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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786776/a-framework-for-image-based-modeling-of-acute-myocardial-ischemia-using-intramurally-recorded-extracellular-potentials
#1
Brett M Burton, Kedar K Aras, Wilson W Good, Jess D Tate, Brian Zenger, Rob S MacLeod
The biophysical basis for electrocardiographic evaluation of myocardial ischemia stems from the notion that ischemic tissues develop, with relative uniformity, along the endocardial aspects of the heart. These injured regions of subendocardial tissue give rise to intramural currents that lead to ST segment deflections within electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. The concept of subendocardial ischemic regions is often used in clinical practice, providing a simple and intuitive description of ischemic injury; however, such a model grossly oversimplifies the presentation of ischemic disease-inadvertently leading to errors in ECG-based diagnoses...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782510/individual-differences-in-learning-correlate-with-modulation-of-brain-activity-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#2
Brian Falcone, Atsushi Wada, Raja Parasuraman, Daniel E Callan
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782065/foley-catheter-vs-oral-misoprostol-to-induce-labour-among-hypertensive-women-in-india-a-cost-consequence-analysis-alongside-a-clinical-trial
#3
Simon Leigh, Paul Granby, Alan Haycox, Shuchita Mundle, Hillary Bracken, Vaishali Khedikar, Jayashree Mulik, Brian Faragher, Thomas Easterling, Mark A Turner, Zarko Alfirevic, Beverly Winikoff, Andrew D Weeks
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and economic impact of two methods for induction of labour in hypertensive women, in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Cost-consequence analysis of a previously reported multi-centre, parallel, open-label randomized trial. SETTING & POPULATION: 602 women with a live fetus, aged>18 years requiring delivery for pre-eclampsia or hypertension, in two public hospitals in Nagpur, India. METHODS: We performed a formal economic evaluation alongside the INFORM clinical trial...
May 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776184/engineering-single-polymer-micelle-shape-using-nonuniform-spontaneous-surface-curvature
#4
Brian Moths, T A Witten
Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774638/loss-of-sirtuin-1-and-mitofusin-2-contributes-to-enhanced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-aged-livers
#5
Sung Kook Chun, Sooyeon Lee, Joseph Flores-Toro, Rebecca Y U, Ming-Jim Yang, Kristina L Go, Thomas G Biel, Catherine E Miney, Schiley Pierre Louis, Brian K Law, Mary E Law, Elizabeth M Thomas, Kevin E Behrns, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Jae-Sung Kim
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a causative factor contributing to morbidity and mortality during liver resection and transplantation. Livers from elderly patients have a poorer recovery from these surgeries, indicating reduced reparative capacity with aging. Mechanisms underlying this age-mediated hypersensitivity to I/R injury remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are affected by I/R in aged livers. Young (3 months) and old (23-26 months) male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to hepatic I/R in vivo...
May 17, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774550/efficacy-of-vaporized-hydrogen-peroxide-for-repeated-sterilization-of-a-single-use-single-incision-laparoscopic-surgery-port
#6
Valery F Scharf, Brian Dent, Megan E Jacob, Brandon Moore
OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) to sterilize a single-use single-incision laparoscopic surgery port and its associated components after repeated simulated uses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective in vitro experimental study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Six single-use single-incision laparoscopic surgery ports with associated cannulas and insufflation tubing. METHODS: Ports, cannulas, and tubing were subjected to 10 cycles of simulated use, bacterial inoculation with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Escherichia coli, decontamination and sterilization, and testing via culture based on their treatment group designation...
May 17, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773457/effect-of-increasing-flow-when-grooving-during-phacoemulsification
#7
Brian A Bird, Rhett S Thomson, Lance A Stutz, Joshua B Heczko, Ashlie A Bernhisel, William R Barlow, Brian Zaugg, Jeff H Pettey, Randall J Olson
PURPOSE: To determine optimum flow settings on the Centurion Vision System during the grooving step in cataract surgery. SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratory, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Intact porcine lenses hardened by formalin and placed in a chamber designed to simulate the anterior chamber of the eye were used to test flow rate settings at 20 mL/min, 40 mL/min, and 60 mL/min...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770402/ultrafast-dissociation-features-in-rixs-spectra-of-the-water-molecule
#8
Emelie Ertan, Viktoriia Savchenko, Nina Ignatova, Vinícius Vaz da Cruz, Rafael C Couto, Sebastian Eckert, Mattis Fondell, Marcus Dantz, Brian Kennedy, Thorsten Schmitt, Annette Pietzsch, Alexander Föhlisch, Faris Gel'mukhanov, Michael Odelius, Victor Kimberg
In this combined theoretical and experimental study we report on an analysis of the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of gas phase water via the lowest dissociative core-excited state |1s-1O4a11. We focus on the spectral feature near the dissociation limit of the electronic ground state. We show that the narrow atomic-like peak consists of the overlapping contribution from the RIXS channels back to the ground state and to the first valence excited state |1b-114a11 of the molecule. The spectral feature has signatures of ultrafast dissociation (UFD) in the core-excited state, as we show by means of ab initio calculations and time-dependent nuclear wave packet simulations...
May 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768693/coastal-ecosystems-on-a-tipping-point-global-warming-and-parasitism-combine-to-alter-community-structure-and-function
#9
Kim N Mouritsen, Mikkel M Sørensen, Robert Poulin, Brian L Fredensborg
Mounting evidence suggests that the transmission of certain parasites is facilitated by increasing temperatures, causing their host population to decline. However, no study has yet addressed how temperature and parasitism may combine to shape the functional structure of a whole host community in the face of global warming. Here, we apply an outdoor mesocosm approach supported by field surveys to elucidate this question in a diverse intertidal community of amphipods infected by the pathogenic microphallid trematode, Maritrema novaezealandensis...
May 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767569/teaching-tip-development-of-veterinary-anesthesia-simulations-for-pre-clinical-training-design-implementation-and-evaluation-based-on-student-perspectives
#10
Jana L Jones, Jim Rinehart, Jacqueline Jordan Spiegel, Ryane E Englar, Brian K Sidaway, Joie Rowles
Anesthesia simulations have been used in pre-clinical medical training for decades to help learners gain confidence and expertise in an operating room environment without danger to a live patient. The authors describe a veterinary anesthesia simulation environment (VASE) with anesthesia scenarios developed to provide a re-creation of a veterinarian's task environment while performing anesthesia. The VASE uses advanced computer technology with simulator inputs provided from standard monitoring equipment in common use during veterinary anesthesia and a commercial canine training mannequin that allows intubation, ventilation, and venous access...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758185/elucidating-the-bactericidal-mechanism-of-action-of-the-linear-antimicrobial-tetrapeptide-brbr-nh-2
#11
Qiu Ying Lau, Jianguo Li, Marc-Antoine Sani, Sheetal Sinha, Yan Li, Fui Mee Ng, CongBao Kang, Surajit Bhattacharjya, Frances Separovic, Chandra Verma, Cheng San Brian Chia
Linear antimicrobial peptides, with their rapid bactericidal mode of action, are well-suited for development as topical antibacterial drugs. We recently designed a synthetic linear 4-residue peptide, BRBR-NH2 , with potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 6.25 μM), the main causative pathogen of human skin infections with an unknown mechanism of action. Herein, we describe a series of experiments conducted to gain further insights into its mechanism of action involving electron microscopy, artificial membrane dye leakage, solution- and solid-state NMR spectroscopy followed by molecular dynamics simulations...
May 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756779/solvation-dynamics-of-hehehp-ligand-at-the-liquid-liquid-interface
#12
An T Ta, Govind A Hegde, Brian D Etz, Anna G Baldwin, Yuan Yang, Jenifer C Shafer, Mark Peter Jensen, C Mark Maupin, Shubham Vyas
Actinide-Lanthanide Separation (ALSEP) has been a topic of interest in recent years as it has been shown to selectively extract problematic metals from spent nuclear fuel. However, the process suffers from slow kinetics prohibiting it from being applied to nuclear facilities. In effort to improve the process, many fundamental studies have been performed, but the majority have only focused on the thermodynamics of separation. Therefore, to understand the mechanism behind the ALSEP process, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were utilized to obtain the dynamics and solvation characteristics for an organic extractant, 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHEHP)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755314/non-invasive-investigation-of-human-hippocampal-rhythms-using-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Yi Pu, Douglas O Cheyne, Brian R Cornwell, Blake W Johnson
Hippocampal rhythms are believed to support crucial cognitive processes including memory, navigation, and language. Due to the location of the hippocampus deep in the brain, studying hippocampal rhythms using non-invasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has generally been assumed to be methodologically challenging. However, with the advent of whole-head MEG systems in the 1990s and development of advanced source localization techniques, simulation and empirical studies have provided evidence that human hippocampal signals can be sensed by MEG and reliably reconstructed by source localization algorithms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752375/functional-invalidation-of-putative-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-associated-variants-in-the-kcnh2-encoded-kv11-1-channel
#14
Jennifer L Smith, David J Tester, Allison R Hall, Don E Burgess, Chun-Chun Hsu, Samy Claude Elayi, Corey L Anderson, Craig T January, Jonathan Z Luo, Dustin N Hartzel, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, Michael F Murray, Tooraj Mirshahi, Michael J Ackerman, Brian P Delisle
BACKGROUND: Heterologous functional validation studies of putative long-QT syndrome subtype 2-associated variants clarify their pathological potential and identify disease mechanism(s) for most variants studied. The purpose of this study is to clarify the pathological potential for rare nonsynonymous KCNH2 variants seemingly associated with sudden infant death syndrome. METHODS: Genetic testing of 292 sudden infant death syndrome cases identified 9 KCNH2 variants: E90K, R181Q, A190T, G294V, R791W, P967L, R1005W, R1047L, and Q1068R...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751104/usability-evaluation-of-a-medication-reconciliation-tool-embedding-safety-probes-to-assess-users-detection-of-medication-discrepancies
#15
Alissa L Russ, Michelle A Jahn, Himalaya Patel, Brian W Porter, Khoa A Nguyen, Alan J Zillich, Amy Linsky, Steven R Simon
OBJECTIVE: An electronic medication reconciliation tool was previously developed by another research team to aid provider-patient communication for medication reconciliation. To evaluate the usability of this tool, we integrated artificial safety probes into standard usability methods. The objective of this article is to describe this method of using safety probes, which enabled us to evaluate how well the tool supports users' detection of medication discrepancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We completed a mixed-method usability evaluation in a simulated setting with 30 participants: 20 healthcare professionals (HCPs) and 10 patients...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746717/can-we-build-it-yes-we-can-but-should-we-use-it-assessing-the-quality-and-value-of-a-very-large-phylogeny-of-campanulid-angiosperms
#16
Jeremy M Beaulieu, Brian C O'Meara
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The study of very large and very old clades holds the promise of greater insights into evolution across the tree of life. However, there has been a fair amount of criticism regarding the interpretations and quality of studies to date, with some suggesting that detailed studies carried out on smaller, tractable scales should be preferred over the increasingly grand syntheses of these data. METHODS: We provided in detail our trials and tribulations of compiling a large, sparsely sampled matrix from GenBank data and inferring a well-supported, time-calibrated phylogeny of Campanulidae...
March 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738467/pido-predictive-delay-optimization-for-intertidal-wireless-sensor-networks
#17
Xinyan Zhou, Xiaoyu Ji, Bin Wang, Yushi Cheng, Zhuoran Ma, Francis Choi, Brian Helmuth, Wenyuan Xu
Intertidal habitats are among the harshest environments on the planet, and have emerged as a model system for exploring the ecological impacts of global climate change. Deploying reliable instrumentation to measure environmental conditions such as temperature is challenging in this environment. The application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) shows considerable promise as a means of optimizing continuous data collection, but poor link quality and unstable connections between nodes, caused by harsh physical environmental conditions, bring about a delay problem...
May 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730181/wrist-arthroscopy-can-we-gain-proficiency-through-knee-arthroscopy-simulation
#18
Gabriella Ode, Bryan Loeffler, Robert Christopher Chadderdon, Nikkole Haines, Brian Scannell, Joshua Patt, Glenn Gaston
OBJECTIVE: Wrist arthroscopy is a challenging discipline with limited training exposure during residency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual knee arthroscopy simulation training for gaining proficiency in wrist arthroscopy. DESIGN: Participants were recorded performing a cadaveric wrist arthroscopy simulation. The residents then practiced knee arthroscopy on a virtual reality simulator and repeated the wrist arthroscopy simulation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727758/deliberate-practice-using-validated-metrics-improves-skill-acquisition-in-performance-of-ultrasound-guided-peripheral-nerve-block-in-a-simulated-setting
#19
Osman M A Ahmed, Imran Azher, Anthony G Gallagher, Dara S Breslin, Brian D O'Donnell, George D Shorten
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of deliberate vs. self-guided practices (both using validated metrics) on the acquisition of needling skills by novice learners. DESIGN: Randomized Controlled Study. SETTING: Simulation lab, Department of Anesthesia, St.Vincent's Hospital, Dublin. SUBJECTS: Eighteen medical students. INTERVENTIONS: Students were assigned to either (i) deliberate practice (n = 10) or (ii) self-guided practice (n = 8) groups...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725303/modeling-patient-specific-magnetic-drug-targeting-within-the-intracranial-vasculature
#20
Alexander Patronis, Robin A Richardson, Sebastian Schmieschek, Brian J N Wylie, Rupert W Nash, Peter V Coveney
Drug targeting promises to substantially enhance future therapies, for example through the focussing of chemotherapeutic drugs at the site of a tumor, thus reducing the exposure of healthy tissue to unwanted damage. Promising work on the steering of medication in the human body employs magnetic fields acting on nanoparticles made of paramagnetic materials. We develop a computational tool to aid in the optimization of the physical parameters of these particles and the magnetic configuration, estimating the fraction of particles reaching a given target site in a large patient-specific vascular system for different physiological states (heart rate, cardiac output, etc...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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