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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932856/on-the-apparent-yield-stress-in-non-brownian-magnetorheological-fluids
#1
Daniel Vågberg, Brian P Tighe
We use simulations to probe the flow properties of dense two-dimensional magnetorheological fluids. Prior results from both experiments and simulations report that the shear stress σ scales with strain rate [small gamma, Greek, dot above] as σ ∼ [small gamma, Greek, dot above](1-Δ), with values of the exponent ranging between 2/3 < Δ ≤ 1. However it remains unclear what properties of the system select the value of Δ, and in particular under what conditions the system displays a yield stress (Δ = 1)...
September 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931262/assessment-of-the-interrater-reliability-of-the-congress-of-neurological-surgeons-microanastomosis-assessment-scale
#2
Andrew R Pines, Mohammed S Alghoul, Youssef J Hamade, Mithun G Sattur, Rami James N Aoun, Tariq K Halasa, Chandan Krishna, Samer G Zammar, Najib E El Tecle, Tarek Y El Ahmadieh, Salah G Aoun, Richard W Byrne, James S Harrop, Brian T Ragel, Daniel K Resnick, Russell R Lonser, Nathan R Selden, Bernard R Bendok
BACKGROUND: The potential for simulation-based learning in neurosurgical training has led the Congress of Neurosurgical Surgeons to develop a series of simulation modules. The Northwestern Objective Microanastomosis Assessment Tool (NOMAT) was created as the corresponding assessment tool for the Congress of Neurosurgical Surgeons Microanastomosis Module. The face and construct validity of the NOMAT have been previously established. OBJECTIVE: To further validate the NOMAT by determining its interrater reliability (IRR) between raters of varying levels of microsurgical expertise...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928470/dynamics-of-water-bound-to-crystalline-cellulose
#3
Hugh O'Neill, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Loukas Petridis, Junhong He, Eugene Mamontov, Liang Hong, Volker Urban, Barbara Evans, Paul Langan, Jeremy C Smith, Brian H Davison
Interactions of water with cellulose are of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, we characterize the properties of water associated with cellulose using deuterium labeling, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering provided quantitative details about the dynamical relaxation processes that occur and was supported by structural characterization using small-angle neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction. We can unambiguously detect two populations of water associated with cellulose...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916139/online-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie Lim-Reinders, Brian M Keller, Shahad Al-Ward, Arjun Sahgal, Anthony Kim
The current paradigm of radiation therapy has the treatment planned on a snapshot dataset of the patient's anatomy taken at the time of simulation. Throughout the course of treatment, this snapshot may vary from initial simulation. Although there is the ability to image patients within the treatment room with technologies such as cone beam computed tomography, the current state of the art is largely limited to rigid-body matching and not accounting for any geometric deformations in the patient's anatomy. A plan that was once attuned to the initial simulation can become suboptimal as the treatment progresses unless improved technologies are brought to bear...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910473/optimization-of-simulation-and-moulage-in-military-related-medical-training
#5
Christopher Petersen, Stephen C Rush, Isabelle Gallo, Bryan Dalere, Brian Staak, Litt Moore, Win Kerr, Matthew Chandler, Will Smith
Preparation of Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medics as first responders for the battle space and austere environments is critical to optimize survival and quality of life for our Operators who may sustain serious and complex wounding patterns and illnesses. In the absence of constant clinical exposure for these medics, it is necessary to maximize all available training opportunities. The incorporation of scenario-based training helps weave together teamwork and the ability to practice treatment protocols in a tactical, controlled training environment to reproduce, to some degree, the environment in and stressors under which care will need to be delivered...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901055/phantom-based-image-quality-test-methods-for-photoacoustic-imaging-systems
#6
William C Vogt, Congxian Jia, Keith A Wear, Brian S Garra, T Joshua Pfefer
As photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technologies advance and applications arise, there is increasing need for standardized approaches to provide objective, quantitative performance assessment at various stages of the product development and clinical translation process. We have developed a set of performance test methods for PAI systems based on breast-mimicking tissue phantoms containing embedded inclusions. Performance standards for mature imaging modalities [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound] were used to guide selection of critical PAI image quality characteristics and experimental methods...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894997/a-novel-framework-for-evaluating-the-image-accuracy-of-dynamic-mri-and-the-application-on-accelerated-breast-dce-mri
#7
Yuan Le, Marcel Dominik Nickel, Stephan Kannengiesser, Berthold Kiefer, Bruce Spottiswoode, Brian Dale, Victor Soon, Chen Lin
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel framework for evaluating the accuracy of quantitative analysis on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with a specific combination of imaging technique, scanning parameters, and scanner and software performance and to test this framework with breast DCE MRI with Time-resolved angiography WIth Stochastic Trajectories (TWIST). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Realistic breast tumor phantoms were 3D printed as cavities and filled with solutions of MR contrast agent...
September 11, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894757/a-biomechanical-and-clinical-comparison-of-midshaft-clavicle-plate-fixation-are-2-screws-as-good-as-3-on-each-side-of-the-fracture
#8
Christopher G Larsen, Brian Sleasman, Steven C Chudik
BACKGROUND: The standard of care for plating displaced midshaft clavicle fractures has been 6 cortices of purchase on each side of the fracture. The use of locking plates and screws may afford equivalent biomechanical strength with fewer cortices of purchase on each side of the fracture. PURPOSE: To compare the biomechanical and clinical performance of 3- versus 2-screw constructs for plating displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study/cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
September 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891813/no-evidence-of-hiv-replication-in-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Gert U Van Zyl, Mary Grace Katusiime, Ann Wiegand, William R McManus, Michael J Bale, Elias K Halvas, Brian Luke, Valerie F Boltz, Jonathan Spindler, Barbara Laughton, Susan Engelbrecht, John M Coffin, Mark F Cotton, Wei Shao, John W Mellors, Mary F Kearney
It remains controversial whether current antiretroviral therapy (ART) fully suppresses the cycles of HIV replication and viral evolution in vivo. If replication persists in sanctuary sites such as the lymph nodes, a high priority should be placed on improving ART regimes to target these sites. To investigate the question of ongoing viral replication on current ART regimens, we analyzed HIV populations in longitudinal samples from 10 HIV-1-infected children who initiated ART when viral diversity was low. Eight children started ART at less than ten months of age and showed suppression of plasma viremia for seven to nine years...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891283/trends-in-chemical-composition-of-global-and-regional-population-weighted-fine-particulate-matter-estimated-for-25-years
#10
Chi Li, Randall V Martin, Aaron van Donkelaar, Brian Boys, Melanie Hammer, Jun-Wei Xu, Eloise A Marais, Adam Reff, Madeleine Strum, David Ridley, Monica Crippa, Michael Brauer, Qiang Zhang
We interpret in situ and satellite observations with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, downscaled to 0.1˚ × 0.1˚) to understand global trends in population-weighted mean chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Trends in observed and simulated population-weighted mean PM2.5 composition over 1989-2013 are highly consistent for PM2.5 (-2.4 vs. -2.4 %/yr), secondary inorganic aerosols (-4.3 vs. -4.1 %/yr), organic aerosols (OA, -3.6 vs. -3.0 %/yr) and black carbon (-4.3 vs. -3.9 %/yr) over North America, as well as for sulfate (-4...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883625/redundant-functions-for-nap1-and-chz1-in-h2a-z-deposition
#11
Raghuvar Dronamraju, Srinivas Ramachandran, Deepak K Jha, Alexander T Adams, Julia V DiFiore, Michael A Parra, Nikolay V Dokholyan, Brian D Strahl
H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that contributes to transcriptional regulation, DNA damage response and limits heterochromatin spreading. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited by the SWR-C complex, which relies on several histone chaperones including Nap1 and Chz1 to deliver H2A.Z-H2B dimers to SWR-C. However, the mechanisms by which Nap1 and Chz1 cooperate to bind H2A.Z and their contribution to H2A.Z deposition in chromatin is not well understood. Using structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a series of H2A...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882479/improved-accuracy-of-lesion-to-symptom-mapping-with-multivariate-sparse-canonical-correlations
#12
Dorian Pustina, Brian Avants, Olufunsho Faseyitan, John Medaglia, H Branch Coslett
Lesion to symptom mapping (LSM) is a crucial tool for understanding the causality of brain-behavior relationships. The analyses are typically performed by applying statistical methods on individual brain voxels (VLSM), a method called the mass-univariate approach. Several authors have shown that VLSM suffers from limitations that may decrease the accuracy and reliability of the findings, and have proposed the use of multivariate methods to overcome these limitations. In this study, we propose a multivariate optimization technique known as sparse canonical correlation analysis for neuroimaging (SCCAN) for lesion to symptom mapping...
September 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878985/task-allocation-and-site-fidelity-jointly-influence-foraging-regulation-in-honeybee-colonies
#13
Thiago Mosqueiro, Chelsea Cook, Ramon Huerta, Jürgen Gadau, Brian Smith, Noa Pinter-Wollman
Variation in behaviour among group members often impacts collective outcomes. Individuals may vary both in the task that they perform and in the persistence with which they perform each task. Although both the distribution of individuals among tasks and differences among individuals in behavioural persistence can each impact collective behaviour, we do not know if and how they jointly affect collective outcomes. Here, we use a detailed computational model to examine the joint impact of colony-level distribution among tasks and behavioural persistence of individuals, specifically their fidelity to particular resource sites, on the collective trade-off between exploring for new resources and exploiting familiar ones...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876918/simulating-multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-transport-in-surface-water-systems-using-the-water-quality-analysis-simulation-program-wasp
#14
Dermont Bouchard, Christopher Knightes, Xiaojun Chang, Brian Avant
Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to perform new chemical reviews of nanomaterials identified in premanufacture notices. However, environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate nanomaterials' environmental behavior by incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862969/three-dimensional-integrated-functional-structural-and-computational-mapping-to-define-the-structural-fingerprints-of-heart-specific-atrial-fibrillation-drivers-in-human-heart-ex-vivo
#15
Jichao Zhao, Brian J Hansen, Yufeng Wang, Thomas A Csepe, Lidiya V Sul, Alan Tang, Yiming Yuan, Ning Li, Anna Bratasz, Kimerly A Powell, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, Raul Weiss, Orlando P Simonetti, John D Hummel, Vadim V Fedorov
BACKGROUND: Structural remodeling of human atria plays a key role in sustaining atrial fibrillation (AF), but insufficient quantitative analysis of human atrial structure impedes the treatment of AF. We aimed to develop a novel 3-dimensional (3D) structural and computational simulation analysis tool that could reveal the structural contributors to human reentrant AF drivers. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-resolution panoramic epicardial optical mapping of the coronary-perfused explanted intact human atria (63-year-old woman, chronic hypertension, heart weight 608 g) was conducted during sinus rhythm and sustained AF maintained by spatially stable reentrant AF drivers in the left and right atrium...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861700/a-method-for-going-from-2d-laparoscope-to-3d-acquisition-of-surface-landmarks-by-a-novel-computer-vision-approach
#16
Marc Garbey, Toan B Nguyen, Albert Y Huang, Vid Fikfak, Brian J Dunkin
PURPOSE: This paper presents a method to use the Smart Trocars-our new surgical instrument recognition system-or any accurate localization system of surgical instrument for acquiring intraoperative surface data. Complex laparoscopic surgeries need a proper guidance system which requires registering the preoperative data from a CT or MRI scan to the intraoperative patient state. The Smart Trocar can be used to localize the instruments when it comes to contact with the soft tissue surface...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846050/a-hierarchical-rater-model-for-longitudinal-data
#17
Jodi M Casabianca, Brian W Junker, Ricardo Nieto, Mark A Bond
Research studies in psychology and education often seek to detect changes or growth in an outcome over a duration of time. This research provides a solution to those interested in estimating latent traits from psychological measures that rely on human raters. Rater effects potentially degrade the quality of scores in constructed response and performance assessments. We develop an extension of the hierarchical rater model (HRM), which yields estimates of latent traits that have been corrected for individual rater bias and variability, for ratings that come from longitudinal designs...
August 28, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845994/a-discrete-fractional-component-monte-carlo-simulation-study-of-dilute-nonionic-surfactants-at-the-air-water-interface
#18
Brian Yoo, Eliseo Marin-Rimoldi, Ryan G Mullen, Arben Jusufi, Edward J Maginn
We present a newly-developed Monte Carlo scheme to predict bulk surfactant concentrations and surface tensions at the air-water interface for various surfactant interfacial coverages. Since the concentration regime of these systems of interest are typically very dilute (< 10^-5 mol. frac.), Monte Carlo simulations with the use of insertion/deletion moves can provide the ability to overcome finite system size limitations that often prohibit the use of modern molecular simulation techniques. In performing these simulations, we use the discrete fractional component Monte Carlo (DFCMC) method in the Gibbs ensemble framework, which allows us to separate the bulk and air-water interface into two separate boxes and efficiently swap tetra ethylene glycol surfactants C10E4 between boxes...
August 28, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843788/concentration-and-quantification-of-somatic-and-f-coliphages-from-recreational-waters
#19
Brian R McMinn, Emma M Huff, Eric R Rhodes, Asja Korajkic
Somatic and F+ coliphages are promising alternative fecal indicators, but current detection methods are hindered by lower levels of coliphages in surface waters compared to traditional bacterial fecal indicators. We evaluated the ability of dead-end hollow fiber ultrafiltration (D- HFUF) and single agar layer (SAL) procedure to concentrate and enumerate coliphages from 1L and 10L volumes of ambient surface waters (lake, river, marine), river water with varying turbidities (3.74-118.7 NTU), and a simulated combined sewer overflow (CSO) event...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841758/precision-and-accuracy-of-diffusion-kurtosis-estimation-and-the-influence-of-b-value-selection
#20
Andrey Chuhutin, Brian Hansen, Sune Nørhøj Jespersen
Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging that accounts for leading non-Gaussian diffusion effects. In DKI studies, a wide range of different gradient strengths (b-values) is used, which is known to affect the estimated diffusivity and kurtosis parameters. Hence there is a need to assess the accuracy and precision of the estimated parameters as a function of b-value. This work examines the error in the estimation of mean of the kurtosis tensor (MKT) with respect to the ground truth, using simulations based on a biophysical model for both gray (GM) and white (WM) matter...
August 25, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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