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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647168/communicating-infectious-disease-prevalence-through-graphics-results-from-an-international-survey
#1
Angela Fagerlin, Thomas S Valley, Aaron M Scherer, Megan Knaus, Enny Das, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: Graphics are increasingly used to represent the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, Zika, Ebola); however, the impact of using graphics to adequately inform the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether three ways of visually presenting data (heat map, dot map, or picto-trendline)-all depicting the same information regarding the spread of a hypothetical outbreak of influenza-influence intent to vaccinate, risk perception, and knowledge...
June 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639045/passing-the-fundamentals-of-endoscopic-surgery-fes-exam-linking-specialty-choice-and-attitudes-about-endoscopic-surgery-to-success
#2
Aimee K Gardner, Michael B Ujiki, Brian J Dunkin
INTRODUCTION: Previous work has shown that up to 30% of graduating surgery residents fail the fundamentals of endoscopic surgery (FES) exam. This study investigated the extent to which FES pass rates differ in a specific sample of individuals who have chosen a career in GI surgery and to examine the relationships between FES performance and confidence in performing flexible endoscopy. METHODS: Fellows attending the 2016 SAGES Flexible Endoscopy Course were invited to complete the FES manual skills examination...
June 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634131/cost-effectiveness-of-pre-versus-post-liver-transplant-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#3
Sumeyye Samur, Brian Kues, Turgay Ayer, Mark S Roberts, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Drew Michael S Donnell, Raymond T Chung, Jagpreet Chhatwal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment offer new hope to both pre- and post-liver transplant (LT) patients. However, whether to treat HCV patients pre- versus post-LT is not clear, as treatment can improve liver function but could reduce the chance of receiving a LT while on the waiting list. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pre-LT versus post-LT HCV treatment with oral DAAs in decompensated cirrhotic patients on the LT waiting list...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630888/gillespy-a-python-package-for-stochastic-model-building-and-simulation
#4
John H Abel, Brian Drawert, Andreas Hellander, Linda R Petzold
GillesPy is an open-source Python package for model construction and simulation of stochastic biochemical systems. GillesPy consists of a Python framework for model building and an interface to the StochKit2 suite of efficient simulation algorithms based on the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA). To enable intuitive model construction and seamless integration into the scientific Python stack, we present an easy to understand, action-oriented programming interface. Here, we describe the components of this package and provide a detailed example relevant to the computational biology community...
September 2016: IEEE Life Sciences Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620945/measuring-the-statistical-validity-of-summary-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-results-for-use-in-clinical-practice
#5
Brian H Willis, Richard D Riley
An important question for clinicians appraising a meta-analysis is: are the findings likely to be valid in their own practice-does the reported effect accurately represent the effect that would occur in their own clinical population? To this end we advance the concept of statistical validity-where the parameter being estimated equals the corresponding parameter for a new independent study. Using a simple ('leave-one-out') cross-validation technique, we demonstrate how we may test meta-analysis estimates for statistical validity using a new validation statistic, Vn, and derive its distribution...
June 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616177/the-effects-of-elevated-temperature-and-dissolved-%C3%AF-co2-on-a-marine-foundation-species
#6
Cori J Speights, Brian R Silliman, Michael W McCoy
Understanding how climate change and other environmental stressors will affect species is a fundamental concern of modern ecology. Indeed, numerous studies have documented how climate stressors affect species distributions and population persistence. However, relatively few studies have investigated how multiple climate stressors might affect species. In this study, we investigate the impacts of how two climate change factors affect an important foundation species. Specifically, we tested how ocean acidification from dissolution of CO 2 and increased sea surface temperatures affect multiple characteristics of juvenile eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613172/learning-the-image-processing-pipeline
#7
Haomiao Jiang, Qiyuan Tian, Joyce Farrell, Brian Wandell
Many creative ideas are being proposed for image sensor designs, and these may be useful in applications ranging from consumer photography to computer vision. To understand and evaluate each new design, we must create a corresponding image processing pipeline that transforms the sensor data into a form that is appropriate for the application. The need to design and optimize these pipelines is time-consuming and costly. We explain a method that combines machine learning and image systems simulation that automates the pipeline design...
June 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609316/evaluation-of-a-low-fidelity-surgical-simulator-for-large-loop-excision-of-the-transformation-zone-lletz
#8
Erin B Wilson, Michael M Beckmann, David G Hewett, Brian C Jolly, Sarah Janssens
INTRODUCTION: Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) is a common gynecological treatment for cervical dysplasia but can be challenging to teach. There is no widely adopted simulator for this procedure in Australia, so a new low-fidelity simulator was designed and evaluated. METHOD: A simulator for a LLETZ procedure was developed. Doctors (N = 29), varied in experience level in gynecology at a tertiary hospital, performed a LLETZ procedure using the simulator...
June 12, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607821/frameless-image-guided-radiosurgery-for-trigeminal-neuralgia
#9
Lisa B E Shields, Todd S Shanks, Andrew J Shearer, Lauren A Shelton, Brent J Shelton, Jonathan Howe, James M Coons, Brian Plato, Aaron C Spalding
BACKGROUND: Frameless image-guided radiosurgery (IGRS) is a safe and effective noninvasive treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This study evaluates the use of frameless IGRS to treat patients with refractory TN. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 20 patients diagnosed with TN who underwent frameless IGRS treatments between March 2012 and December 2013. Facial pain was graded using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scoring system. The initial setup uncertainty from simulation to treatment and the patient intrafraction uncertainty were measured...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605180/a-hydrogel-microsphere-drug-delivery-system-that-supports-once-monthly-administration-of-a-glp-1-receptor-agonist
#10
Eric L Schneider, Brian R Hearn, Samuel J Pfaff, Ralph Reid, David G Parkes, Niels Vrang, Gary W Ashley, Daniel V Santi
We have developed a chemically-controlled very long-acting delivery system to support once-monthly administration of a peptidic GLP-1R agonist. Initially, the prototypical GLP-1R agonist exenatide was covalently attached to hydrogel microspheres by a self-cleaving β-eliminative linker; after subcutaneous injection in rats the peptide was slowly released into the systemic circulation. However, the short serum exenatide half-life suggested its degradation in the subcutaneous depot. We found that exenatide undergoes deamidation at Asn(28)with an in vitro and in vivo half-life of approximately two weeks...
June 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601508/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-renin-inhibitors-guided-by-simulated-annealing-of-chemical-potential-simulations
#11
Ian S Cloudsdale, John K Dickson, Thomas E Barta, Brian S Grella, Emilie D Smith, John L Kulp, Frank Guarnieri, John L Kulp
We have applied simulated annealing of chemical potential (SACP) to a diverse set of ∼150 very small molecules to provide insights into new interactions in the binding pocket of human renin, a historically difficult target for which to find low molecular weight (MW) inhibitors with good bioavailability. In one of its many uses in drug discovery, SACP provides an efficient, thermodynamically principled method of ranking chemotype replacements for scaffold hopping and manipulating physicochemical characteristics for drug development...
May 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597226/pharmacokinetic-profile-of-a-2-month-dose-regimen-of-aripiprazole-lauroxil-a-phase-i-study-and-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model
#12
Marjie L Hard, Richard J Mills, Brian M Sadler, Angela Y Wehr, Peter J Weiden, Lisa von Moltke
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) is a long-acting injectable medication approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. Current AL regimens are 441 mg, 662 mg, and 882 mg administered monthly (every 4 weeks [q4wk]), or 882 mg administered every 6 weeks (q6wk). OBJECTIVE: We examined the feasibility of a 2-month (every 8 weeks [q8wk]) dosing interval of AL in a phase I open-label pharmacokinetic study investigating AL 1064 mg administered q8wk for 24 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of safety and pharmacokinetic measurements (ClinicalTrials...
June 8, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595589/a-comparison-of-approaches-for-adjudicating-outcomes-in-clinical-trials
#13
Brennan C Kahan, Brian Feagan, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Incorrect classification of outcomes in clinical trials can lead to biased estimates of treatment effect and reduced power. Ensuring appropriate adjudication methods to minimize outcome misclassification is therefore essential. While there are many reported adjudication approaches, there is little consensus over which approach is best. METHODS: Under the assumption of non-differential assessment (i.e. that misclassification rates are the same in each treatment arm, as would typically be the case when outcome assessors are blinded), we use simulation and theoretical results to address four different questions about outcome adjudication: (a) How many assessors should be used? (b) When is it better to use onsite or central assessment? (c) Should central assessors adjudicate all outcomes, or only suspected events? (d) Should central assessment with multiple assessors be done independently or through group consensus? RESULTS: No one adjudication approach performs optimally in all settings...
June 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584255/arsenic-mobilization-in-shallow-aquifers-due-to-co2-and-brine-intrusion-from-storage-reservoirs
#14
Ting Xiao, Zhenxue Dai, Hari Viswanathan, Alexandra Hakala, Martha Cather, Wei Jia, Yongchao Zhang, Brian McPherson
We developed an integrated framework of combined batch experiments and reactive transport simulations to quantify water-rock-CO2 interactions and arsenic (As) mobilization responses to CO2 and/or saline water leakage into USDWs. Experimental and simulation results suggest that when CO2 is introduced, pH drops immediately that initiates release of As from clay minerals. Calcite dissolution can increase pH slightly and cause As re-adsorption. Thus, the mineralogy of the USDW is ultimately a determining factor of arsenic fate and transport...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583127/cmost-an-open-source-framework-for-the-microsimulation-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-strategies
#15
Meher K Prakash, Brian Lang, Henriette Heinrich, Piero V Valli, Peter Bauerfeind, Amnon Sonnenberg, Niko Beerenwinkel, Benjamin Misselwitz
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced by several screening strategies, including colonoscopy, but randomized CRC prevention trials face significant obstacles such as the need for large study populations with long follow-up. Therefore, CRC screening strategies will likely be designed and optimized based on computer simulations. Several computational microsimulation tools have been reported for estimating efficiency and cost-effectiveness of CRC prevention...
June 5, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581412/dosimetric-impact-of-using-a-virtual-couch-shift-for-online-correction-of-setup-errors-for-brain-patients-on-an-integrated-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-linear-accelerator
#16
Mark Ruschin, Arjun Sahgal, Chia-Lin Tseng, Marcus Sonier, Brian Keller, Young Lee
PURPOSE: To quantify the dosimetric impact of using virtual couch shift (VCS) for correcting setup errors in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Six GBM patients treated with 60 Gy (30 fractions) were selected for this simulation study. For each case, 2 reference plans were generated in the MRL treatment planning system: With (WIB) and with no (NOB) MRI B field present. Subsequently, 2-mm, 4-mm, and 6-mm translational errors were simulated and corrected for using a VCS method based on shift-only, warm start segment weight (SWO), and segment weight and shape (SSO) optimization...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580275/forecasting-trends-in-disability-in-a-super-aging-society-adapting-the-future-elderly-model-to-japan
#17
Brian K Chen, Hawre Jalal, Hideki Hashimoto, Sze-Chuan Suen, Karen Eggleston, Michael Hurley, Lena Schoemaker, Jay Bhattacharya
Japan has experienced pronounced population aging, and now has the highest proportion of elderly adults in the world. Yet few projections of Japan's future demography go beyond estimating population by age and sex to forecast the complex evolution of the health and functioning of the future elderly. This study estimates a new state-transition microsimulation model - the Japanese Future Elderly Model (FEM) - for Japan. We use the model to forecast disability and health for Japan's future elderly. Our simulation suggests that by 2040, over 27 percent of Japan's elderly will exhibit 3 or more limitations in IADLs and social functioning; almost one in 4 will experience difficulties with 3 or more ADLs; and approximately one in 5 will suffer limitations in cognitive or intellectual functioning...
December 2016: Journal of the Economics of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577690/value-of-comprehensive-hcv-treatment-among-vulnerable-high-risk-populations
#18
Gigi A Moreno, Alice Wang, Yuri Sánchez González, Oliver Díaz Espinosa, Diana K Vania, Brian R Edlin, Ronald Brookmeyer
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the trade-offs society and payers make when expanding treatment access to patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in early stages of disease as well as to vulnerable, high-risk populations, such as people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM-HIV). METHODS: A discrete time Markov model simulated HCV progression and treatment over 20 years. Population cohorts were defined by behaviors that influence the risk of HCV exposure: PWID, MSM-HIV, an overlap cohort of individuals who are both PWID and MSM-HIV, and all other adults...
June 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573198/concerted-one-electron-two-proton-transfer-processes-in-models-inspired-by-the-tyr-his-couple-of-photosystem-ii
#19
Mioy T Huynh, S Jimena Mora, Matias Villalba, Marely E Tejeda-Ferrari, Paul A Liddell, Brian R Cherry, Anne-Lucie Teillout, Charles W Machan, Clifford P Kubiak, Devens Gust, Thomas A Moore, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer, Ana L Moore
Nature employs a TyrZ-His pair as a redox relay that couples proton transfer to the redox process between P680 and the water oxidizing catalyst in photosystem II. Artificial redox relays composed of different benzimidazole-phenol dyads (benzimidazole models His and phenol models Tyr) with substituents designed to simulate the hydrogen bond network surrounding the TyrZ-His pair have been prepared. When the benzimidazole substituents are strong proton acceptors such as primary or tertiary amines, theory predicts that a concerted two proton transfer process associated with the electrochemical oxidation of the phenol will take place...
May 24, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570062/impact-of-photooxidation-and-biodegradation-on-the-fate-of-oil-spilled-during-the-deepwater-horizon-incident-advanced-stages-of-weathering
#20
Brian H Harriman, Phoebe Zito, David C Podgorski, Matthew A Tarr, Joseph M Suflita
While the biogeochemical forces influencing the weathering of spilled oil have been investigated for decades, the environmental fate and effects of "oxyhydrocarbons" in sand patties deposited on beaches are not well-known. We collected sand patties deposited in the swash zone on Gulf of Mexico beaches following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. When sand patties were exposed to simulated sunlight, a larger concentration of dissolved organic carbon was leached into seawater than the corresponding dark controls...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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