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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214998/optimal-visual-haptic-integration-with-articulated-tools
#1
Chie Takahashi, Simon J Watt
When we feel and see an object, the nervous system integrates visual and haptic information optimally, exploiting the redundancy in multiple signals to estimate properties more precisely than is possible from either signal alone. We examined whether optimal integration is similarly achieved when using articulated tools. Such tools (tongs, pliers, etc) are a defining characteristic of human hand function, but complicate the classical sensory 'correspondence problem' underlying multisensory integration. Optimal integration requires establishing the relationship between signals acquired by different sensors (hand and eye) and, therefore, in fundamentally unrelated units...
February 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214984/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-nbp-provides-neuroprotection-in-the-mice-models-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#2
Zhengwei Liu, Handong Wang, Xiaofeng Shi, Liwen Li, Mengliang Zhou, Hui Ding, Youqing Yang, Xiang Li, Ke Ding
The present study was aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of NBP in the mice models of TBI, as well as the possible role of Nrf2-ARE pathways in the assumptive neuroprotection. In mice,a modified Marmarou's weight-drop model was employed to induce TBI. ICR mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: sham, TBI, TBI+vehicle(V) and TBI+NBP. NBP (100 mg/kg) was administered via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection at 1 h following TBI. The administration of NBP significantly ameliorated the effects of the brain injury, including neurological deficits, brain water content, and cortical neuronal apoptosis...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214972/avocado-oil-induces-long-term-alleviation-of-oxidative-damage-in-kidney-mitochondria-from-type-2-diabetic-rats-by-improving-glutathione-status
#3
Omar Ortiz-Avila, María Del Consuelo Figueroa-García, Claudia Isabel García-Berumen, Elizabeth Calderón-Cortés, Jorge A Mejía-Barajas, Alain R Rodriguez-Orozco, Ricardo Mejía-Zepeda, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina, Christian Cortés-Rojo
Hyperglycemia and mitochondrial ROS overproduction have been identified as key factors involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This has encouraged the search for strategies decreasing glucose levels and long-term improvement of redox status of glutathione, the main antioxidant counteracting mitochondrial damage. Previously, we have shown that avocado oil improves redox status of glutathione in liver and brain mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; however, the long-term effects of avocado oil and its hypoglycemic effect cannot be evaluated because this model displays low survival and insulin depletion...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214930/investigation-of-optical-neuro-monitoring-technique-for-detection-of-maintenance-and-emergence-states-during-general-anesthesia
#4
Gabriela Hernandez-Meza, Meltem Izzetoglu, Mary Osbakken, Michael Green, Hawa Abubakar, Kurtulus Izzetoglu
The American Society of Anesthesiologist recommends peripheral physiological monitoring during general anesthesia, which offers no information regarding the effects of anesthetics on the brain. Since no "gold standard" method exists for this evaluation, such a technique is needed to ensure patient comfort, procedure quality and safety. In this study we investigated functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as possible monitor of anesthetic effects on the prefrontal cortex. Anesthetic drugs, such as sevoflurane, suppress the cerebral metabolism and alter the cerebral blood flow...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214898/early-development-of-parvalbumin-somatostatin-and-cholecystokinin-expressing-neurons-in-rat-brain-following-prenatal-immune-activation-and-maternal-iron-deficiency
#5
Patricia Boksa, Ying Zhang, Dominique Nouel, Alice Wong, Tak Pan Wong
Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214527/a%C3%A2-mathematical-model-of-low-grade-gliomas-treated-with-temozolomide-and-its-therapeutical-implications
#6
M U Bogdańska, M Bodnar, J Belmonte-Beitia, M Murek, P Schucht, J Beck, V M Pérez-García
Low grade gliomas (LGGs) are infiltrative and incurable primary brain tumours with typically slow evolution. These tumours usually occur in young and otherwise healthy patients, bringing controversies in treatment planning since aggressive treatment may lead to undesirable side effects. Thus, for management decisions it would be valuable to obtain early estimates of LGG growth potential. Here we propose a simple mathematical model of LGG growth and its response to chemotherapy which allows the growth of LGGs to be described in real patients...
February 15, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213588/a-differential-autophagy-dependent-response-to-dna-double-strand-brakes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sporadic-als-patients
#7
Shane Wald-Altman, Edward Pichinuk, Or Kakhlon, Miguel Weil
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors leading to neuromuscular degeneration and pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal transcriptional expression levels of biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the pathophysiological relevance of the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSC)...
February 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213521/signalling-adaptor-shcd-suppresses-erk-phosphorylation-distal-to-the-ret-and-trk-neurotrophic-receptors
#8
Melanie K B Wills, Ava Keyvani Chahi, Hayley R Lau, Manali Tilak, Brianna Guild, Laura A New, Peihua Lu, Keévin Jacquet, Susan O Meakin, Nicolas Bisson, Nina Jones
Proteins of the Shc family are typically involved in signal transduction events involving Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. In the nervous system, they function proximal to the neurotrophic factors that regulate cell survival, differentiation, and neuron-specific characteristics. The least-characterized homolog, ShcD, is robustly expressed in the developing and mature nervous system, but its contributions to neural cell circuitry are largely uncharted. We now report that ShcD binds to active Ret, TrkA, and TrkB neurotrophic factor receptors predominantly via its phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213442/amplitude-normalization-of-dendritic-epsps-at-the-soma-of-binaural-coincidence-detector-neurons-of-the-medial-superior-olive
#9
Bradley D Winters, Shan-Xue Jin, Kenneth R Ledford, Nace L Golding
The principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) encode cues for horizontal sound localization through comparisons of the relative timing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). To understand how the timing and amplitude of EPSPs is maintained during propagation in the dendrites, we made dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings from MSO principal neurons in brain slices from Mongolian gerbils. In somatic recordings, EPSP amplitudes were largely uniform following minimal stimulation of excitatory synapses at visualized locations along the dendrites...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213125/reduced-bioavailable-manganese-causes-striatal-urea-cycle-pathology-in-huntington-s-disease-mouse-model
#10
Terry Jo V Bichell, Michal Wegrzynowicz, K Grace Tipps, Emma M Bradley, Michael A Uhouse, Miles Bryan, Kyle Horning, Nicole Fisher, Karrie Dudek, Timothy Halbesma, Preethi Umashanker, Andrew D Stubbs, Hunter K Holt, Gunnar F Kwakye, Andrew M Tidball, Roger J Colbran, Michael Aschner, M Diana Neely, Alba Di Pardo, Vittorio Maglione, Alexander Osmand, Aaron B Bowman
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene (HTT), resulting in profound striatal neurodegeneration through an unknown mechanism. Perturbations in the urea cycle have been reported in HD models and in HD patient blood and brain. In neurons, arginase is a central urea cycle enzyme, and the metal manganese (Mn) is an essential cofactor. Deficient biological responses to Mn, and reduced Mn accumulation have been observed in HD striatal mouse and cell models. Here we report in vivo and ex vivo evidence of a urea cycle metabolic phenotype in a prodromal HD mouse model...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213119/the-heterogeneity-of-the-left-dorsal-premotor-cortex-evidenced-by-multimodal-connectivity-based-parcellation-and-functional-characterization
#11
Sarah Genon, Andrew Reid, Hai Li, Lingzhong Fan, Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Christian Grefkes, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Tianzi Jiang, Katrin Amunts, Simon B Eickhoff
Despite the common conception of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) as a single brain region, its diverse connectivity profiles and behavioral heterogeneity argue for a differentiated organization of the PMd. A previous study revealed that the right PMd is characterized by a rostro-caudal and a ventro-dorsal distinction dividing it into five subregions: rostral, central, caudal, ventral and dorsal. The present study assessed whether a similar organization is present in the left hemisphere, by capitalizing on a multimodal data-driven approach combining connectivity-based parcellation (CBP) based on meta-analytic modeling, resting-state functional connectivity, and probabilistic diffusion tractography...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213070/selective-a2a-receptors-blockade-reduces-degeneration-of-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-histological-study
#12
Ahmed M Fathalla, Amira M Soliman, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Adenosine is a neuromodulator that inhibit the release of dopamine via a disinhibitory mechanism. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and ZM241385 (respectively, A1 and A2A receptors antagonists), on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons degradation reduction in a rotenone-induced PD model using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212955/health-state-preference-weights-for-the-glasgow-outcome-scale-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-mapping-study
#14
Gordon Ward Fuller, Monica Hernandez, David Pallot, Fiona Lecky, Mathew Stevenson, Belinda Gabbe
BACKGROUND: Valid and relevant estimates of health state preference weights (HSPWs) for Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) categories are a key input of economic models evaluating treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVES: To characterize existing HSPW estimates, and model the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) from the GOS, to inform parameterization of future economic models. METHODS: A systematic review of HSPWs for GOS categories following TBI was conducted using a highly sensitive search strategy implemented in an extensive range of information sources between 1975 and 2016...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212939/cannabis-exacerbates-depressive-symptoms-in-rat-model-induced-by-reserpine
#15
Yasser A Khadrawy, Hussein G Sawie, Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman N Hosny
Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212902/intrauterine-valproate-exposure-is-associated-with-alterations-in-hippocampal-cell-numbers-and-folate-metabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-valproate-teratogenicity
#16
Alexander Semmler, Christian Frisch, Christiane Bleul, Desiree Smith, Laurent Bigler, Jean-Christophe Prost, Henk Blom, Michael Linnebank
PURPOSE: Valproate is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsive drugs. Despite its significant benefits, the teratogenicity of valproate is a relevant problem in the treatment of women of childbearing age. In addition to major congenital malformations, such as neural tube defects, reduced intelligence and attention after intrauterine valproate exposure are reported. Until now the mechanisms of teratogenicity of VPA are poorly understood and concepts how to reduce valproate teratogenicity are lacking...
January 27, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212785/the-role-of-driver-nodes-in-managing-epileptic-seizures-application-of-kuramoto-model
#17
Ali Mohseni, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, Fatemeh Bakouie
Synchronization is an important global phenomenon which could be found in a wide range of complex systems such as brain or electronic devices. However, in some circumstances the synchronized states are not desirable for the system and should be suppressed. For example, excessively synchronized activities in the brain network could be the root of neuronal disorders like epileptic seizures. According to the controllability theory of the complex networks, a minimum set of driver nodes has the ability to control the entire system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212737/gene-delivery-of-apoptin-derived-peptide-using-an-adeno-associated-virus-vector-inhibits-glioma-and-prolongs-animal-survival
#18
Xiuli Zhong, Hengyu Zhao, Songhe Liang, DanYang Zhou, Wenjia Zhang, Lijie Yuan
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. We designed an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for intracranial delivery of the secreted HSP70-targeted peptide APOPTIN derived from Apoptin to GBM tumors. We applied this therapy to GBM models using human U87MG glioma cells and GBM xenograft models in mice. In U87MG and U251MG cells, conditioned medium from AAV2-apoptin-derived peptide (ADP)-expressing cells induced 83% and 78% cell death. In mice bearing intracranial U87MG tumors treated with AAV2-ADP, treatment resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth and longer survival in mice bearing orthotopic invasive GBM brain tumors...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212680/mecp2-mutations-progress-towards-understanding-and-treating-rett-syndrome
#19
Ruth R Shah, Adrian P Bird
Rett syndrome is a profound neurological disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, but preclinical research has indicated that it is potentially treatable. Progress towards this goal depends on the development of increasingly relevant model systems and on our improving knowledge of MeCP2 function in the brain.
February 17, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212663/isolation-of-primary-microglia-from-the-human-post-mortem-brain-effects-of-ante-and-post-mortem-variables
#20
Mark R Mizee, Suzanne S M Miedema, Marlijn van der Poel, Adelia, Karianne G Schuurman, Miriam E van Strien, Jeroen Melief, Joost Smolders, Debbie A Hendrickx, Kirstin M Heutinck, Jörg Hamann, Inge Huitinga
Microglia are key players in the central nervous system in health and disease. Much pioneering research on microglia function has been carried out in vivo with the use of genetic animal models. However, to fully understand the role of microglia in neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is crucial to study primary human microglia from brain donors. We have developed a rapid procedure for the isolation of pure human microglia from autopsy tissue using density gradient centrifugation followed by CD11b-specific cell selection...
February 17, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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