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Cortical modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930751/dementia-predicting-cognitive-risk-score-and-its-correlation-with-cortical-thickness-in-parkinson-disease
#1
Byoung Seok Ye, Seun Jeon, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H Sohn
BACKGROUND: We developed a risk score system to predict risks of developing dementia in individual Parkinson disease (PD) patients using baseline neuropsychological tests. METHODS: A total of 216 nondemented PD patients underwent a baseline neuropsychological evaluation and were followed up for a mean of 2.7 (±1.1) years. Univariate Cox regression models controlled for age, gender, and education selected neuropsychological tests individually predicting dementia risk...
September 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929974/reconstruction-and-visualization-of-large-scale-volumetric-models-of-neocortical-circuits-for-physically-plausible-in-silico-optical-studies
#2
Marwan Abdellah, Juan Hernando, Nicolas Antille, Stefan Eilemann, Henry Markram, Felix Schürmann
BACKGROUND: We present a software workflow capable of building large scale, highly detailed and realistic volumetric models of neocortical circuits from the morphological skeletons of their digitally reconstructed neurons. The limitations of the existing approaches for creating those models are explained, and then, a multi-stage pipeline is discussed to overcome those limitations. Starting from the neuronal morphologies, we create smooth piecewise watertight polygonal models that can be efficiently utilized to synthesize continuous and plausible volumetric models of the neurons with solid voxelization...
September 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929924/the-search-for-a-subtype-selective-pet-imaging-agent-for-the-gabaa-receptor-complex-evaluation-of-the-radiotracer-11-c-ado-in-nonhuman-primates
#3
Shu-Fei Lin, Frederic Bois, Daniel Holden, Nabeel Nabulsi, Richard Pracitto, Hong Gao, Michael Kapinos, Jo-Ku Teng, Anupama Shirali, Jim Ropchan, Richard E Carson, Charles S Elmore, Neil Vasdev, Yiyun Huang
The myriad physiological functions of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex comprising of the GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC groups. The various GABAA subunits with region-specific distributions in the brain subserve different functional and physiological roles. For example, the sedative and anticonvulsive effects of classical benzodiazepines are attributed to the α1 subunit, and the α2 and α3 subunits mediate the anxiolytic effect. To optimize pharmacotherapies with improved efficacy and devoid of undesirable side effects for the treatment of anxiety disorders, subtype-selective imaging radiotracers are required to assess target engagement at GABA sites and determine the dose-receptor occupancy relationships...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929902/neurochemical-changes-underpinning-the-development-of-adjunct-therapies-in-recovery-after-stroke-a-role-for-gaba
#4
Ainslie Johnstone, Jacob M Levenstein, Emily L Hinson, Charlotte J Stagg
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability, with around three-quarters of stroke survivors experiencing motor problems. Intensive physiotherapy is currently the most effective treatment for post-stroke motor deficits, but much recent research has been targeted at increasing the effects of the intervention by pairing it with a wide variety of adjunct therapies, all of which aim to increase cortical plasticity, and thereby hope to maximize functional outcome. Here, we review the literature describing neurochemical changes underlying plasticity induction following stroke...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#5
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928962/current-concepts-and-controversies-in-the-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
REVIEW
Rimona S Weil, Tammaryn L Lashley, Jose Bras, Anette E Schrag, Jonathan M Schott
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorders that are likely to represent two ends of a disease spectrum. It is well established that both are characterised pathologically by widespread cortical Lewy body deposition. However, until recently, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to neuronal damage were not known. It was also not understood why some cells are particularly vulnerable in PDD/DLB, nor why some individuals show more aggressive and rapid dementia than others...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928491/freezing-of-gait-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-in-mesial-frontal-cortex
#7
Miroslav Vastik, Pavel Hok, Jan Valosek, Petr Hlustik, Katerina Mensikova, Petr Kanovsky
AIMS: The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and regional brain atrophy has been intensively investigated, but it is still not clearly understood. The study objective was to test whether grey matter (GM) atrophy contributes to FOG in Parkinson´s disease (PD) using a surface-based algorithm. METHODS: We investigated 21 patients with PD, 11 with FOG and 10 without FOG. Both groups were assessed using a FOG questionnaire and Hoehn and Yahr staging. High resolution T1-weighted brain images were acquired for each subject using a 1...
September 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928435/tango7-regulates-cortical-activity-of-caspases-during-reaper-triggered-changes-in-tissue-elasticity
#8
Yunsik Kang, Sarah D Neuman, Arash Bashirullah
Caspases perform critical functions in both living and dying cells; however, how caspases perform physiological functions without killing the cell remains unclear. Here we identify a novel physiological function of caspases at the cortex of Drosophila salivary glands. In living glands, activation of the initiator caspase dronc triggers cortical F-actin dismantling, enabling the glands to stretch as they accumulate secreted products in the lumen. We demonstrate that tango7, not the canonical Apaf-1-adaptor dark, regulates dronc activity at the cortex; in contrast, dark is required for cytoplasmic activity of dronc during salivary gland death...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928429/nrf2-ho-1-mediates-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-mangiferin-on-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-by-attenuating-mitochondria-related-apoptosis-and-neuroinflammation
#9
Zefeng Wang, Songxue Guo, Junxing Wang, Yuanyuan Shen, Jianmin Zhang, Qun Wu
Early brain injury (EBI) is involved in the process of cerebral tissue damage caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and multiple mechanisms, such as apoptosis and inflammation, participate in its development. Mangiferin (MF), a natural C-glucoside xanthone, has been reported to exert beneficial effects against several types of organ injury by influencing various biological progresses. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of MF to protect against EBI following SAH via histological and biological assessments...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928414/disruption-to-schizophrenia-associated-gene-fez1-in-the-hippocampus-of-hdac11-knockout-mice
#10
Dale T Bryant, Christian Landles, Aikaterini S Papadopoulou, Agnesska C Benjamin, Joshua K Duckworth, Thomas Rosahl, Caroline L Benn, Gillian P Bates
Histone Deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) is highly expressed in the central nervous system where it has been reported to have roles in neural differentiation. In contrast with previous studies showing nuclear and cytoplasmic localisation, we observed synaptic enrichment of HDAC11. Knockout mouse models for HDACs 1-9 have been important for guiding the development of isoform specific HDAC inhibitors as effective therapeutics. Given the close relationship between HDAC11 and neural cells in vitro, we examined neural tissue in a previously uncharacterised Hdac11 knockout mouse (Hdac11 (KO/KO))...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928059/garlic-extract-increases-non-clipped-kidney-tubular-natriuresis-and-diuresis-in-the-2-kidney-1-clip-rat-model-significance-in-hypertension
#11
Khaled K Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Muslim Ali
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. METHOD: 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb...
September 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926125/the-prevalence-of-vertebral-fractures-is-associated-with-reduced-hip-bone-density-and-inferior-peripheral-appendicular-volumetric-bone-density-and-structure-in-older-women
#12
Lisa Johansson, Daniel Sundh, Michael Zoulakis, Robert Rudäng, Anna Darelid, Helena Brisby, Anna G Nilsson, Dan Mellström, Mattias Lorentzon
Vertebral fractures (VF) are among the most severe and prevalent osteoporotic fractures. Their association with bone microstructure have been investigated in several retrospective case-control studies with spine radiography for diagnosis of VF. The aim of this population-based cross-sectional study of 1027 women aged 75-80 years, was to investigate if prevalent VF, identified by vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), was associated with appendicular volumetric bone density, structure and bone material strength index (BMSi), independently of hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926001/ketamine-differential-neurophysiological-dynamics-in-functional-networks-in-the-rat-brain
#13
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, W H I M Drinkenburg
Recently, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has emerged as a fast-onset mechanism to achieve antidepressant activity, whereas its psychomimetic, dissociative and amnestic effects have been well documented to pharmacologically model schizophrenia features in rodents. Sleep-wake architecture, neuronal oscillations and network connectivity are key mechanisms supporting brain plasticity and cognition, which are disrupted in mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In rats, we investigated the dynamic effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous administration of ketamine (2...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925802/higher-prevalence-of-spontaneous-cerebral-vasculopathy-and-cerebral-infarcts-in-a-mouse-model-of-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Hyacinth I Hyacinth, Courtney L Sugihara, Thomas L Spencer, David R Archer, Andy Y Shih
Stroke is a dramatic complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), which is associated with cerebral vasculopathies including moya moya, intravascular thrombi, cerebral hyperemia, and increased vessel tortuosity. The spontaneous occurrence of these pathologies in the sickle cell mouse model has not been described. Here, we studied Townes humanized sickle cell and age-matched control mice that were 13 months old. We used in vivo two-photon microscopy to assess blood flow dynamics, vascular topology, and evidence of cerebral vasculopathy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925578/combined-fetal-inflammation-and-postnatal-hypoxia-causes-myelin-deficits-and-autism-like-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#15
Erik van Tilborg, E J Marijke Achterberg, Caren M van Kammen, Annette van der Toorn, Floris Groenendaal, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Cobi J Heijnen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Manon N J L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults and fluctuating cerebral oxygenation. However, the exact mechanisms underlying diffuse WMI are not fully understood and no treatment options are currently available. The use of clinically relevant animal models is crucial to advance knowledge on the pathophysiology of diffuse WMI, allowing the definition of novel therapeutic targets...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925375/modelling-the-effect-of-electrode-displacement-on-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#16
Sriharsha Ramaraju, Mohammed Ali Roula, Peter McCarthy
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers a low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas with the purpose of modulating underlying brain activity. Recent studies have reported inconsistencies in tDCS outcomes. The underlying assumption of many tDCS studies has been that replication of electrode montage equates to replicating stimulation conditions. It is possible however that anatomical difference between subjects, as well as inherent inaccuracies in montage placement, could affect current flow to targeted areas...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925372/an-automatic-algorithm-for-blink-artifact-suppression-based-on-iterative-template-matching-application-to-single-channel-recording-of-cortical-auditory-evoked-potentials
#17
Joaquin T Valderrama, Angel de la Torre, Bram Van Dun
Artifact reduction in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is usually necessary to carry out data analysis appropriately. Despite the large amount of denoising techniques available with a multichannel setup, there is a lack of efficient algorithms that remove (not only detect) blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG, which is of interest in many clinical and research applications. This paper describes and evaluates the Iterative Template Matching and Suppression (ITMS), a new method proposed for detecting and suppressing the artifact associated with the blink activity from a single channel EEG...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925006/evidence-based-source-modeling-of-nociceptive-cortical-responses-a-direct-comparison-of-scalp-and-intracranial-activity-in-humans
#18
Claire Bradley, Hélène Bastuji, Luis Garcia-Larrea
BACKGROUND: Source modeling of EEG traditionally relies on interplay between physiological hypotheses and mathematical estimates. We propose to optimize the process by using evidence gathered from brain imaging and intracortical recordings. METHODS: We recorded laser-evoked potentials in 18 healthy participants, using high-density EEG. Brain sources were modeled during the first second poststimulus, constraining their initial position to regions where nociceptive-related activity has been ascertained by intracranial EEG...
September 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924573/retrospective-study-comparing-model-based-deformation-correction-to-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-image-guided-neurosurgery
#19
Ma Luo, Sarah F Frisken, Jared A Weis, Logan W Clements, Prashin Unadkat, Reid C Thompson, Alexandra J Golby, Michael I Miga
Brain shift during tumor resection compromises the spatial validity of registered preoperative imaging data that is critical to image-guided procedures. One current clinical solution to mitigate the effects is to reimage using intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging. Although iMR has demonstrated benefits in accounting for preoperative-to-intraoperative tissue changes, its cost and encumbrance have limited its widespread adoption. While iMR will likely continue to be employed for challenging cases, a cost-effective model-based brain shift compensation strategy is desirable as a complementary technology for standard resections...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924572/stereovision-based-integrated-system-for-point-cloud-reconstruction-and-simulated-brain-shift-validation
#20
Xiaochen Yang, Logan W Clements, Ma Luo, Saramati Narasimhan, Reid C Thompson, Benoit M Dawant, Michael I Miga
Intraoperative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current image-guided surgery navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been proposed as a cost-effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. We present a mock environment developed to acquire stereoimages from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct three-dimensional point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
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