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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906169/automated-identification-of-mouse-visual-areas-with-intrinsic-signal-imaging
#1
Ashley L Juavinett, Ian Nauhaus, Marina E Garrett, Jun Zhuang, Edward M Callaway
Intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISI) is a rapid and noninvasive method for observing brain activity in vivo over a large area of the cortex. Here we describe our protocol for mapping retinotopy to identify mouse visual cortical areas using ISI. First, surgery is performed to attach a head frame to the mouse skull (∼1 h). The next day, intrinsic activity across the visual cortex is recorded during the presentation of a full-field drifting bar in the horizontal and vertical directions (∼2 h). Horizontal and vertical retinotopic maps are generated by analyzing the response of each pixel during the period of the stimulus...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905540/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-an-animal-model-of-tinnitus
#2
Wilhelmina H A M Mulders, Vanessa Vooys, Kalina Makowiecki, Alex D Tang, Jennifer Rodger
Tinnitus (phantom auditory perception associated with hearing loss) can seriously affect wellbeing. Its neural substrate is unknown however it has been linked with abnormal activity in auditory pathways. Though no cure currently exists, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to reduce tinnitus in some patients, possibly via induction of cortical plasticity involving brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We examined whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alleviates signs of tinnitus in a guinea pig model and whether this involves changes in BDNF expression and hyperactivity in inferior colliculus...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#3
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904702/ethanol-extracts-from-portulaca-oleracea-l-attenuated-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-rat-neural-injury-through-inhibition-of-hmgb1-induced-inflammation
#4
Chenggang Zheng, Chen Liu, Wanyin Wang, Gusheng Tang, Liwei Dong, Juan Zhou, Zhengrong Zhong
It is well demonstrated that the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation has been implicated as one of the important causes for brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we assessed the neuro-protective and anti-inflammation effects of the ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) against cerebral I/R injury in the rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Rats were administrated with their respective treatment for 7 days before the MCA occlusion...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903878/a-spiking-neural-model-of-adaptive-arm-control
#5
Travis DeWolf, Terrence C Stewart, Jean-Jacques Slotine, Chris Eliasmith
We present a spiking neuron model of the motor cortices and cerebellum of the motor control system. The model consists of anatomically organized spiking neurons encompassing premotor, primary motor, and cerebellar cortices. The model proposes novel neural computations within these areas to control a nonlinear three-link arm model that can adapt to unknown changes in arm dynamics and kinematic structure. We demonstrate the mathematical stability of both forms of adaptation, suggesting that this is a robust approach for common biological problems of changing body size (e...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903811/%C3%AE-amyloid-in-csf-biomarker-for-preclinical-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#6
Ellis S van Etten, Marcel M Verbeek, Jeroen van der Grond, Ronald Zielman, Sanneke van Rooden, Erik W van Zwet, Anna M van Opstal, Joost Haan, Steven M Greenberg, Mark A van Buchem, Marieke J H Wermer, Gisela M Terwindt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate CSF biomarkers in presymptomatic and symptomatic mutation carriers with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D), a model for sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and to determine the earliest deposited form of β-amyloid (Aβ). METHODS: HCHWA-D mutation carriers and controls were enrolled in the cross-sectional EDAN (Early Diagnosis of Amyloid Angiopathy Network) study. The HCHWA-D group was divided into symptomatic carriers with a previous intracerebral hemorrhage and presymptomatic carriers...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#7
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
: A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903727/predicting-when-in-discourse-engages-the-human-dorsal-auditory-stream-an-fmri-study-using-naturalistic-stories
#8
Katerina Danae Kandylaki, Arne Nagels, Sarah Tune, Tilo Kircher, Richard Wiese, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
: The hierarchical organization of human cortical circuits integrates information across different timescales via temporal receptive windows, which increase in length from lower to higher levels of the cortical hierarchy (Hasson et al., 2015). A recent neurobiological model of higher-order language processing (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al., 2015) posits that temporal receptive windows in the dorsal auditory stream provide the basis for a hierarchically organized predictive coding architecture (Friston and Kiebel, 2009)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903724/a-comparison-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-awake-and-anesthetized-mice
#9
Séverine Durand, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Kenji Mizuseki, Saskia de Vries, Stefan Mihalas, R Clay Reid
: The cerebral cortex of the mouse has become one of the most important systems for studying information processing and the neural correlates of behavior. Multiple studies have examined the first stages of visual cortical processing: primary visual cortex (V1) and its thalamic inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but more rarely in the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) in mice. Multiple single-unit surveys of dLGN and V1, both with electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging, have described receptive fields in anesthetized animals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902850/biomechanical-comparison-of-2-veterinary-locking-plates-to-monocortical-screw-polymethylmethacrylate-fixation-in-canine-cadaveric-cervical-vertebral-column
#10
Bianca F Hettlich, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Alan S Litsky
OBJECTIVE: To compare the biomechanical properties of 2 veterinary locking plates and monocortical screws/polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fixation in canine cadaveric cervical vertebral columns. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical cadaveric study. MATERIALS: Nineteen cervical vertebral columns (C2-C7) from large breed, skeletally mature, canine cadavers were used. A cortical ring was placed as a disk spacer at C4-C5 in all specimens. Seven vertebral columns were plated at C4-C5 with two 4-hole, 3...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901023/rhein-and-rhubarb-similarly-protect-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-via-gp91-phox-subunit-of-nadph-oxidase-ros-erk-mmp-9-signaling-pathway
#11
Yang Wang, Xuegong Fan, Tao Tang, Rong Fan, Chunhu Zhang, Zebing Huang, Weijun Peng, Pingping Gan, Xingui Xiong, Wei Huang, Xi Huang
Oxidative stress chiefly contributes to the disruption of the BBB following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Chinese herbal medicine rhubarb is a promising antioxidant in treating TBI. Here we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to determine whether rhubarb and its absorbed bioactive compound protected the BBB after TBI by increasing ZO-1 expression through inhibition of gp91(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK/MMP-9 pathway. Rats were subjected to the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model, and primary rat cortical astrocytes were exposed to scratch-wound model...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900949/prediction-of-cortical-responses-to-simultaneous-electrical-stimulation-of-the-retina
#12
Kerry J Halupka, Mohit N Shivdasani, Shaun L Cloherty, David B Grayden, Yan T Wong, Anthony N Burkitt, Hamish Meffin
OBJECTIVE: Simultaneous electrical stimulation of multiple electrodes has shown promise in diversifying the responses that can be elicited by retinal prostheses compared to interleaved single electrode stimulation. However, the effects of interactions between electrodes are not well understood and clinical trials with simultaneous stimulation have produced inconsistent results. We investigated the effects of multiple electrode stimulation of the retina by developing a model of cortical responses to retinal stimulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900387/a-modification-specific-peptide-based-immunization-approach-using-crm197-carrier-protein-development-of-a-selective-vaccine-against-pyroglutamate-a%C3%AE-peptides
#13
Valérie Vingtdeux, Haitian Zhao, Pallavi Chandakkar, Christopher M Acker, Peter Davies, Philippe Marambaud
Strategies aimed at reducing cerebral accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides have therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ immunization has proven to be effective at promoting Aβ clearance in animal models but adverse effects have hampered its clinical evaluation. The first anti-Aβ immunization clinical trial, which assessed a full-length Aβ1-42 vaccine, increased the risk of encephalitis most likely because of autoimmune pro-inflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) response against all forms of Aβ...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900336/optimal-lateral-row-anchor-positioning-in-posterior-superior-transosseous-equivalent-rotator-cuff-repair-a-micro-computed-tomography-study
#14
Matthias A Zumstein, Sumit Raniga, Agatha Labrinidis, Kevin Eng, Gregory I Bain, Beat K Moor
BACKGROUND: The optimal placement of suture anchors in transosseous-equivalent (TOE) double-row rotator cuff repair remains controversial. PURPOSE: A 3-dimensional (3D) high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) histomorphometric analysis of cadaveric proximal humeral greater tuberosities (GTs) was performed to guide optimal positioning of lateral row anchors in posterior-superior (infraspinatus and supraspinatus) TOE rotator cuff repair. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898324/longitudinal-trajectory-of-clinical-insight-and-covariation-with-cortical-thickness-in-first-episode-psychosis
#15
Lisa Buchy, Carolina Makowski, Ashok Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
Among people with a first-episode of psychosis, those with poorer clinical insight show neuroanatomical abnormalities in frontal, temporal and parietal cortices compared to those with better clinical insight. Whether changes in clinical insight are associated with progressive structural brain changes is unknown. We aimed to evaluate 1) associations between clinical insight and cortical thickness at a baseline assessment, 2) covariation between clinical insight and cortical thickness across baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up assessments, and 3) the predictive value of clinical insight for cortical thickness at one-year and two-year follow-ups...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897242/cortical-synaptic-and-dendritic-spine-abnormalities-in-a-presymptomatic-tdp-43-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Matthew J Fogarty, Paul M Klenowski, John D Lee, Joy R Drieberg-Thompson, Selena E Bartlett, Shyuan T Ngo, Massimo A Hilliard, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes
Layer V pyramidal neurons (LVPNs) within the motor cortex integrate sensory cues and co-ordinate voluntary control of motor output. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) LVPNs and spinal motor neurons degenerate. The pathogenesis of neural degeneration is unknown in ALS; 10% of cases have a genetic cause, whereas 90% are sporadic, with most of the latter showing TDP-43 inclusions. Clinical and experimental evidence implicate excitotoxicity as a prime aetiological candidate. Using patch clamp and dye-filling techniques in brain slices, combined with high-resolution confocal microscopy, we report increased excitatory synaptic inputs and dendritic spine densities in early presymptomatic mice carrying a TDP-43(Q331K) mutation...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897136/an-image-based-skeletal-dosimetry-model-for-the-icrp-reference-adult-female-internal-electron-sources
#17
Shannon E O'Reilly, Lindsay S DeWeese, Matthew R Maynard, Didier A Rajon, Michael B Wayson, Emily L Marshall, Wesley E Bolch
An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for internal electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined reference adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used internal dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow)...
November 29, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896651/postnatal-administration-of-dizocilpine-inhibits-neuronal-excitability-in-pfc-and-induces-social-deficits-detected-by-miceprofiler
#18
Dexiao Zhu, Hui Wang, Jintao Wu, Qian Wang, Ling Xu, Yue Zhao, Kunkun Pang, Qingqing Shi, Wenbo Zhao, Jing Zhang, Jinhao Sun
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with social deficit as its core component of negative symptoms, which could be induced in rodents by dizocilpine (MK-801), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors are highly expressed during the postnatal period. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of postnatal MK-801 administration on social interaction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal administration of MK-801 on social interaction and explored the possible mechanisms...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895941/midbrain-frequency-representation-following-moderately-intense-neonatal-sound-exposure-in-a-precocious-animal-model-chinchilla-laniger
#19
Lisa M D'Alessandro, Robert V Harrison
Auditory brain areas undergo reorganization resulting from abnormal sensory input during early postnatal development. This is evident from studies at the cortical level but it remains unclear whether there is reorganization in the auditory midbrain in a species similar to the human, that is, with early hearing onset. We have explored midbrain plasticity in the chinchilla, a precocious species that matches the human in terms of hearing development. Neonatal chinchillas were chronically exposed to a 2 kHz narrowband sound at 70 dB SPL for 4 weeks...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#20
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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