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Andrew Yool, Adrian P Martin, Thomas R Anderson, Brian J Bett, Daniel O B Jones, Henry A Ruhl
Deep-water benthic communities in the ocean are almost wholly dependent on near-surface pelagic ecosystems for their supply of energy and material resources. Primary production in sunlit surface waters is channelled through complex food webs that extensively recycle organic material, but lose a fraction as particulate organic carbon (POC) that sinks into the ocean interior. This exported production is further rarefied by microbial breakdown in the abyssal ocean, but a residual ultimately drives diverse assemblages of seafloor heterotrophs...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
Andrew M Harrison, Charat Thongprayoon, Christopher A Aakre, Jack Y Jeng, Mikhail A Dziadzko, Ognjen Gajic, Brian W Pickering, Vitaly Herasevich
BACKGROUND: Electronic Health Record (EHR)-based sepsis alert systems have failed to demonstrate improvements in clinically meaningful endpoints. However, the effect of implementation barriers on the success of new sepsis alert systems is rarely explored. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis time to severe sepsis alert acknowledgement by critical care clinicians in the ICU setting would be reduced using an EHR-based alert acknowledgement system compared to a text paging-based system...
2017: PeerJ
Karsten Baumgarten, Daniel Vågberg, Brian P Tighe
We use simulations of frictionless soft sphere packings to identify novel constitutive relations for linear elasticity near the jamming transition. By forcing packings at varying wavelengths, we directly access their transverse and longitudinal compliances. These are found to be wavelength dependent, in violation of conventional (local) linear elasticity. Crossovers in the compliances select characteristic length scales, which signify the appearance of nonlocal effects. Two of these length scales diverge as the pressure vanishes, indicating that critical effects near jamming control the breakdown of local elasticity...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Danielle M Salmon, Phil Handcock, S John Sullivan, Nancy J Rehrer, Brian Niven
Neck strengthening has been postulated to potentially reduce the incidence/severity of concussions and neck injuries in collision based sports. A quick and reliable method to assess neck strength would permit identification of those at risk and tracking of progress following injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if neck strength could be reliably assessed in a simulated contact posture using a single maximal contraction. During a single session 30 healthy male university students performed 3 maximal voluntary contractions of the neck musculature in each of the following directions: extension (Ext), flexion (Flx), left (LtFlx), and right lateral flexion (RtFlx)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Teck Leong Tan, Hong Mei Jin, Michael Brian Sullivan, Babak Anasori, Yury Gogotsi
2D transition metal carbides and nitrides known as MXenes are gaining increasing attention. About 20 of them have been synthesized (more predicted) and their applications in fields ranging from energy storage and electromagnetic shielding to medicine are being explored. To facilitate the search for new double-transition-metal MXenes, we explore the structure-stability relationship for 8 MXene alloy systems, namely, (V1-xMox)3C2, (Nb1-xMox)3C2, (Ta1-xMox)3C2, (Ti1-xMox)3C2, (Ti1-xNbx)3C2, (Ti1-xTax)3C2, (Ti1-xVx)3C2 and (Nb1-xVx)3C2,¬ with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, using high-throughput computations...
March 15, 2017: ACS Nano
Hui Zhao, Brian Wang, Vikren Sarkar, Prema Rassiah-Szegedi, Y Jessica Huang, Martin Szegedi, Long Huang, Victor Gonzalez, Bill Salter
We investigate the difference between surface matching and target matching for pelvic radiation image guidance. The uniqueness of our study is that all patients have multiple CT-on-rails (CTOR) scans to compare to corresponding AlignRT images. Ten patients receiving pelvic radiation were enrolled in this study. Two simulation CT scans were performed in supine and prone positions for each patient. Body surface contours were generated in treatment planning system and exported to AlignRT to serve as reference images...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Brian Sutton, Kerem Yunus Camsari, Behtash Behin-Aein, Supriyo Datta
This paper draws attention to a hardware system which can be engineered so that its intrinsic physics is described by the generalized Ising model and can encode the solution to many important NP-hard problems as its ground state. The basic constituents are stochastic nanomagnets which switch randomly between the ±1 Ising states and can be monitored continuously with standard electronics. Their mutual interactions can be short or long range, and their strengths can be reconfigured as needed to solve specific problems and to anneal the system at room temperature...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dan Andersen, Voicu Popescu, Maria Eugenia Cabrera, Aditya Shanghavi, Brian Mullis, Sherri Marley, Gerardo Gomez, Juan P Wachs
Telementoring can improve treatment of combat trauma injuries by connecting remote experienced surgeons with local less-experienced surgeons in an austere environment. Current surgical telementoring systems force the local surgeon to regularly shift focus away from the operating field to receive expert guidance, which can lead to surgery delays or even errors. The System for Telementoring with Augmented Reality (STAR) integrates expert-created annotations directly into the local surgeon's field of view. The local surgeon views the operating field by looking at a tablet display suspended between the patient and the surgeon that captures video of the surgical field...
March 2017: Military Medicine
Jason F Naylor, Kenneth B Dekay, Benjamin P Donham, Brian T Hall
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated ultrasound (US) is superior to traditional landmark (LM)-based techniques for large and medium joint aspiration; however, no studies of sufficient size have evaluated these interventions in the smaller toe joints. The purpose of this study was to determine if US provides an advantage over LM for successful first-pass aspiration of first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTPJ) effusions. METHODS: A cross-over, cadaveric trial evaluating the interventions of US and LM...
March 2017: Military Medicine
Giovanni B Brandani, Steven J Vance, Marieke Schor, Alan Cooper, Malcolm W Kennedy, Brian O Smith, Cait E MacPhee, David L Cheung
To stabilize foams, droplets and films at liquid interfaces a range of protein biosurfactants have evolved in nature. Compared to synthetic surfactants, these combine surface activity with biocompatibility and low solution aggregation. One recently studied example is Rsn-2, a component of the foam nest of the frog Engystomops pustulosus, which has been predicted to undergo a clamshell-like opening transition at the air-water interface. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and surface tension measurements we study the adsorption of Rsn-2 onto air-water and cyclohexane-water interfaces...
March 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shaojie Chen, Lei Huang, Huitong Qiu, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H Mostofsky, James J Pekar, Martin A Lindquist, Ani Eloyan, Brian S Caffo
Independent component analysis (ICA) is widely used in the field of functional neuroimaging to decompose data into spatio-temporal patterns of co-activation. In particular, ICA has found wide usage in the analysis of resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. Recently, a number of large-scale data sets have become publicly available that consist of rs-fMRI scans from thousands of subjects. As a result, efficient ICA algorithms that scale well to the increased number of subjects are required. To address this problem, we propose a two-stage likelihood-based algorithm for performing group ICA, which we denote Parallel Group Independent Component Analysis (PGICA)...
2017: PloS One
Bill J Salter, Martin Szegedi, Christine Boehm, Vikren Sarkar, Prema Rassiah-Szegedi, Brian Wang, Hui Zhao, Jessica Huang, Long Huang, Kris Kokeny, Jonathan D Tward
PURPOSE: Our clinic is a long-term user of a first-generation transabdominal (TA) biplanar (2.5-dimensional [2.5D]) ultrasound image guidance (USIG) system for prostate cancer treatments. We are also an early adopter and development partner for a new, second-generation, fully 3D USIG system that allows for volumetric TA localization of the prostate. This new system has been evaluated at our institution by direct comparison with the previously established first-generation TA method for prostate alignment...
March 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
Yuji Arail, Brian A Powell, Daniel I Kaplan
Reduced sulfur species in ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) play an important role in immobilizing radionuclide contaminants in caustic cement-GGBFS mixtures via reductive precipitation reaction. However, sulfur (S) speciation and its stability in GGBFS have not been clearly understood. In this study, S speciation of GGBSF in alkaline radionuclide liquid waste simulant solutions was investigated using S K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements...
March 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Alex F Mendelson, Maria A Zuluaga, Marco Lorenzi, Brian F Hutton, Sébastien Ourselin
The last decade has seen a great proliferation of supervised learning pipelines for individual diagnosis and prognosis in Alzheimer's disease. As more pipelines are developed and evaluated in the search for greater performance, only those results that are relatively impressive will be selected for publication. We present an empirical study to evaluate the potential for optimistic bias in classification performance results as a result of this selection. This is achieved using a novel, resampling-based experiment design that effectively simulates the optimisation of pipeline specifications by individuals or collectives of researchers using cross validation with limited data...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yong Zhang, Tina VanRiper, Brian Rague, Drew Weidman
In this project, fluid flow and fluid-structure interaction are studied for the human lower gastrointestinal (GI) region. The study consists of two steps. First, we apply meshing methods to discretize both the human lower GI model and the catheter model at sufficient resolution suitable for importing into a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. For model discretization, 3D models of the colon reconstructed from human MRI slices are used to obtain the valid inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. To resolve the viscous boundary layer in flow studies, a special structure of the near-wall volumetric mesh is built by triangular prisms that construct quasi-structured, multiple near-boundary sub-layers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Brian S Robinson, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song
As increasingly complex non-stationary models become possible to be identified from neural data, rigorous validation approaches must be developed to rule out overfitting and the potential to identify features by chance. Specifically, identification of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) from recorded spontaneous in vivo spike timing is a potentially powerful tool to quantify activity-dependent plasticity. In previous work, we presented a methodology to perform this STDP identification from spike timing alone and successfully identified a generative model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ryan M Peters, Brian H Dalton, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, J Timothy Inglis
Human standing balance control requires the integration of sensory feedback to produce anticipatory, stabilizing ankle torques. However, the ability of human triceps surae muscle spindles to provide reliable sensory feedback regarding the small, slow ankle movements that occur during upright standing has recently come under question. We performed microneurography to directly record axon potentials from single muscle spindle afferents in the human triceps surae during servo-controlled movement of the ankle joint...
March 2, 2017: Neuroscience
Nathan R De Jager, Jason J Rohweder, Brian R Miranda, Brian R Sturtevant, Timothy J Fox, Mark C Romanski
Loss of top predators may contribute to high ungulate population densities and chronic over-browsing of forest ecosystems. However, spatial and temporal variability in the strength of interactions between predators and ungulates occurs over scales that are much shorter than the scales over which forest communities change, making it difficult to characterize trophic cascades in forest ecosystems. We applied the LANDIS-II forest succession model and a recently developed ungulate browsing extension to model how the moose population could interact with the forest ecosystem of Isle Royale National Park, USA, under three different wolf predation scenarios...
March 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Landon T Hansen, Brian E Jackson, David T Fullwood, Stuart I Wright, Marc De Graef, Eric R Homer, Robert H Wagoner
Studies of dislocation density evolution are fundamental to improved understanding in various areas of deformation mechanics. Recent advances in cross-correlation techniques, applied to electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data have particularly shed light on geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) behavior. However, the framework is relatively computationally expensive-patterns are typically saved from the EBSD scan and analyzed offline. A better understanding of the impact of EBSD pattern degradation, such as binning, compression, and various forms of noise, is vital to enable optimization of rapid and low-cost GND analysis...
March 6, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Sue Chang, Brian T Mader, Kent R Lindstrom, Cleston C Lange, Jill A Hart, Thomas A Kestner, Jay F Schulz, David J Ehresman, John L Butenhoff
Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-perfluorooctanesulfonamide (EtFOSE) was one of the key building blocks for many of the perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based chemistry and laboratory studies have shown that EtFOSE can metabolically degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Non-occupational contribution sources to PFOS are thought to occur in general population via diets, drinking water, air and dust. For workers, however, the exposure route was mostly airborne and the exposure source was predominantly to precursor compounds such as EtFOSE...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Research
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