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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227531/step-length-and-width-variability-while-walking-on-a-motion-simulator-mounted-treadmill
#1
Timothy Boerger, Jacob Van Dehy, Tanya Onushko, Brian Schmit, Allison Hyngstrom, Timothy Boerger, Jacob Van Dehy, Tanya Onushko, Brian Schmit, Allison Hyngstrom, Timothy Boerger, Brian Schmit, Allison Hyngstrom, Jacob Van Dehy, Tanya Onushko
While devices which allow scientists to perturb normal walking are becoming increasingly common, postural adaptations to these perturbations have not been fully quantified. One way to quantify postural responses to perturbations are through the assessment of variability of step length and width. In the present study we determined variability of both step length and width while subjects walked under perturbations of varying amplitude in roll, pitch, yaw, anteroposterior, lateral, and combined roll, pitch, yaw directions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227065/fea-modeling-and-fluid-flow-simulation-of-human-rectum-with-inserted-bowel-catheters
#2
Yong Zhang, Tina VanRiper, Brian Rague, Drew Weidman, Yong Zhang, Tina VanRiper, Brian Rague, Drew Weidman, Tina VanRiper, Drew Weidman, Brian Rague, Yong Zhang
In this project, fluid flow and fluid-structure interaction are studied for the human lower gastrointestinal (GI) region. The study consists of two steps. First, we apply meshing methods to discretize both the human lower GI model and the catheter model at sufficient resolution suitable for importing into a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. For model discretization, 3D models of the colon reconstructed from human MRI slices are used to obtain the valid inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. To resolve the viscous boundary layer in flow studies, a special structure of the near-wall volumetric mesh is built by triangular prisms that construct quasi-structured, multiple near-boundary sub-layers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226820/monte-carlo-validation-of-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-identification-from-spiking-activity
#3
Brian S Robinson, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Brian S Robinson, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Brian S Robinson, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger
As increasingly complex non-stationary models become possible to be identified from neural data, rigorous validation approaches must be developed to rule out overfitting and the potential to identify features by chance. Specifically, identification of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) from recorded spontaneous in vivo spike timing is a potentially powerful tool to quantify activity-dependent plasticity. In previous work, we presented a methodology to perform this STDP identification from spike timing alone and successfully identified a generative model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220785/c-edge-loops-of-arrestin-function-as-a-membrane-anchor
#4
Ciara C M Lally, Brian Bauer, Jana Selent, Martha E Sommer
G-protein-coupled receptors are membrane proteins that are regulated by a small family of arrestin proteins. During formation of the arrestin-receptor complex, arrestin first interacts with the phosphorylated receptor C terminus in a pre-complex, which activates arrestin for tight receptor binding. Currently, little is known about the structure of the pre-complex and its transition to a high-affinity complex. Here we present molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed fluorescence experiments on arrestin-1 interactions with rhodopsin, showing that loops within the C-edge of arrestin function as a membrane anchor...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217761/modeling-of-chronic-radiation-induced-cystitis-in-mice
#5
Bernadette M M Zwaans, Sarah Krueger, Sarah N Bartolone, Michael B Chancellor, Brian Marples, Laura E Lamb
PURPOSE: Radiation cystitis (RC), a severe inflammatory bladder condition, develops as a side-effect of pelvic radiation therapy in cancer patients. There are currently no effective therapies to treat RC, in part due to the lack of preclinical model systems. In this study, we developed a mouse model for RC and used a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) to simulate the targeted delivery of radiation as used with human patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To induce RC, C3H mice received a single radiation dose of 20Gy delivered through two beams...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211829/virtual-and-augmented-reality-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-treatment-of-phantom-limb-pain-a%C3%A2-literature-review
#6
Justin Dunn, Elizabeth Yeo, Parisah Moghaddampour, Brian Chau, Sarah Humbert
BACKGROUND: Phantom limb pain (PLP), the perception of discomfort in a limb no longer present, commonly occurs following amputation. A variety of interventions have been employed for PLP, including mirror therapy. Virtual Reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) mirror therapy treatments have also been utilized, and have the potential to provide an even greater immersive experience for the amputee. However, there is not currently a consensus on the efficacy of VR and AR therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the current research on the effect of immersive VR and AR in the treatment of PLP...
February 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199875/examining-the-impacts-of-increased-corn-production-on-groundwater-quality-using-a-coupled-modeling-system
#7
Valerie Garcia, Ellen Cooter, James Crooks, Brian Hinckley, Mark Murphy, Xiangnan Xing
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191685/gene-based-segregation-method-for-identifying-rare-variants-in-family-based-sequencing-studies
#8
Dandi Qiao, Christoph Lange, Nan M Laird, Sungho Won, Craig P Hersh, Jarrett Morrow, Brian D Hobbs, Sharon M Lutz, Ingo Ruczinski, Terri H Beaty, Edwin K Silverman, Michael H Cho
Whole-exome sequencing using family data has identified rare coding variants in Mendelian diseases or complex diseases with Mendelian subtypes, using filters based on variant novelty, functionality, and segregation with the phenotype within families. However, formal statistical approaches are limited. We propose a gene-based segregation test (GESE) that quantifies the uncertainty of the filtering approach. It is constructed using the probability of segregation events under the null hypothesis of Mendelian transmission...
February 13, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186729/n-terminal-hypothesis-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Brian Murray, Bhanushee Sharma, Georges Belfort
Although the amyloid (abeta peptide, Aβ) hypothesis is 25 years old, is the dominant model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and guides the development of potential treatments, it is still controversial. One possible reason is a lack of a mechanistic path from the cleavage products of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) such as soluble Aβ monomer and soluble molecular fragments to the deleterious effects on synaptic form and function. From a review of the recent literature and our own published work including aggregation kinetics and structural morphology, Aβ clearance, molecular simulations, long-term potentiation measurements with inhibition binding, and the binding of a commercial monoclonal antibody, aducanumab, we hypothesize that the N-terminal domains of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are implicated in causing the disease...
February 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182273/association-of-time-varying-clearance-of-nivolumab-with-disease-dynamics-and-its-implications-on-exposure-response-analysis
#10
Chao Liu, Jingyu Yu, Hongshan Li, Jiang Liu, Yuan Xu, Pengfei Song, Qi Liu, Hong Zhao, James Xu, Virginia E Maher, Brian P Booth, Geoffrey Kim, Atiqur Rahman, Yaning Wang
Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1 programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Nivolumab demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials for various types of cancer. A time-varying clearance was identified for nivolumab. We show that the change of clearance over time is associated with the post-treatment effects: clearance decreases when disease status improves. This interaction between post-treatment effects and drug exposure may lead to a biased steep estimate of exposure-response (E-R) relationship for efficacy...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173628/designing-ecological-climate-change-impact-assessments-to-reflect-key-climatic-drivers
#11
Helen R Sofaer, Joseph J Barsugli, Catherine S Jarnevich, John T Abatzoglou, Marian K Talbert, Brian W Miller, Jeffrey T Morisette
Identifying the climatic drivers of an ecological system is a key step in assessing its vulnerability to climate change. The climatic dimensions to which a species or system is most sensitive - such as means or extremes - can guide methodological decisions for projections of ecological impacts and vulnerabilities. However, scientific workflows for combining climate projections with ecological models have received little explicit attention. We review Global Climate Model (GCM) performance along different dimensions of change and compare frameworks for integrating GCM output into ecological models...
February 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168060/3d-printing-aids-acetabular-reconstruction-in-complex-revision-hip-arthroplasty
#12
Andrew J Hughes, Cathal DeBuitleir, Philip Soden, Brian O'Donnchadha, Anthony Tansey, Ali Abdulkarim, Colm McMahon, Conor J Hurson
Revision hip arthroplasty requires comprehensive appreciation of abnormal bony anatomy. Advances in radiology and manufacturing technology have made three-dimensional (3D) representation of osseous anatomy obtainable, which provide visual and tactile feedback. Such life-size 3D models were manufactured from computed tomography scans of three hip joints in two patients. The first patient had undergone multiple previous hip arthroplasties for bilateral hip infections, resulting in right-sided pelvic discontinuity and a severe left-sided posterosuperior acetabular deficiency...
2017: Advances in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157281/modification-of-silver-single-wall-carbon-nanotube-electrical-contact-interfaces-via-ion-irradiation
#13
Nathanael David Cox, Cory D Cress, Jamie E Rossi, Ivan Puchades, Andrew Merrill, Aaron D Franklin, Brian J Landi
The introduction of defects via ion irradiation ex-situ to modify silver/single-wall carbon nanotube (Ag-SWCNT) electrical contacts and the resulting changes in the electrical properties has been studied. Two test samples were fabricated by depositing 0.1 µm Ag onto SWCNT thin-films with average thicknesses of 10 nm and 60 nm, followed by ion irradiation (150 keV (11)B(+) at 5×10(14) ions/cm(2)). The contact resistance (Rc) between the Ag and SWCNT thin-films was determined using transfer length method (TLM) measurements before and after ion irradiation...
February 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154843/on-how-electron-density-affects-the-redox-stability-of-phenothiazine-sensitizers-on-semiconducting-surfaces
#14
Valerie A Chiykowski, Brian Lam, Chuan Du, Curtis P Berlinguette
The stabilities of three organic dyes that differ only by two substituents (-OMe, -H and -Br) about the phenothiazine donor unit were evaluated when immobilized on a semiconductor surface. All three dyes delivered modest power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), but maintained 75% of their initial PCE over 300 h of sustained simulated sunlight. Electron-donating substituents increased the stability of the phenothiazine radical unit created after light-induced charge injection into the semiconductor; however, this did not translate to higher DSSC stability, which appears to be more sensitive to the basicity of the anchoring group for this series...
February 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153573/development-and-assessment-of-a-novel-task-trainer-and-targeting-tasks-for-ultrasound-guided-invasive-procedures
#15
Joshua F Nitsche, Kristina M Shumard, Brian C Brost
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) recommends that all providers performing ultrasound-guided invasive procedures be competent in a core set of guidance skills common to all ultrasound-guided procedures, including in-plane and out-of-plane needle guidance and needle imaging optimization techniques such as probe translation, rotation, and heel-toe standoff. To allow for the practice and assessment of these core skills, we have created a novel task trainer and set of targeting tasks, and sought to obtain validity evidence in the content and response process domains for this training and assessment system according to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing...
January 30, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145707/glutamine-amide-flip-elicits-long-distance-allosteric-responses-in-the-lov-protein-vivid
#16
Abir Ganguly, Walter Thiel, Brian R Crane
Light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains sense blue light through the photochemical formation of a cysteinyl-flavin covalent adduct. Concurrent protonation at the flavin N5 position alters the hydrogen bonding interactions of an invariant Gln residue that has been proposed to flip its amide side chain as a critical step in the propagation of conformational change. Traditional molecular dynamics (MD) and replica-exchange MD (REMD) simulations of the well-characterized LOV protein Vivid (VVD) demonstrate that the Gln182 amide indeed reorients by ∼180° in response to either adduct formation or reduction of the isoalloxazine ring to the neutral semiquinone, both of which involve N5 protonation...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145570/fluoride-in-the-diet-of-2-years-old-children
#17
E A Martinez-Mier, Kathryn L Spencer, Brian J Sanders, James E Jones, Armando E Soto-Rojas, Angela M Tomlin, LaQuia A Vinson, James A Weddell, George J Eckert
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to calculate the fluoride concentrations of commonly consumed foods and beverages for 2-years-old children utilizing market basket information for the US Midwest region. METHODS: Total Diet Study food lists were cross-referenced with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-What We Eat in America data to determine the foods and beverages to be included. Fluoride concentrations were determined using a modification of the hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion technique...
February 1, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133988/a-framework-for-determining-the-return-on-investment-of-simulation-based-training-in-health-care
#18
Hatim Bukhari, Pamela Andreatta, Brian Goldiez, Luis Rabelo
This article describes a framework that has been developed to monetize the real value of simulation-based training in health care. A significant consideration has been given to the incorporation of the intangible and qualitative benefits, not only the tangible and quantitative benefits of simulation-based training in health care. The framework builds from three works: the value measurement methodology (VMM) used by several departments of the US Government, a methodology documented in several books by Dr Jack Phillips to monetize various training approaches, and a traditional return on investment methodology put forth by Frost and Sullivan, and Immersion Medical...
January 2017: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133751/feasibility-of-external-beam-radiation-therapy-to-deep-seated-targets-with-kilovoltage-x-rays
#19
Magdalena Bazalova-Carter, Michael D Weil, Dylan Yamabe Breitkreutz, Brian P Wilfley, Edward E Graves
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy to deep-seated targets is typically delivered with megavoltage x-ray beams generated by medical linear accelerators or (60) Co sources. Here, we used computer simulations to design and optimize a lower energy kilovoltage x-ray source generating acceptable dose distributions to a deep-seated target. METHODS: The kilovoltage arc therapy (KVAT) x-ray source was designed to treat a 4-cm diameter target located at a 10-cm depth in a 40-cm diameter homogeneous cylindrical phantom...
December 9, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129538/crystal-structure-of-an-lsd-bound-human-serotonin-receptor
#20
Daniel Wacker, Sheng Wang, John D McCorvy, Robin M Betz, A J Venkatakrishnan, Anat Levit, Katherine Lansu, Zachary L Schools, Tao Che, David E Nichols, Brian K Shoichet, Ron O Dror, Bryan L Roth
The prototypical hallucinogen LSD acts via serotonin receptors, and here we describe the crystal structure of LSD in complex with the human serotonin receptor 5-HT2B. The complex reveals conformational rearrangements to accommodate LSD, providing a structural explanation for the conformational selectivity of LSD's key diethylamide moiety. LSD dissociates exceptionally slow from both 5-HT2BR and 5-HT2AR-a major target for its psychoactivity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that LSD's slow binding kinetics may be due to a "lid" formed by extracellular loop 2 (EL2) at the entrance to the binding pocket...
January 26, 2017: Cell
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