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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817799/human-astrocyte-maturation-captured-in-3d-cerebral-cortical-spheroids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Steven A Sloan, Spyros Darmanis, Nina Huber, Themasap A Khan, Fikri Birey, Christine Caneda, Richard Reimer, Stephen R Quake, Ben A Barres, Sergiu P Paşca
There is significant need to develop physiologically relevant models for investigating human astrocytes in health and disease. Here, we present an approach for generating astrocyte lineage cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cytoarchitecture using human cerebral cortical spheroids (hCSs) derived from pluripotent stem cells. We acutely purified astrocyte-lineage cells from hCSs at varying stages up to 20 months in vitro using immunopanning and cell sorting and performed high-depth bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing to directly compare them to purified primary human brain cells...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817797/wrapped-to-adapt-experience-dependent-myelination
#2
REVIEW
Christopher W Mount, Michelle Monje
Activity of the nervous system has long been recognized as a critical modulator of brain structure and function. Influences of experience on the cytoarchitecture and functional connectivity of neurons have been appreciated since the classic work of Hubel and Wiesel (1963; Wiesel and Hubel, 1963a, 1963b). In recent years, a similar structural plasticity has come to light for the myelinated infrastructure of the nervous system. While an innate program of myelin development proceeds independently of nervous system activity, increasing evidence supports a role for activity-dependent, plastic changes in myelin-forming cells that influence myelin structure and neurological function...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817792/making-human-stars-a-new-method-to-generate-human-astrocytes
#3
Nicola J Allen
Human astrocytes are increasingly appreciated as important contributors to brain function in health and disease, but techniques to study them are limited. In this issue of Neuron, Sloan and colleagues (2017) describe a new 3D culture model that generates mature human astrocytes, opening the door to future studies of their function.
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#4
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817580/criticality-predicts-maximum-irregularity-in-recurrent-networks-of-excitatory-nodes
#5
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Ralf Wessel
A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817568/an-optimal-strategy-for-epilepsy-surgery-disruption-of-the-rich-club
#6
Marinho A Lopes, Mark P Richardson, Eugenio Abela, Christian Rummel, Kaspar Schindler, Marc Goodfellow, John R Terry
Surgery is a therapeutic option for people with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled by anti-epilepsy drugs. In pre-surgical planning, an array of data modalities, often including intra-cranial EEG, is used in an attempt to map regions of the brain thought to be crucial for the generation of seizures. These regions are then resected with the hope that the individual is rendered seizure free as a consequence. However, post-operative seizure freedom is currently sub-optimal, suggesting that the pre-surgical assessment may be improved by taking advantage of a mechanistic understanding of seizure generation in large brain networks...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817212/fingolimod-against-endotoxin-induced-fetal-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model
#7
And Yavuz, Mekin Sezik, Ozlem Ozmen, Halil Asci
AIM: Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. METHODS: Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817120/the-erythropoietin-derived-peptide-mk-x-and-erythropoietin-have-neuroprotective-effects-against-ischemic-brain-damage
#8
Seung-Jun Yoo, Bongki Cho, Deokho Lee, Gowoon Son, Yeong-Bae Lee, Hyung Soo Han, Eunjoo Kim, Chanil Moon, Cheil Moon
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been well known as a hematopoietic cytokine over the past decades. However, recent reports have demonstrated that EPO plays a neuroprotective role in the central nervous system, and EPO has been considered as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke. Despite the neuroprotective effect of EPO, clinical trials have shown its unexpected side effects, including undesirable proliferative effects such as erythropoiesis and tumor growth. Therefore, the development of EPO analogs that would confer neuroprotection without adverse effects has been attempted...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817088/the-role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-development-of-cerebral-oedema-following-acute-central-nervous-system-cns-injury
#9
REVIEW
Annabel J Sorby-Adams, Amanda M Marcoionni, Eden R Dempsey, Joshua A Woenig, Renée J Turner
Acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, encompassing traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, accounts for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely attributable to the development of cerebral oedema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Despite this, clinical treatments are limited and new therapies are urgently required to improve patient outcomes and survival. Originally characterised in peripheral tissues, such as the skin and lungs as a neurally-elicited inflammatory process that contributes to increased microvascular permeability and tissue swelling, neurogenic inflammation has now been described in acute injury to the brain where it may play a key role in the secondary injury cascades that evolve following both TBI and stroke...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816702/as-above-so-below-towards-understanding-inverse-models-in-bci
#10
Jussi T Lindgren
In Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), measurements of the users brain activity are classified into commands for the computer. With EEG-based BCIs, the origins of the classified phenomena are often considered to be spatially localized in the cortical volume and mixed in the EEG. Does the reconstruction of the source activities in the volume help in building more accurate BCIs? The answer remains inconclusive despite previous work. In this paper, we study the question by contrasting the physiology-driven source reconstruction with data-driven representations obtained by statistical machine learning...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816653/assembly-rules-for-gabaa-receptor-complexes-in-the-brain
#11
James S Martenson, Tokiwa Yamasaki, Nashid H Chaudhury, David Albrecht, Susumu Tomita
GABAA receptor (GABAAR) pentamers are assembled from a pool of 19 subunits, and variety in subunit combinations diversifies GABAAR functions to tune brain activity. Pentamers with distinct subunit compositions localize differentially at synaptic and non-synaptic sites to mediate phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. Despite multitudes of theoretical permutations, limited subunit combinations have been identified in the brain. Currently, no molecular model exists for combinatorial GABAAR assembly in vivo...
August 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816544/animal-inflammation-based-models-of-depression-and-their-application-to-drug-discovery
#12
Li Ma, Konstantin A Demin, Tatyana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Kharsko, Xiaokang Zhu, Xiaodong Yuan, Cai Song, Darya A Meshalkina, Brian E Leonard, Li Tian, Allan V Kalueff
Depression, anxiety and other affective disorders are globally widespread and severely debilitating human brain diseases. Despite their high prevalence and mental health impact, affective pathogenesis is poorly understood, and often remains recurrent and resistant to treatment. The lack of efficient antidepressants and presently limited conceptual innovation necessitate novel approaches and new drug targets in the field of antidepressant therapy. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the emerging role of neuro-immune interactions in affective pathogenesis, which can become useful targets for CNS drug discovery, including modulating neuroinflammatory pathways to alleviate affective pathogenesis...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816517/targeted-areas-for-improving-health-literacy-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Megan Moore, Taniga Kiatchai, Rajiv C Ayyagari, Monica S Vavilala
OBJECTIVE: To develop a framework to identify targeted areas for improving health literacy for caregivers after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD: Qualitative study using inductive and deductive qualitative content analysis was conducted in a large, urban, level I trauma centre. Interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of persons with TBI. Participants' perspectives on communication and preparation for discharge were explored and understanding of commonly used words and discharge instructions were assessed...
August 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816506/inhibition-of-monoacylglycerol-lipase-another-signalling-pathway-for-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-migraine
#14
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Laura Berliocchi, Daniele Piomelli, Cristina Tassorelli
Background Drugs that modulate endocannabinoid signalling are effective in reducing nociception in animal models of pain and may be of value in the treatment of migraine. Methods We investigated the anti-nociceptive effects of inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of the 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in a rat model of migraine based on nitroglycerin (NTG) administration. We evaluated c-fos expression in specific brain areas and nociceptive behavior in trigeminal and extra-trigeminal body areas...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816367/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antiangiogenic-effects-of-flavokawain-b
#15
Mariana C Rossette, Débora C Moraes, Erika K Sacramento, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva, Juliana L Carvalho, Dawidson A Gomes, Hanna Caldas, Eitan Friedman, Luciana Bastos-Rodrigues, Luiz De Marco
Angiogenesis is implicated in the development of a variety of pathological processes, most commonly cancer. It is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, making it an important cancer therapeutic target. Naturally occurring substances have led to the discovery of anticancer agents. Flavokawain B (FKB), a chalcone isolated from the root extracts of kava-kava plant, inhibits proliferation and causes apoptosis in vitro and in vivo of various cancer cell lines. The antimetastatic potential of FKB has also been suggested...
August 17, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816146/quality-assessment-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-a-melanoma-brain-metastases-model-using-a-mouselike-phantom-and-the-small-animal-radiation-research-platform
#16
Cheng-Chia Wu, Kunal R Chaudhary, Yong Hum Na, David Welch, Paul J Black, Adam M Sonabend, Peter Canoll, Yvonne M Saenger, Tony J C Wang, Cheng-Shie Wuu, Tom K Hei, Simon K Cheng
PURPOSE: To establish a novel preclinical model for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with combined mouselike phantom quality assurance in the setting of brain metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57B6 mice underwent intracranial injection of B16-F10 melanoma cells. T1-weighted postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on day 11 after injection. The MRI images were fused with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816098/global-fluctuations-of-cerebral-blood-flow-indicate-a-global-brain-network-independent-of-systemic-factors
#17
Li Zhao, David C Alsop, John A Detre, Weiying Dai
Global synchronization across specialized brain networks is a common feature of network models and in-vivo electrical measurements. Although the imaging of specialized brain networks with blood oxygenation sensitive resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has enabled detailed study of regional networks, the study of globally correlated fluctuations with rsfMRI is confounded by spurious contributions to the global signal from systemic physiologic factors and other noise sources. Here we use an alternative rsfMRI method, arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI, to characterize global correlations and their relationship to correlations and anti-correlations between regional networks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816095/new-astroglial-injury-defined-biomarkers-for-neurotrauma-assessment
#18
Julia Halford, Sean Shen, Kyohei Itamura, Jaclynn Levine, Albert C Chong, Gregg Czerwieniec, Thomas C Glenn, David A Hovda, Paul Vespa, Ross Bullock, W Dalton Dietrich, Stefania Mondello, Joseph A Loo, Ina-Beate Wanner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an expanding public health epidemic with pathophysiology that is difficult to diagnose and thus treat. TBI biomarkers should assess patients across severities and reveal pathophysiology, but currently, their kinetics and specificity are unclear. No single ideal TBI biomarker exists. We identified new candidates from a TBI CSF proteome by selecting trauma-released, astrocyte-enriched proteins including aldolase C (ALDOC), its 38kD breakdown product (BDP), brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), astrocytic phosphoprotein (PEA15), glutamine synthetase (GS) and new 18-25kD-GFAP-BDPs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816089/medusa-s-head-the-complement-system-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Francesco Roselli, Ebru Karasu, Clara Volpe, Markus Huber-Lang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Spinal cord injury (SCI) are critical medical conditions and public health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. Complement cascade is activated after TBI and SCI and the resulting effects have been investigated in gene-knockout and pharmacological models. Multiple experimental studies support a net detrimental role of C3 and C5 activation in the early stages of TBI and SCI. Less firm experimental evidence suggests that, downstream of C3/C5, effector mechanisms including the generation of MAC and direct damage to membranes and neutrophils infiltration may bring about the direct damage of CNS tissue and the enhancement of neuroinflammation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816008/lactuca-capensis-reverses-memory-deficits-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Paula Alexandra Postu, Jaures A K Noumedem, Oana Cioanca, Monica Hancianu, Marius Mihasan, Mitica Ciorpac, Dragos Lucian Gorgan, Brindusa Alina Petre, Lucian Hritcu
We investigated the neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic extract from Lactuca capensis Thunb. leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days on memory impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model produced by direct intraventricular delivery of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42). Behavioural assays such as Y-maze and radial arm maze test were used for assessing memory performance. Aβ1-42 decreased cognitive performance in the behavioural tests which were ameliorated by pre-treatment with the methanolic extract...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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