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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329451/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-disruption-by-endocrine-and-metabolic-disrupting-chemicals
#1
Josiah E Hardesty, Laila Al-Eryani, Banrida Wahlang, K Cameron Falkner, Hongxue Shi, Jian Jin, Brad Vivace, Brian P Ceresa, Russell A Prough, Matthew C Cave
Background: The purpose of this study is to identify an environmentally relevant shared receptor target for endocrine and metabolism disrupting chemical pollutants. A feature of the tested chemicals was that they induced Cyp2b10 in vivo implicating activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Recent studies suggest that these compounds could be indirect CAR activators via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. Methods: Assays included a CAR activity reporter assay, EGF endocytosis assay, and EGFR phosphorylation assay...
January 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325871/use-of-uv-fluorescence-based-simulation-in-evaluation-of-personal-protective-equipment-worn-for-first-assessment-and-care-of-a-patient-with-suspected-high-consequence-infectious-disease
#2
Samantha Hall, Bozena Poller, Claire Bailey, Samantha Gregory, Richard Clark, Paul Roberts, Anne Tunbridge, Vin Poran, Cariad Evans, Brian Crook
BACKGROUND: Variations currently exist across the UK in the choice of personal protective equipment (PPE) used by healthcare workers when caring for patients with suspected high consequence infectious diseases (HCIDs). AIM: To test the protection afforded to healthcare workers by current PPE ensembles during assessment of a suspected HCID case and to provide an evidence base to justify proposal of a unified PPE ensemble for healthcare workers across the UK. METHODS: One 'basic level' (enhanced precautions) PPE ensemble and five 'suspected case' PPE ensembles were evaluated in volunteer trials using 'Violet'; a UV-fluorescence-based simulation exercise to visualise exposure/contamination events...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321860/incorporating-variability-in-simulations-of-seasonally-forced-phenology-using-integral-projection-models
#3
Devin W Goodsman, Brian H Aukema, Nate G McDowell, Richard S Middleton, Chonggang Xu
Phenology models are becoming increasingly important tools to accurately predict how climate change will impact the life histories of organisms. We propose a class of integral projection phenology models derived from stochastic individual-based models of insect development and demography. Our derivation, which is based on the rate summation concept, produces integral projection models that capture the effect of phenotypic rate variability on insect phenology, but which are typically more computationally frugal than equivalent individual-based phenology models...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318276/association-of-screening-and-treatment-with-breast-cancer-mortality-by-molecular-subtype-in-us-women-2000-2012
#4
Sylvia K Plevritis, Diego Munoz, Allison W Kurian, Natasha K Stout, Oguzhan Alagoz, Aimee M Near, Sandra J Lee, Jeroen J van den Broek, Xuelin Huang, Clyde B Schechter, Brian L Sprague, Juhee Song, Harry J de Koning, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Ronald Gangnon, Young Chandler, Yisheng Li, Cong Xu, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Hui Huang, Donald A Berry, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
Importance: Given recent advances in screening mammography and adjuvant therapy (treatment), quantifying their separate and combined effects on US breast cancer mortality reductions by molecular subtype could guide future decisions to reduce disease burden. Objective: To evaluate the contributions associated with screening and treatment to breast cancer mortality reductions by molecular subtype based on estrogen-receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)...
January 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315607/the-solar-ultraviolet-environment-at-the-ocean
#5
Curtis D Mobley, Brian L Diffey
Atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer models were used to compute spectral radiances between 285 and 400 nm onto horizontal and vertical plane surfaces over water. The calculations kept track of the contributions by the sun's direct beam, by diffuse sky radiance, by radiance reflected from the sea surface, and by water-leaving radiance. Clear, hazy, and cloudy sky conditions were simulated for a range of sun zenith angles, wind speeds, and atmospheric ozone concentrations. The radiances were used to estimate erythemal exposures due to the sun and sky, as well as from radiation reflected by the sea surface and backscattered from the water column...
January 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311071/population-pharmacokinetics-of-polymyxin-b-in-acutely-ill-adult-patients
#6
Cristina Miglis, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Sean Avedissian, Christine J Kubin, Michael T Yin, Brian Nelson, Manjunath P Pai, Marc H Scheetz
Polymyxin B (PB) has reemerged as a common treatment against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. However, nephrotoxicity remains a significant dose-limiting side effect and contemporary pharmacokinetic (PK) data is limited. This study sought to evaluate PB exposure differences in various load and non-loading strategies according to total body weight (TBW) and adjusted body weight (ABW). Patients treated with PB had plasma samples obtained for clinical care and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Compartmental PK models with linear and allometric scaling of TBW were explored...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306299/enhanced-configurational-sampling-with-hybrid-non-equilibrium-molecular-dynamics-monte-carlo-propagator
#7
Donghyuk Suh, Brian K Radak, Christophe Chipot, Benoît Roux
Molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories based on classical equations of motion can be used to sample the configurational space of complex molecular systems. However, brute-force MD often converges slowly due to the ruggedness of the underlying potential energy surface. Several schemes have been proposed to address this problem by effectively smoothing the potential energy surface. However, in order to recover the proper Boltzmann equilibrium probability distribution, these approaches must then rely on statistical reweighting techniques or generate the simulations within a Hamiltonian tempering replica-exchange scheme...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291379/binding-folding-and-insertion-of-a-%C3%AE-hairpin-peptide-at-a-lipid-bilayer-surface-influence-of-electrostatics-and-lipid-tail-packing
#8
Keon A Reid, Caitlin M Davis, R Brian Dyer, James T Kindt
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) act as host defenses against microbial pathogens. Here we investigate the interactions of SVS-1 (KVKVKVKVDPLPTKVKVKVK), an engineered AMP and anti-cancer β-hairpin peptide, with lipid bilayers using spectroscopic studies and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with literature reports, simulation and experiment show preferential binding of SVS-1 peptides to anionic over neutral bilayers. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies of a Trp-substituted SVS-1 analog indicate, however, that it will bind to a zwitterionic DPPC bilayer under high-curvature conditions and folds into a hairpin...
December 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290733/sub-wavelength-focusing-of-acoustic-waves-in-bubbly-media
#9
Habib Ammari, Brian Fitzpatrick, David Gontier, Hyundae Lee, Hai Zhang
The purpose of this paper is to investigate acoustic wave scattering by a large number of bubbles in a liquid at frequencies near the Minnaert resonance frequency. This bubbly media has been exploited in practice to obtain super-focusing of acoustic waves. Using layer potential techniques, we derive the scattering function for a single spherical bubble excited by an incident wave in the low frequency regime. We then propose a point scatterer approximation for N bubbles, and describe several numerical simulations based on this approximation, that demonstrate the possibility of achieving super-focusing using bubbly media...
December 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289084/the-role-of-simulated-small-scale-ocean-variability-in-inverse-computations-for-ocean-acoustic-tomography
#10
Brian D Dushaw, Hanne Sagen
Ocean acoustic tomography depends on a suitable reference ocean environment with which to set the basic parameters of the inverse problem. Some inverse problems may require a reference ocean that includes the small-scale variations from internal waves, small mesoscale, or spice. Tomographic inversions that employ data of stable shadow zone arrivals, such as those that have been observed in the North Pacific and Canary Basin, are an example. Estimating temperature from the unique acoustic data that have been obtained in Fram Strait is another example...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288084/comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-viscoelastic-behavior-of-the-spinal-cord
#11
Nicole L Ramo, Snehal S Shetye, Femke Streijger, Jae H T Lee, Kevin L Troyer, Brian K Kwon, Peter Cripton, Christian M Puttlitz
Despite efforts to simulate the in-vivo environment, post-mortem degradation and lack of blood perfusion complicate the use of ex-vivo derived material models in computational studies of spinal cord injury. In order to quantify the mechanical changes that manifest ex-vivo, the viscoelastic behavior of in-vivo and ex-vivo porcine spinal cord samples were compared. Stress-relaxation data from each condition were fit to a non-linear viscoelastic model using a novel characterization technique called the direct fit method...
December 26, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286684/three-dimensional-general-relativistic-magnetohydrodynamic-simulations-of-remnant-accretion-disks-from-neutron-star-mergers-outflows-and-r-process-nucleosynthesis
#12
Daniel M Siegel, Brian D Metzger
The merger of binary neutron stars, or of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole, can result in the formation of a massive rotating torus around a spinning black hole. In addition to providing collimating media for γ-ray burst jets, unbound outflows from these disks are an important source of mass ejection and rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. We present the first three-dimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of neutrino-cooled accretion disks in neutron star mergers, including a realistic equation of state valid at low densities and temperatures, self-consistent evolution of the electron fraction, and neutrino cooling through an approximate leakage scheme...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285401/multifunctional-stimuli-responsive-polymer-gated-iron-and-gold-embedded-silica-nano-golf-balls-nanoshuttles-for-targeted-on-demand-theranostics
#13
Liping Wang, Grace Jang, Deependra Kumar Ban, Vrinda Sant, Jay Seth, Sami Kazmi, Nirav Patel, Qingqing Yang, Joon Lee, Woraphong Janetanakit, Shanshan Wang, Brian P Head, Gennadi Glinsky, Ratneshwar Lal
Multi-functional nanoshuttles for remotely targeted and on-demand delivery of therapeutic molecules and imaging to defined tissues and organs hold great potentials in personalized medicine, including precise early diagnosis, efficient prevention and therapy without toxicity. Yet, in spite of 25 years of research, there are still no such shuttles available. To this end, we have designed magnetic and gold nanoparticles (NP)-embedded silica nanoshuttles (MGNSs) with nanopores on their surface. Fluorescently labeled Doxorubicin (DOX), a cancer drug, was loaded in the MGNSs as a payload...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282722/estimating-the-cost-of-providing-foundational-public-health-services
#14
Cezar Brian C Mamaril, Glen P Mays, Douglas Keith Branham, Betty Bekemeier, Justin Marlowe, Lava Timsina
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of resources required to implement a set of Foundational Public Health Services (FPHS) as recommended by the Institute of Medicine. STUDY DESIGN: A stochastic simulation model was used to generate probability distributions of input and output costs across 11 FPHS domains. We used an implementation attainment scale to estimate costs of fully implementing FPHS. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We use data collected from a diverse cohort of 19 public health agencies located in three states that implemented the FPHS cost estimation methodology in their agencies during 2014-2015...
December 28, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280767/sexual-networks-of-racially-diverse-young-msm-differ-in-racial-homophily-but-not-concurrency
#15
Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Michelle Birkett, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Substantial racial disparities exist in HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, evidence suggests Black YMSM do not engage in greater levels of risk behavior. Sexual networks may help explain this paradox. This study utilized egocentric exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to examine variation in concurrency (i.e., 2 or more simultaneous partners) and homophily (i.e., same race/ethnicity partners) across race/ethnicity groups in a diverse sample of YMSM...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276288/hazardous-drug-contamination-of-drug-preparation-devices-and-staff-a-contamination-study-simulating-the-use-of-chemotherapy-drugs-in-a-clinical-setting
#16
Evan Call, Brian Bill, Chad McLean, Nathan Call, Allyn Bernkopf, Craig Oberg
Background: Hazardous drug contamination (HD) in healthcare environments continues, placing healthcare staff at risk of significantly chronic health problems, despite the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and closed system transfer device systems (CSTDs). Objective: This study's aim was to determine how HD might spread through touch after handling contaminated vials in simulated pharmacy and nursing environments. Methods: UV fluorescent powder Glo Germ (Glo Germ Co., Moab, UT), composed of melamine resin, was used to simulate HD...
September 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274143/development-and-evaluation-of-a-connective-tissue-phantom-model-for-subsurface-visualization-of-cancers-requiring-wide-local-excision
#17
Kimberley S Samkoe, Brent D Bates, Niki N Tselepidakis, Alisha V DSouza, Jason R Gunn, Dipak B Ramkumar, Keith D Paulsen, Brian W Pogue, Eric R Henderson
Wide local excision (WLE) of tumors with negative margins remains a challenge because surgeons cannot directly visualize the mass. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) may improve surgical accuracy; however, conventional methods with direct surface tumor visualization are not immediately applicable, and properties of tissues surrounding the cancer must be considered. We developed a phantom model for sarcoma resection with the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye 800CW and used it to iteratively define the properties of connective tissues that typically surround sarcoma tumors...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259289/resolution-of-habitat-associated-ecogenomic-signatures-in-bacteriophage-genomes-and-application-to-microbial-source-tracking
#18
Lesley A Ogilvie, Jonathan Nzakizwanayo, Fergus M Guppy, Cinzia Dedi, David Diston, Huw Taylor, James Ebdon, Brian V Jones
Just as the expansion in genome sequencing has revealed and permitted the exploitation of phylogenetic signals embedded in bacterial genomes, the application of metagenomics has begun to provide similar insights at the ecosystem level for microbial communities. However, little is known regarding this aspect of bacteriophage associated with microbial ecosystems, and if phage encode discernible habitat-associated signals diagnostic of underlying microbiomes. Here we demonstrate that individual phage can encode clear habitat-related 'ecogenomic signatures', based on relative representation of phage-encoded gene homologues in metagenomic data sets...
December 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251551/cherenkov-excited-multi-fluorophore-sensing-in-tissue-simulating-phantoms-and-in-vivo
#19
Alisha Dsouza, Huiyun Lin, Jason R Gunn, David J Gladstone, Lesley A Jarvis, Brian W Pogue
In this work, Cherenkov-excited molecular sensing was used to assess the potential for simultaneous quantitative sensing of two NIR fluorophores within tissue-simulating phantoms through spectral separation of signals. Cherenkov emissions induced by external beam gamma photon radiation treatment to tissues/tissue-simulating phantoms were detectable over the 500-900-nm wavelength range. The presence of blood was demonstrated to reduce the integrated intensity of detected Cherenkov emissions by nearly 50%, predominantly at wavelengths below 620 nm...
December 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249604/selectively-modulating-conformational-states-of-usp7-catalytic-domain-for-activation
#20
Ayşegül Özen, Lionel Rougé, Charlene Bashore, Brian R Hearn, Nicholas J Skelton, Erin C Dueber
Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) deubiquitinase activity is controlled by a number of regulatory factors, including stimulation by intramolecular accessory domains. Alone, the USP7 catalytic domain (USP7cd) shows limited activity and apo USP7cd crystal structures reveal a disrupted catalytic triad. By contrast, ubiquitin-conjugated USP7cd structures demonstrate the canonical cysteine protease active-site geometry; however, the structural features of the USP7cd that stabilize the inactive conformation and the mechanism of transition between inactive and active states remain unclear...
December 1, 2017: Structure
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