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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645199/do-neurobiological-understandings-of-smoking-influence-quitting-self-efficacy-or-treatment-intentions
#1
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Jayne Lucke, Brad Partridge, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Addiction is increasingly defined as a "brain disease" caused by changes to neurochemistry. While nicotine addiction has historically been excluded in the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), it is beginning to be labelled a chronic brain disease. We investigated whether Australian smokers endorse brain-based explanations of smoking, and whether these beliefs are associated with quitting self-efficacy or treatment intentions. Method: Cross-sectional study of Australian smokers (N=1,538) who completed a survey measuring their agreement with statements on the brain's role in smoking...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645186/igf-i-gene-therapy-in-aging-rats-modulates-hippocampal-genes-relevant-to-memory-function
#2
Joaquín Pardo, Martin C Abba, Ezequiel Lacunza, Olalekan M Ogundele, Isabel Paiva, Gustavo R Morel, Tiago F Outeiro, Rodolfo G Goya
In rats, learning and memory performance decline during normal aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies. In aging rats, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), is known to significantly improve spatial memory accuracy as compared to control counterparts. A constellation of gene expression changes underlie the hippocampal phenotype of aging but no studies on the effects of IGF-I on the hippocampal transcriptome of old rodents have been documented. Here, we assessed the effects of IGF-I gene therapy on spatial memory performance in old female rats and compared them with changes in the hippocampal transcriptome...
June 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645069/controlled-single-bubble-cavitation-collapse-results-in-jet-induced-injury-in-brain-tissue
#3
Saranya Canchi, Karen Kelly, Yu Hong, Michael A King, Ghatu Subhash, Malisa Sarntinoranont
Multiscale damage due to cavitation is considered as a potential mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) associated with explosion. In this study, we employed a TBI relevant hippocampal ex vivo slice model to induce bubble cavitation. Placement of single reproducible seed bubbles allowed control of size, number, and tissue location to visualize and measure deformation parameters. Maximum strain value was measured at 45 µs after bubble collapse, presented with a distinct contour and coincided temporally and spatially with the liquid jet...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645008/effect-of-microrna-129-5p-targeting-hmgb1-rage-signaling-pathway-on-revascularization-in-a-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-rat-model
#4
Xin-Long Ma, Shu-Ya Li, Feng Shang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at exploring the effect of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) targeting high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)-receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) signaling pathway on the revascularization in a collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rat model. METHODS: OX26-pGFAP-IL, an immunoliposome expressing miR-129-5p was constructed. The collagenase-induced ICH rat models were successfully established by 96 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, which were categorized into the sham group, ICH group, miR-129-5p group, negative control (NC) group, ethyl pyruvate (EP, an inhibitor of HMGB1) group and N-benzyl-4-chloro-N-cyclohe-xylbenzamide (FPS-ZM1, a RAGE receptor antagonist) group...
June 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644997/first-episode-psychosis-moderates-the-effect-of-gray-matter-volume-on-cognition
#5
Luis F S Castro-de-Araujo, Richard A A Kanaan
Patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) present with cognitive deficits and volume differences in certain brain areas. Brain volumetric information further correlates with cognitive testing, and multiple brain areas shows different strengths of correlation with the cognitive functions being tested. Traditionally, these cognitive functions are independently related to volumetric differences, but these functions share variance. Failing to account for this aspect of cognition hinders the proper representation of cognition in neuroimaging studies...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644957/chemical-probes-for-visualizing-intact-animal-and-human-brain-tissue
#6
REVIEW
Hei Ming Lai, Wai-Lung Ng, Steve M Gentleman, Wutian Wu
Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes...
June 22, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644914/the-role-of-expectation-in-multisensory-body-representation-neural-evidence
#7
Francesca Ferri, Ettore Ambrosini, Paola Pinti, Arcangelo Merla, Marcello Costantini
Sensory events contribute to body ownership, the feeling that the body belongs to me. However, the encoding of sensory events is not only reactive, but also proactive in that our brain generates prediction about forthcoming stimuli. In previous studies we have shown that prediction of sensory events is a sufficient condition to induce the sense of body ownership. In this study we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms. Participants were seated with their right arm resting upon a table just below another smaller table...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644911/interictal-oscillations-and-focal-epileptic-disorders
#8
Maxime Lévesque, Pariya Salami, Zahra Shiri, Massimo Avoli
Neuronal network oscillations represent a main feature of the brain activity recorded in the EEG under normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. Specific oscillations occur between seizures in patients and in animal models of focal epilepsy, and thus they are termed interictal. According to their shape and intrinsic signal frequency, interictal oscillations are classified as spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). Interictal spikes are recorded in the "wideband" EEG signal and consist of large-amplitude events that usually last less than 1 s; HFOs, in contrast, are extracted by amplifying the appropriately filtered EEG signal, and are usually categorized as ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644853/the-novel-phospholipid-mimetic-kpc34-is-highly-active-against-preclinical-models-of-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Peter M Alexander, David L Caudell, Gregory L Kucera, Kristin M Pladna, Timothy S Pardee
Philadelphia chromosome positive B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is an aggressive cancer of the bone marrow. The addition of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has improved outcomes but many patients still suffer relapse and novel therapeutic agents are needed. KPC34 is an orally available, novel phospholipid conjugate of gemcitabine, rationally designed to overcome multiple mechanisms of resistance, inhibit the classical and novel isoforms of protein kinase C, is able to cross the blood brain barrier and is orally bioavailable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644841/low-dimensional-spike-rate-models-derived-from-networks-of-adaptive-integrate-and-fire-neurons-comparison-and-implementation
#10
Moritz Augustin, Josef Ladenbauer, Fabian Baumann, Klaus Obermayer
The spiking activity of single neurons can be well described by a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model that includes somatic adaptation. When exposed to fluctuating inputs sparsely coupled populations of these model neurons exhibit stochastic collective dynamics that can be effectively characterized using the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach, however, leads to a model with an infinite-dimensional state space and non-standard boundary conditions. Here we derive from that description four simple models for the spike rate dynamics in terms of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations using two different reduction techniques: one uses the spectral decomposition of the Fokker-Planck operator, the other is based on a cascade of two linear filters and a nonlinearity, which are determined from the Fokker-Planck equation and semi-analytically approximated...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644101/safety-and-cost-efficiency-of-a-restrictive-transfusion-protocol-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Laura B Ngwenya, Catherine G Suen, Phiroz E Tarapore, Geoffrey T Manley, Michael C Huang
OBJECTIVE Blood loss and moderate anemia are common in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, despite evidence of the ill effects and expense of the transfusion of packed red blood cells, restrictive transfusion practices have not been universally adopted for patients with TBI. At a Level I trauma center, the authors compared patients with TBI who were managed with a restrictive (target hemoglobin level > 7 g/dl) versus a liberal (target hemoglobin level > 10 g/dl) transfusion protocol. This study evaluated the safety and cost-efficiency of a hospital-wide change to a restrictive transfusion protocol...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644092/single-and-multiple-cardiovascular-biomarkers-in-subjects-without-a-previous-cardiovascular-event
#12
Manan Pareek, Deepak L Bhatt, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Arman Qamar, Axel Cp Diederichsen, Jacob Eifer Møller, Peter Hindersson, Margrét Leósdóttir, Martin Magnusson, Peter M Nilsson, Michael H Olsen
Aims To assess the incremental value of biomarkers, including N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), in predicting incident cardiovascular events and mortality among asymptomatic individuals from the general population, beyond traditional risk factors, including fasting glucose and renal function (cystatin C), medication use, and echocardiographic measures...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643936/phenotypic-analysis-of-organoids-by-proteomics
#13
REVIEW
Alexis Gonneaud, Claude Asselin, François Boudreau, François-Michel Boisvert
The development of 3D cell cultures into self-organizing organ-like structures named organoids provides a model that better reflects in vivo organ physiology and their functional properties. Organoids have been established from several organs, such as the intestine, prostate, brain, liver, kidney and pancreas. With recent advances in high-throughput and -omics profiling technologies, it is now possible to study the mechanisms of cellular organisation at the systems level. It is therefore not surprising that these methods are now used to characterize organoids at the transcriptomic, proteomic, chromatin state and transcription factor DNA-binding levels...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643873/increased-expression-of-immuno-proteasome-subunits-during-epileptogenesis-is-attenuated-by-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#14
Diede W M Broekaart, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Karlijne W Geijtenbeek, Mark R J Zuidberg, Jasper J Anink, Johannes C Baayen, Angelika Mühlebner, Eleonora Aronica, Jan A Gorter, Erwin A van Vliet
OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. METHODS: The expression of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits was investigated during epileptogenesis using immunohistochemistry in the electrical post-status epilepticus (SE) rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643854/olfactory-dysfunction-in-the-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-morphological-evaluations-from-the-nose-to-the-brain
#15
Zhi-Gang Yao, Fang Hua, Hao-Zhuang Zhang, Yan-Yan Li, Ye-Jun Qin
Olfactory dysfunction is among the signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive impairment. It has been demonstrated Aβ was associated with olfactory impairment observed in both transgenic mice and in AD patients. In this study, we evaluated amyloid deposition in the olfactory circuit of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD, which showed olfactory dysfunction in olfactory behavior tests. We found amyloid depositions were widely distributed in the whole olfactory circuit. Moreover, we think these amyloid depositions contribute to neuronal atrophy, dendritic abnormalities, synapse loss and axonal degeneration...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643534/transplantation-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-the-cochlea-for-the-treatment-of-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#16
Jing Chen, Lina Guan, Hengtao Zhu, Shan Xiong, Liang Zeng, Hongqun Jiang
CONCLUSION: Mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could differentiate into hair cell-like cells and spiral ganglion-like cells after transplantation into mouse cochleae, but it cannot improve the auditory brain response (ABR) thresholds in short term. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of iPSCs for use as a source of transplants for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). METHODS: Establishing SNHL mice model, then injecting the iPSCs or equal volume DMEM basic medium into the cochleae, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643520/main-plant-extracts-active-properties-effective-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-loss
#17
Ioana-Miruna Balmus, Alin Ciobica
Alzheimer's disease leads to progressive cognitive function loss, which may impair both intellectual capacities and psychosocial aspects. Although the current knowledge points to a multifactorial character of Alzheimer's disease, the most issued pathological hypothesis remains the cholinergic theory. The main animal model used in cholinergic theory research is the scopolamine-induced memory loss model. Although, in some cases, a temporary symptomatic relief can be obtained through targeting the cholinergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, no current treatment is able to stop or slow cognitive impairment...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643517/a-novel-strategy-for-comprehensive-profiling-and-identification-of-acidic-glycosphingolipids-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#18
Ting Hu, Zhixin Jia, Jinlan Zhang
Acidic glycosphingolipids (AGSLs), which mainly consist of ganglioside and sulfatide moieties, are highly concentrated in the central nervous system. Comprehensive profiling of AGSLs has historically been challenging because of their high complexity and the lack of standards. In this paper, a novel strategy was developed to comprehensively profile AGSLs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Ganglioside isomers with different glycan chains such as GD1a/ GD1b were completely separated on a C18 column for the first time to our knowledge, facilitated by the addition of formic acid in the mobile phase...
June 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643447/simultaneous-mapping-of-metabolites-and-individual-macromolecular-components-via-ultra-short-acquisition-delay-1-h-mrsi-in-the-brain-at-7t
#19
Michal Považan, Bernhard Strasser, Gilbert Hangel, Eva Heckova, Stephan Gruber, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
PURPOSE: Short-echo-time proton MR spectra at 7T feature nine to 10 distinct macromolecule (MM) resonances that overlap with the signals of metabolites. Typically, a metabolite-nulled in vivo MM spectrum is included in the quantification`s prior knowledge to provide unbiased metabolite quantification. However, this MM model may fail if MMs are pathologically altered. In addition, information about the individual MM peaks is lost. In this study, we aimed to create an improved MM model by parameterization of the in vivo MM spectrum into individual components, and to use this new model to quantify free induction decay MR spectroscopic imaging (FID-MRSI) data...
June 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643422/microglia-targeted-stem-cell-therapies-for-alzheimer-disease-a-preclinical-data-review
#20
REVIEW
Zhiwei Shen, Xueyuan Li, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a severe, life-threatening illness characterized by gradual memory loss. The classic histological features of AD include extracellular formation of β-amyloid plaques (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and synaptic loss. Recently, accumulated evidence has confirmed the critical role of microglia in the development and exacerbation of AD. When Aβ forms deposits, microglia quickly respond to restore brain physiology by activating a series of repair mechanisms. However, prolonged microglial activation is considered detrimental and may aggravate AD progression...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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