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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786974/embryonic-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-a-brominated-flame-retardant-reduces-the-size-of-song-control-nuclei-in-a-songbird
#1
Margaret L Eng, Viktoria Winter, John E Elliott, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Tony D Williams
Environmental contaminants have the potential to act as developmental stressors and impair development of song and the brain of songbirds, but they have been largely unstudied in this context. 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) is a brominated flame retardant congener that has demonstrated endocrine disrupting effects, and has pervaded the global environment. We assessed the effects of in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 on the neuroanatomy of the song-control system in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786749/long-noncoding-rna-myocardial-infarction%C3%A2-associated-transcript-is-associated-with-the-microrna%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-5p-p300-pathway-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#2
Zhao Li, Yamin Liu, Xiaofan Guo, Guozhe Sun, Qun Ma, Ying Dai, Guangshuo Zhu, Yingxian Sun
In numerous diseases, abnormal expression of myocardial infarction‑associated transcript (MIAT) has been reported to be involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. However, whether this long non‑coding RNA MIAT has a regulatory effect on heart hypertrophy requires further investigation. To this end, the present study evaluated MIAT in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were induced by isoproterenol (ISO) to create a cell hypertrophy model, and mice were intraperitoneally injected with ISO to establish an animal model...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786697/imaging-glutathione-depletion-in-the-rat-brain-using-ascorbate-derived-hyperpolarized-mr-and-pet-probes
#3
Hecong Qin, Valerie N Carroll, Renuka Sriram, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Cornelius von Morze, Zhen Jane Wang, Christopher A Mutch, Kayvan R Keshari, Robert R Flavell, John Kurhanewicz, David M Wilson
Oxidative stress is a critical feature of several common neurologic disorders. The brain is well adapted to neutralize oxidative injury by maintaining a high steady-state concentration of small-molecule intracellular antioxidants including glutathione in astrocytes and ascorbic acid in neurons. Ascorbate-derived imaging probes for hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography have been used to study redox changes (antioxidant depletion and reactive oxygen species accumulation) in vivo...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786658/melatonin-as-a-therapy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review-of-published-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Emily McGreevy, Lan Pham, Ava Puccio, Dianxu Ren, Yvette P Conley, Sheila Alexander, C Edward Dixon
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL's documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition for which there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the evidence surrounding the use of melatonin after TBI, as well as identify existing gaps and future directions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786653/role-for-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-cse-in-an-ethanol-e-induced-lesion-in-fetal-brain-gsh-homeostasis
#5
Dhyanesh Patel, Marylatha Rathinam, Courtney Jarvis, Lenin Mahimainathan, George Henderson, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan
Earlier, we reported that gestational ethanol (E) can dysregulate neuron glutathione (GSH) homeostasis partially via impairing the EAAC1-mediated inward transport of Cysteine (Cys) and this can affect fetal brain development. In this study, we investigated if there is a role for the transulfuration pathway (TSP), a critical bio-synthetic point to supply Cys in E-induced dysregulation of GSH homeostasis. These studies utilized an in utero E binge model where the pregnant Sprague⁻Dawley (SD) rat dams received five doses of E at 3...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786559/three-dimensional-bioprinting-of-stem-cell-derived-tissues-for-human-regenerative-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Gregor Skeldon, Baltasar Lucendo-Villarin, Wenmiao Shu
Stem cell technology in regenerative medicine has the potential to provide an unlimited supply of cells for drug testing, medical transplantation and academic research. In order to engineer a realistic tissue model using stem cells as an alternative to human tissue, it is essential to create artificial stem cell microenvironment or niches. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a promising tissue engineering field that offers new opportunities to precisely place stem cells within their niches layer-by-layer...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786486/one-year-retention-of-gadolinium-in-the-brain-comparison-of-gadodiamide-and-gadoterate-meglumine-in-a-rodent-model
#7
Philippe Robert, Stefanie Fingerhut, Cécile Factor, Véronique Vives, Justine Letien, Michael Sperling, Marlène Rasschaert, Robin Santus, Sébastien Ballet, Jean-Marc Idée, Claire Corot, Uwe Karst
Purpose To compare the long-term brain elimination kinetics and gadolinium species in healthy rats after repeated injections of the contrast agents gadodiamide (a linear contrast agent) or gadoterate (a macrocyclic contrast agent). Materials and Methods Nine-week-old rats received five doses of 2.4 mmol gadolinium per kilogram of body weight over 5 weeks and were followed for 12 months with T1-weighted MRI (n = 140 rats, corresponding to seven time points, two contrast agents, and 10 rats per group). Animals were sacrificed at 1 week, 1 month, and 2, 3, 4, 5, and 12 months after the last injection...
May 17, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786481/rat-cranial-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-recovery-in-ischemic-stroke-model-rats
#8
Masaru Abiko, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Takahito Okazaki, Takeshi Imura, Kei Nakagawa, Takashi Otsuka, Jumpei Oshita, Masaaki Takeda, Yumi Kawahara, Louis Yuge, Kaoru Kurisu
The functional disorders caused by central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as ischemic stroke, are clinically incurable and current treatments have limited effects. Previous studies suggested that cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exerts therapeutic effects for ischemic stroke. In addition, the characteristics of MSCs may depend on their sources. Among the derived tissues of MSCs, we have focused on cranial bones originating from the neural crest. We previously demonstrated that the neurogenic potential of human cranial bone-derived MSCs (cMSCs) was higher than that of human iliac bone-derived MSCs...
May 22, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786461/gender-and-diagnostic-impact-on-everyday-technology-use-a-differential-item-functioning-dif-analysis-of-the-everyday-technology-use-questionnaire-etuq
#9
Anders Kottorp, Camilla Malinowsky, Maria Larsson-Lund, Louise Nygård
BACKGROUND: As the use of everyday technology is increasingly important for participation in daily activities, more in-depth knowledge of everyday technology use in relation to diagnosis and gender is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of the perceived challenge of a variety of everyday technologies across different samples of varying diagnoses including both males and females. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used 643 data records from clinical and research samples, including persons with dementia or related disorders, acquired brain injury, intellectual disability, various mental or medical disorders, and adults without known diagnoses...
May 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786072/mptp-driven-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-plays-a-central-role-in-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#10
Eunju Lee, Inhwa Hwang, Sangjun Park, Sujeong Hong, Boreum Hwang, Yoeseph Cho, Junghyun Son, Je-Wook Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Although details of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal death in PD remain unclear, neuroinflammation is also considered a potent mediator in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. In the present study, we present evidences that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for dopaminergic neuronal loss and the subsequent motor deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785928/post-decision-biases-reveal-a-self-consistency-principle-in-perceptual-inference
#11
Long Luu, Alan A Stocker
Making a categorical judgment can systematically bias our subsequent perception of the world. We show that these biases are well explained by a self-consistent Bayesian observer whose perceptual inference process is causally conditioned on the preceding choice. We quantitatively validated the model and its key assumptions with a targeted set of three psychophysical experiments, focusing on a task sequence where subjects first had to make a categorical orientation judgment before estimating the actual orientation of a visual stimulus...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785863/hyperbaric-oxygen-inhibits-production-of-cd3-t-cells-in-the-thymus-and-facilitates-malignant-glioma-cell-growth
#12
Yong-Gang Wang, Jiang Long, Dong-Chuan Shao, Hai Song
Objective Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is an emerging complementary alternative medical approach in glioma treatment. However, its mode of action is unknown, so this was investigated in the present study. Methods We constructed an intracranial glioma model of congenic C57BL/6J mice. Glioma growth under HBO stimulation was assessed by bioluminescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Flow cytometry assessed direct effects of HBO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling of transplanted glioma cells and organs, and quantified mature T cells and subgroups in tumors, the brain, and blood...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785777/paradoxical-effect-of-baclofen-on-social-behavior-in-the-fragile-x-syndrome-mouse-model
#13
Shimriet Zeidler, Andreea S Pop, Israa A Jaafar, Helen de Boer, Ronald A M Buijsen, Celine E F de Esch, Ingeborg Nieuwenhuizen-Bakker, Renate K Hukema, Rob Willemsen
INTRODUCTION: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common monogenetic cause of intellectual disability, autism spectrum features, and a broad range of other psychiatric and medical problems. FXS is caused by the lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a translational regulator of specific mRNAs at the postsynaptic compartment. The absence of FMRP leads to aberrant synaptic plasticity, which is believed to be caused by an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory network functioning of the synapse...
April 26, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785638/intermittent-convection-enhanced-delivery-of-gdnf-into-rhesus-monkey-putamen-absence-of-local-or-cerebellar-toxicity
#14
Matthias Luz, Philip C Allen, John Bringas, Chris Boiko, Diane E Stockinger, Kristen J Nikula, Owen Lewis, Max Woolley, H Christian Fibiger, Krystof Bankiewicz, Erich Mohr
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has demonstrated neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects in rodent and nonhuman primate models of Parkinson's disease. However, continuous intraputamenal infusion of GDNF (100 µg/day) resulted in multifocal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in a 6-month toxicity study in rhesus monkeys. It was hypothesized that continuous leakage of GDNF into the cerebrospinal fluid compartment during the infusions led to down-regulation of GDNF receptors on Purkinje cells, and that subsequent acute withdrawal of GDNF then mediated the observed cerebellar lesions...
May 22, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785624/longitudinal-neuroimaging-hippocampal-markers-for-diagnosing-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Carlos Platero, Lin Lin, M Carmen Tobar
Hippocampal atrophy measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are powerful tools for monitoring Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. In this paper, we introduce a longitudinal image analysis framework based on robust registration and simultaneous hippocampal segmentation and longitudinal marker classification of brain MRI of an arbitrary number of time points. The framework comprises two innovative parts: a longitudinal segmentation and a longitudinal classification step. The results show that both steps of the longitudinal pipeline improved the reliability and the accuracy of the discrimination between clinical groups...
May 21, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785574/in-situ-nanostructured-hydrogel-of-resveratrol-for-brain-targeting-in-vitro-in-vivo-characterization
#16
Amarjitsing Rajput, Aditi Bariya, Ahmed Allam, Sarah Othman, Shital B Butani
The purpose of conducting the present research work was to develop resveratrol nanostructured in situ gel for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Resveratrol loaded lipid carrier was prepared by melt emulsification-probe sonication method, and the final product was evaluated for particle size (132 ± 11.90 nm), polydispersity index (0.209 ± 0.005), zeta potential (- 23 ± 3.79 mV), drug loading (9.26 ± 3.79%), and entrapment efficiency (74 ± 11.40%). Following incorporation of the resveratrol nanostructured lipid carrier in gellan gum and xanthan gum, in situ gel was formulated and characterized...
May 21, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785469/early-detection-of-cerebral-infarction-after-focal-ischemia-using-a-new-mri-indicator
#17
Yukako Nakajo, Qiang Zhao, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Hidehiro Iida, Jun C Takahashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Keiko Yamato, Hiroji Yanamoto
Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time, an increase in T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-SI), and a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are conventional indicators of the vasogenic (interstitial) or cytotoxic (cellular) cerebral edema that develops after ischemic stroke. However, these parameters obtained on stroke imaging have not given us a precise threshold at which we can determine the viability or vulnerability of the tissue, allowing us to decide on an intervention that will help reversible tissue in the acute phase...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785227/alterations-in-the-three-components-of-selfhood-in-persons-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-a-pilot-qeeg-neuroimaging-study
#18
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts
Background and Objective: Understanding how trauma impacts the self-structure of individuals suffering from the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms is a complex matter and despite several attempts to explain the relationship between trauma and the "Self", this issue still lacks clarity. Therefore, adopting a new theoretical perspective may help understand PTSD deeper and to shed light on the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms. Methods: In this study, we employed the "three-dimensional construct model of the experiential selfhood" where three major components of selfhood (phenomenal first-person agency, embodiment, and reflection/narration) are related to three Operational Modules (OMs) of the self-referential brain network...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785226/progressive-assessment-of-ischemic-injury-to-white-matter-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-a-preliminary-study-of-a-macaque-model-of-stroke
#19
Xiaodong Zhang, Yumei Yan, Frank Tong, Chun-Xia Li, Benjamin Jones, Silun Wang, Yuguang Meng, E Chris Muly, Doty Kempf, Leonard Howell
Background: Previous Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated the temporal evolution of stroke injury in grey matter and white matter can be characterized by DTI indices. However, it still remains not fully understood how the DTI indices of white matter are altered progressively during the hyperacute (first 6 hours) and acute stage of stroke (≤ 1 week). In the present study, DTI was employed to characterize the temporal evolution of infarction and white matter injury after stroke insult using a macaque model with permanent ischemic occlusion...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785027/targeting-g-quadruplex-dna-as-cognitive-function-therapy-for-atr-x-syndrome
#20
Norifumi Shioda, Yasushi Yabuki, Kouya Yamaguchi, Misaki Onozato, Yue Li, Kenji Kurosawa, Hideyuki Tanabe, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Takumi Era, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Takahito Wada, Kohji Fukunaga
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is caused by mutations in ATRX, which encodes a chromatin-remodeling protein. Genome-wide analyses in mouse and human cells indicate that ATRX tends to bind to G-rich sequences with a high potential to form G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that Atrx mutation induces aberrant upregulation of Xlr3b expression in the mouse brain, an outcome associated with neuronal pathogenesis displayed by ATR-X model mice. We show that ATRX normally binds to G-quadruplexes in CpG islands of the imprinted Xlr3b gene, regulating its expression by recruiting DNA methyltransferases...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
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