Godman, Marion Bennie, Ivan Ricardo Zimmermann, Vânia Crisitna Canuto Dos Santos, Clarice Alegre Pretramale, Francisco de Assis Acurcio
In Brazil, inclusion and exclusion of health technologies within the Unified Health System (SUS) is the responsibility of the National Committee for Health Technology Incorporation (CONITEC). A recent Cochrane systematic review demonstrated that intramuscular interferon beta 1a (IFN-β-1a-IM) was inferior to the other beta interferons (IFN-βs) for multiple sclerosis (MS). As a result, CONITEC commissioned an analysis to review possible disinvestment within SUS. The objective of this paper is to describe the disinvestment process for IFN-β-1a-IM in Brazil...
November 14, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131319/optimizing-active-surveillance-strategies-to-balance-the-competing-goals-of-early-detection-of-grade-progression-and-minimizing-harm-from-biopsies
#8
Christine L Barnett, Gregory B Auffenberg, Zian Cheng, Fan Yang, Jiachen Wang, John T Wei, David C Miller, James E Montie, Mufaddal Mamawala, Brian T Denton
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer includes follow-up with serial prostate biopsies. The optimal biopsy frequency during follow-up has not been determined. The goal of this investigation was to use longitudinal AS biopsy data to assess whether the frequency of biopsy could be reduced without substantially prolonging the time to the detection of disease with a Gleason score ≥ 7. METHODS: With data from 1375 men with low-risk prostate cancer enrolled in AS at Johns Hopkins, a hidden Markov model was developed to estimate the probability of undersampling at diagnosis, the annual probability of grade progression, and the 10-year cumulative probability of reclassification or progression to Gleason score ≥ 7...
November 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124337/warmed-winter-water-temperatures-alter-reproduction-in-two-fish-species
#9
Tyler Firkus, Frank J Rahel, Harold L Bergman, Brian D Cherrington
We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119702/bayesian-sparse-based-reconstruction-in-bioluminescence-tomography-improves-localization-accuracy-and-reduces-computational-time
#10
Jinchao Feng, Kebin Jia, Zhe Li, Brian W Pogue, Mingjie Yang, Yaqi Wang
Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides fundamental insight into biological processes in vivo. To fully realize its potential, it is important to develop image reconstruction algorithms that accurately visualize and quantify the bioluminescence signals taking advantage of limited boundary measurements. In this study, a new two-step reconstruction method for BLT is developed by taking advantage of the sparse a priori information of the light emission using multispectral measurements. The first step infers a wavelength-dependent prior by using all multi-wavelength measurements...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114613/acr-appropriateness-criteria-for-external-beam-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning-for-clinically-localized-prostate-cancer-part-ii-of-ii
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Timothy N Showalter, Gary A Ezzell, Paul L Nguyen, Dean G Assimos, Anthony V D'Amico, Alexander R Gottschalk, Gary S Gustafson, Sameer R Keole, Stanley L Liauw, Shane Lloyd, Patrick W McLaughlin, Benjamin Movsas, Bradley R Prestidge, Al V Taira, Neha Vapiwala, Brian J Davis
Purpose: To present the most updated American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria formed by an expert panel on the appropriate delivery of external beam radiation to manage stage T1 and T2 prostate cancer (in the definitive setting and post-prostatectomy) and to provide clinical variants with expert recommendations based on accompanying Appropriateness Criteria for target volumes and treatment planning. Methods and materials: The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a panel of multidisciplinary experts...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114053/cell-to-cell-variation-sets-a-tissue-rheology-dependent-bound-on-collective-gradient-sensing
#12
Brian A Camley, Wouter-Jan Rappel
When a single cell senses a chemical gradient and chemotaxes, stochastic receptor-ligand binding can be a fundamental limit to the cell's accuracy. For clusters of cells responding to gradients, however, there is a critical difference: Even genetically identical cells have differing responses to chemical signals. With theory and simulation, we show collective chemotaxis is limited by cell-to-cell variation in signaling. We find that when different cells cooperate, the resulting bias can be much larger than the effects of ligand-receptor binding...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114034/solution-structure-of-an-ultra-stable-single-chain-insulin-analog-connects-protein-dynamics-to-a-novel-mechanism-of-receptor-binding
#13
Michael D Glidden, Yanwu Yang, Nicholas A Smith, Nelson B Phillips, Kelley Carr, Nalinda P Wickramasinghe, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Michael C Lawrence, Brian J Smith, Michael A Weiss
Domain-minimized insulin receptors (IRs) have enabled crystallographic analysis of insulin-bound "micro-receptors." In such structures the C-terminal segment of the insulin B chain inserts between conserved IR domains, unmasking an invariant receptor-binding surface that spans both insulin A- and B chains. This "open" conformation not only rationalizes the inactivity of single-chain insulin (SCI) analogs (in which the A and B chains are directly linked), but also suggests that connecting (C) domains of sufficient length will bind the IR...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112809/revisiting-opls-force-field-parameters-for-ionic-liquid-simulations
#14
Brian Doherty, Xiang Zhong, Symon Gathiaka, Bin Li, Orlando Acevedo
Our OPLS-2009IL force field parameters (J. Chem. THEORY: Comput. 2009, 5, 1038-1050) were originally developed and tested on 68 unique ionic liquids featuring the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [RMIM], N-alkylpyridinium [RPyr], and choline cations. Experimental validation was limited to densities and a few, largely conflicting heat of vaporization (ΔHvap) values reported in the literature at the time. Owing to the use of Monte Carlo as our sampling technique, it was also not possible to investigate the reproduction of dynamics...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111720/constant-ph-molecular-dynamics-simulations-for-large-biomolecular-systems
#15
Brian K Radak, Christophe Chipot, Donghyuk Suh, Sunhwan Jo, Wei Jiang, James C Phillips, Klaus Schulten, Benoît Roux
An increasingly important endeavor is to develop computational strategies that enable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecular systems with spontaneous changes in protonation states under conditions of constant pH. The present work describes our efforts to implement the powerful constant-pH MD simulation method based on a hybrid nonequilibrium MD/Monte Carlo (neMD/MC) technique within the highly scalable program NAMD. The constant-pH hybrid neMD/MC method has a number of appealing features; it samples the correct semi-grand canonical ensemble rigorously, the computational cost increases linearly with the number of titratable sites, and it is applicable to explicit solvent simulations...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107487/quantitatively-excessive-normal-tissue-toxicity-and-poor-target-coverage-in-postoperative-lung-cancer-radiotherapy-meta-analysis
#16
Yazan Abuodeh, Arash O Naghavi, Michelle Echevarria, MaryLou DeMarco, Brian Tonner, Vladimir Feygelman, Craig W Stevens, Bradford A Perez, Thomas J Dilling
BACKGROUND: A previous meta-analysis (MA) found postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in lung cancer patients to be detrimental in N0/N1 patients and equivocal in the N2 setting. We hypothesized that treatment plans generated using MA protocols had worse dosimetric outcomes compared to modern plans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrieved plans for 13 patients who received PORT with modern planning. A plan was recreated for each patient using the 8 protocols included in MA...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107369/modeling-impacts-of-sea-level-rise-oil-price-and-management-strategy-on-the-costs-of-sustaining-mississippi-delta-marshes-with-hydraulic-dredging
#17
Adrian R H Wiegman, John W Day, Christopher F D'Elia, Jeffrey S Rutherford, James T Morris, Eric D Roy, Robert R Lane, David E Dismukes, Brian F Snyder
Over 25% of Mississippi River delta plain (MRDP) wetlands were lost over the past century. There is currently a major effort to restore the MRDP focused on a 50-year time horizon, a period during which the energy system and climate will change dramatically. We used a calibrated MRDP marsh elevation model to assess the costs of hydraulic dredging to sustain wetlands from 2016 to 2066 and 2016 to 2100 under a range of scenarios for sea level rise, energy price, and management regimes. We developed a subroutine to simulate dredging costs based on the price of crude oil and a project efficiency factor...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106968/effects-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-and-la-ni%C3%A3-a-southern-oscillation-events-on-the-adrenocortical-responses-to-stress-in-birds-of-the-galapagos-islands
#18
John C Wingfield, Michaela Hau, P Dee Boersma, L Michael Romero, Nigella Hillgarth, Marilyn Ramenofsky, Peter Wrege, Robert Scheibling, J Patrick Kelley, Brian Walker, Martin Wikelski
El Niño Southern Oscillation events (ENSO) and the subsequent opposite weather patterns in the following months and years (La Niña) have major climatic impacts, especially on oceanic habitats, affecting breeding success of both land and sea birds. We assessed corticosterone concentrations from blood samples during standardized protocols of capture, handling and restraint to simulate acute stress from 12 species of Galapagos Island birds during the ENSO year of 1998 and a La Niña year of 1999. Plasma levels of corticosterone were measured in samples collected at capture (to represent non-stressed baseline) and subsequently up to one hour post-capture to give maximum corticosterone following acute stress, and total amount of corticosterone that the individual was exposed to during the test period (integrated corticosterone)...
October 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102668/lead-exposure-in-young-children-over-a-5-year-period-from-urban-environments-using-alternative-exposure-measures-with-the-us-epa-ieubk-model-a-trial
#19
Brian Gulson, Alan Taylor, Marc Stifelman
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model has been widely used to predict blood lead (PbB) levels in children especially around industrial sites. Exposure variables have strongly focussed on the major contribution of lead (Pb) in soil and interior dust to total intake and, in many studies, site-specific data for air, water, diet and measured PbB were not available. We have applied the IEUBK model to a comprehensive data set, including measured PbB, for 108 children monitored over a 5-year period in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090500/five-minute-knee-mri-for-simultaneous-morphometry-and-t2-relaxometry-of-cartilage-and-meniscus-and-for-semiquantitative-radiological-assessment-using-double-echo-in-steady-state-at-3t
#20
Akshay S Chaudhari, Marianne S Black, Susanne Eijgenraam, Wolfgang Wirth, Susanne Maschek, Bragi Sveinsson, Felix Eckstein, Edwin H G Oei, Garry E Gold, Brian A Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers for assessing osteoarthritis activity necessitate multiple MRI sequences with long acquisition times. PURPOSE: To perform 5-minute simultaneous morphometry (thickness/volume measurements) and T2 relaxometry of both cartilage and meniscus, and semiquantitative MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Scoring (MOAKS). STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Fifteen healthy volunteers for morphometry and T2 measurements, and 15 patients (five each Kellgren-Lawrence grades 0/2/3) for MOAKS assessment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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