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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543843/white-matter-biomarkers-from-fast-protocols-using-axially-symmetric-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#1
Brian Hansen, Ahmad R Khan, Noam Shemesh, Torben E Lund, Ryan Sangill, Simon F Eskildsen, Leif Østergaard, Sune N Jespersen
White matter tract integrity (WMTI) can characterize brain microstructure in areas with highly aligned fiber bundles. Several WMTI biomarkers have now been validated against microscopy and provided promising results in studies of brain development and aging, as well as in a number of brain disorders. Currently, WMTI is mostly used in dedicated animal studies and clinical studies of slowly progressing diseases, and has not yet emerged as a routine clinical tool. To this end, a less data intensive experimental method would be beneficial by enabling high resolution validation studies, and ease clinical applications by speeding up data acquisition compared with typical diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) protocols utilized as part of WMTI imaging...
May 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535715/two-part-models-with-stochastic-processes-for-modelling-longitudinal-semicontinuous-data-computationally-efficient-inference-and-modelling-the-overall-marginal-mean
#2
Sean Yiu, Brian Dm Tom
Several researchers have described two-part models with patient-specific stochastic processes for analysing longitudinal semicontinuous data. In theory, such models can offer greater flexibility than the standard two-part model with patient-specific random effects. However, in practice, the high dimensional integrations involved in the marginal likelihood (i.e. integrated over the stochastic processes) significantly complicates model fitting. Thus, non-standard computationally intensive procedures based on simulating the marginal likelihood have so far only been proposed...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535320/effectiveness-of-a-labor-cervical-exam-model-in-family-medicine-and-ob-gyn-residents
#3
Joshua F Nitsche, Nora F Fino, Jose M Palomo, Abraham Portillo Perdomo, Brian C Brost
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Labor cervical exam accuracy is an essential skill for family medicine and OB-GYN residents to master. To determine the effectiveness of simulation on labor cervical exam training, family medicine and OB-GYN residents were trained using a self-constructed PVC pipe-based cervical exam model during a short and intensive simulation workshop or "boot camp." METHODS: A task trainer was constructed that allows for the blind examination of cervical dilation and effacement...
May 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534081/power-of-pedigree-likelihood-analysis-in-extended-pedigrees-to-classify-rare-variants-of-uncertain-significance-in-cancer-risk-genes
#4
Elisabeth A Rosenthal, John Michael O Ranola, Brian H Shirts
Rare and private variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are routinely identified in clinical panel, exome, and genome sequencing. We investigated the power of single family co-segregation analysis to aid classification of VUS. We simulated thousands of pedigrees using demographics in China and the United States, segregating benign and pathogenic variants. Genotypes and phenotypes were simulated using penetrance models for Lynch syndrome and breast/ovarian cancer. We calculated LOD scores adjusted for proband ascertainment (LODadj), to determine power to yield quantitative evidence for, or against, pathogenicity of the VUS...
May 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530853/designing-clinical-trials-that-accept-new-arms-an-example-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#5
Steffen Ventz, Brian M Alexander, Giovanni Parmigiani, Richard D Gelber, Lorenzo Trippa
Purpose The majority of randomized oncology trials are two-arm studies that test the efficacy of new therapies against a standard of care, thereby assigning a large proportion of patients to nonexperimental therapies. In contrast, multiarm studies efficiently share a common control arm while evaluating multiple experimental therapies. A major bottleneck for traditional multiarm trials is the requirement that all therapies-often drugs from different companies-have to be available at the same time when the trial starts...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528939/aga-white-paper-training-and-implementation-of-endoscopic-image-enhancement-technologies
#6
Neil Gupta, Joel V Brill, Marcia Canto, Daniel DeMarco, Brian M Fennerty, Loren Laine, David Lieberman, Charles Lightdale, Elizabeth Montgomery, Robert Odze, Douglas Rex, Prateek Sharma, Jeffrey L Tokar, Michael L Kochman
Endoscopic image-enhancement technologies provide opportunities to visualize normal and abnormal tissues within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a manner that complements conventional white light endoscopic imaging. The additional information that is obtained enables the endoscopist to better identify, delineate, and characterize lesions and can facilitate targeted biopsies or, in some cases, eliminate the need to send samples for histologic analysis. Some of these technologies have been available for more than a decade, but despite this fact, there is limited use of these technologies by endoscopists...
June 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525474/anatomy-of-lamina-in-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-with-the-special-reference-to-translaminar-screws-ct-and-cadaveric-analysis-with-screw-trajectory-simulation
#7
Woojin Cho, Jason T Le, Adam L Shimer, Brian C Werner, John A Glaser, Francis H Shen
STUDY DESIGN: A cadaveric study. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Translaminar screws were initially developed for C2 fixation. Since then, their usage has expanded to include the subaxial cervical spine, and thoracic and lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, special anatomy for inserting translaminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To report the special anatomy for inserting translaminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine...
June 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525258/bioavailability-of-soil-sorbed-tetracycline-to-escherichia-coli-under-unsaturated-conditions
#8
Zeyou Chen, Wei Zhang, Gang Wang, Yingjie Zhang, Yanzheng Gao, Stephen A Boyd, Brian J Teppen, James M Tiedje, Dongqiang Zhu, Hui Li
Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic antibiotics in soils are partly responsible for the proliferation of bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, little is known about how soil-sorbed antibiotics exert selective pressure on bacteria in unsaturated soils. This study investigated the bioavailability of tetracycline sorbed on three soils (Webster clay loam, Capac sandy clay loam, and Oshtemo loamy sand) to a fluorescent Escherichia coli bioreporter under unsaturated conditions using agar diffusion assay, microscopic visualization, and model simulation...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524068/detection-of-magnetic-field-properties-using-distributed-sensing-a-computational-neuroscience-approach
#9
Brian K Taylor, Sönke Johnsen, Kenneth J Lohmann
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field to aid both short- and long-distance navigation. Study of these behaviors has led to a variety of postulated sensory and processing mechanisms that remain unconfirmed. Although several models have been proposed to explain and understand these mechanisms' underpinnings, they have not necessarily connected a putative sensory signal to the nervous system. Using mathematical software simulation, hardware testing and the computational neuroscience tool of dynamic neural fields, the present work implements a previously developed conceptual model for processing magnetite-based magnetosensory data...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521193/issues-raised-by-the-reference-doses-for-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-and-perfluorooctanoic-acid
#10
Zhaomin Dong, Md Mezbaul Bahar, Joytishna Jit, Bruce Kennedy, Brian Priestly, Jack Ng, Dane Lamb, Yanju Liu, Luchun Duan, Ravi Naidu
On 25th May 2016, the U.S. EPA released reference doses (RfDs) for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) of 20ng/kg/day, which were much more conservative than previous values. These RfDs rely on the choices of animal point of departure (PoD) and the toxicokinetics (TK) model. At this stage, considering that the human evidence is not strong enough for RfD determination, using animal data may be appropriate but with more uncertainties. In this article, the uncertainties concerning RfDs from the choices of PoD and TK models are addressed...
May 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516778/surfactant-assemblies-on-selected-nano-structured-surfaces-evidence-driving-forces-and-applications
#11
Alberto Striolo, Brian Patrick Grady
Surfactant adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces is critical for a number of applications of vast industrial interest, and can also be used to seed surface-modification processes. Many of the surfaces of interest are nano-structured, as they might present surface roughness at the molecular scale, chemical heterogeneity, as well as a combination of both surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity. These effects provide 'lateral' confinement on the surfactant aggregates. It is of interest to quantify how much surfactant adsorbs on such nano-structured surfaces, and how the surfactant aggregates vary as the degree of lateral confinement changes...
May 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509592/molecular-modeling-and-structure-activity-relationships-for-a-series-of-benzimidazole-derivatives-as-cruzain-inhibitors
#12
Ivani Pauli, Leonardo G Ferreira, Mariana L de Souza, Glaucius Oliva, Rafaela S Ferreira, Marco A Dessoy, Brian W Slafer, Luiz C Dias, Adriano D Andricopulo
AIM: Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and no effective treatment is available. Efforts in drug research have focused on several enzymes from Trypanosoma cruzi, among which cruzain is a validated pharmacological target. METHODOLOGY: Chemometric analyses were performed on the data set using the HQSAR, CoMFA and CoMSIA methods. Docking simulations were executed using the crystallographic structure of cruzain in complex with a benzimidazole inhibitor. The top-scoring enzyme-inhibitor complexes were selected for the development of the 3D QSAR models and to assess the inhibitor binding modes and intermolecular interactions...
May 16, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505268/pharmacodynamics-of-dose-escalated-front-loading-polymyxin-b-regimens-against-polymyxin-resistant-mcr-1-harbouring-escherichia-coli
#13
Nicholas M Smith, Zackery P Bulman, Arthur O Sieron, Jürgen B Bulitta, Patricia N Holden, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Gerard D Wright, Brian T Tsuji
Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria harbouring the mcr-1 plasmid are resistant to the 'last-line' polymyxins and have been reported worldwide. Our objective was to define the impact of increasing the initial polymyxin B dose intensity against an mcr-1 -harbouring strain to delineate the impact of plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance on the dynamics of bacterial killing and resistance. Methods: A hollow fibre infection model (HFIM) was used to simulate polymyxin B regimens against an mcr-1 -harbouring Escherichia coli (MIC 8 mg/L) over 10 days...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499120/characterising-bias-in-regulatory-risk-and-decision-analysis-an-analysis-of-heuristics-applied-in-health-technology-appraisal-chemicals-regulation-and-climate-change-governance
#14
Brian H MacGillivray
In many environmental and public health domains, heuristic methods of risk and decision analysis must be relied upon, either because problem structures are ambiguous, reliable data is lacking, or decisions are urgent. This introduces an additional source of uncertainty beyond model and measurement error - uncertainty stemming from relying on inexact inference rules. Here we identify and analyse heuristics used to prioritise risk objects, to discriminate between signal and noise, to weight evidence, to construct models, to extrapolate beyond datasets, and to make policy...
May 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498653/recovering-rare-earth-elements-from-aqueous-solution-with-porous-amine-epoxy-networks
#15
Walter Christopher Wilfong, Brian W Kail, Tracy L Bank, Bret H Howard, McMahan L Gray
Recovering aqueous rare earth elements (REEs) from domestic water sources is one key strategy to diminish the U.S.'s foreign reliance of these precious commodities. Herein, we synthesized an array of porous, amine-epoxy monolith and particle REE recovery sorbents from different polyamine, namely tetraethylenepentamine, and diepoxide (E2), triepoxide (E3), and tetra-epoxide (E4) monomer combinations via a polymer-induced phase separation (PIPS) method. The polyamines provided -NH2 (primary amine) plus -NH (secondary amine) REE adsorption sites, which were partially reacted with C-O-C (epoxide) groups at different amine/epoxide ratios to precipitate porous materials that exhibited a wide range of apparent porosities and REE recoveries/affinities...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496276/using-patient-case-video-vignettes-to-improve-students-understanding-of-cross-cultural-communication
#16
Sally Arif, Brian Cryder, Jennifer Mazan, Ana Quiñones-Boex, Angelika Cyganska
Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop...
April 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495842/the-impact-of-ocular-hemodynamics-and-intracranial-pressure-on-intraocular-pressure-during-acute-gravitational-changes
#17
Emily S Nelson, Lealem Mulugeta, Andrew Feola, Julia Raykin, Jerry G Myers, Brian C Samuels, C Ross Ethier
Exposure to microgravity causes a bulk fluid shift toward the head, with concomitant changes in blood volume/pressure, intraocular pressure (IOP), and intracranial pressure (ICP). These and other factors are thought to contribute to Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, a significant health concern for astronauts, characterized by degradation of visual function and ocular anatomical changes. Here we describe a lumped-parameter numerical model to simulate volume/pressure alterations in the eye during gravitational changes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489618/core-competencies-or-a-competent-core-a-scoping-review-and-realist-synthesis-of-invasive-bedside-procedural-skills-training-in-internal-medicine
#18
Ryan Brydges, Lynfa Stroud, Brian M Wong, Eric S Holmboe, Kevin Imrie, Rose Hatala
PURPOSE: Invasive bedside procedures are core competencies for internal medicine, yet no formal training guidelines exist. The authors conducted a scoping review and realist synthesis to characterize current training for lumbar puncture, arthrocentesis, paracentesis, thoracentesis, and central venous catheterization. They aimed to collate how educators justify using specific interventions, establish which interventions have the best evidence, and offer directions for future research and training...
May 9, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484768/the-rotational-dynamics-of-h2-adsorbed-in-covalent-organic-frameworks
#19
Tony Pham, Katherine A Forrest, Matthew Mostrom, Joseph R Hunt, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Juergen Eckert, Brian Space
A combined inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and theoretical study was carried out on H2 adsorbed in two covalent organic framework (COF) materials: COF-1 and COF-102. These COFs are synthesized from self-condensation reactions of 1,4-benzenediboronic acid (BDBA) and tetra(4-(dihydroxy)borylphenyl)methane (TBPM) molecules, respectively. Molecular simulations of H2 adsorption in COF-1 revealed that the H2 molecules occupy the region between two eclipsed layers of the COF. The most favorable H2 binding site in COF-1 is located between two B3O3 clusters of the eclipsed layers...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484231/effect-of-canal-anastomosis-on-periapical-fluid-pressure-build-up-during-needle-irrigation-in-single-roots-with-double-canals-using-a-polycarbonate-model
#20
Qi Huang, Jonathan B Barnes, G John Schoeffel, Bing Fan, Candice Tay, Brian E Bergeron, Lisiane F Susin, Jun-Qi Ling, Li-Na Niu, Franklin R Tay
Sodium hypochlorite is an effective irrigant for chemical debridement of root canals. However, increasing the intracanal pressure during irrigant delivery may result in irrigant extrusion into the bone and soft tissues surrounding the tooth. Because clinicians often encounter teeth with intracanal communications, the objective of the present study was to examine the effects of canal anastomosis on the generation of periapical fluid pressure at different fluid flow rates and insertion depths. Two similar polycarbonate models were used to simulate a single root with double canals, one containing, and the other without communicating channels between the canals...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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