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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334684/aberrant-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-revealed-by-multimodal-neuroimaging-data
#1
Qing Li, Xia Wu, Fufang Xie, Kewei Chen, Li Yao, Jiacai Zhang, Xiaojuan Guo, Rui Li
BACKGROUND: Making use of multimodal data simultaneously to understand the neural mechanism of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been in the focus nowadays. The simultaneous use of multimodal data can take advantage of each modality which may only provide the view of one specific aspect of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To this end, the present study used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and florbetapir PET to reveal the integrated brain network between MCI and normal controls (NCs)...
January 13, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334584/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolite-identification-of-a-novel-benzimidazole-compound-zln005-by-lc-ms-ms
#2
Wenchao Sun, Khoa Dinh Nguyen, William L Fitch, Samuel D Banister, Hongxiang Tang, Xiaolan Zhang, Lewis Yu, Edgar G Engleman, Jayakumar Rajadas
RATIONALE: A novel benzimidazole compound ZLN005 was previously identified as a transcriptional activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in certain metabolic tissues. Upregulation of PGC-1α by ZLN005 has been shown to have beneficial effect in a diabetic mouse model and in a coronary artery disease model in vitro. ZLN005 could also have therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases involving down-regulation of PGC-1α. Given the phenotypic efficacy of ZLN005 in several animal models of human disease, its metabolic profile was investigated to guide the development of novel therapeutics using ZLN005 as the lead compound...
January 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334259/development-of-three-dimensional-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-model-for-patient-communication-and-young-neurosurgeon-education
#3
Mengqi Dong, Guangzhong Chen, Kun Qin, Xiaowen Ding, Dong Zhou, Chao Peng, Shaojian Zeng, Xianming Deng
PURPOSE: Rapid prototyping technology is used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) models and facilitate presurgical patient communication and medical education for young surgeons. METHODS: Two intracranial AVM cases were selected for this study. Using 3D CT angiography or 3D rotational angiography images, the brain AVM models were reconstructed on personal computer and the rapid prototyping process was completed using a 3D printer...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334206/decreased-expression-of-arginine-phenylalanine-amide-related-peptide-3-gene-in-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-of-constant-light-exposure-model-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#4
Zahra Shaaban, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Hossein Nooranizadeh, Amin Tamadon, Farhad Rahmanifar, Somayeh Ahmadloo, Amin Ramezani, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Iman Razeghian Jahromi, Fatemeh Sabet Sarvestani, Omid Koohi Hosseinabadi
Background: An abnormality in pulse amplitude and frequency of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion is the most characteristics of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). On the other hand, arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) inhibits the secretion of GnRH in mammalian hypothalamus. The current study performed in order to investigate the expression of RFRP3 mRNA in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) after the induction of PCOS in a rat model of constant light exposure, and the possible role of parity on occurrence of PCOS...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333917/role-of-cortical-microbleeds-in-cognitive-impairment-in%C3%A2-vivo-behavioral-and-imaging-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model
#5
Sandrine Bergeron, Yaohua Chen, Florent Auger, Julie Deguil, Nicolas Durieux, Emilie Skrobala, Romain Barus, Camille Potey, Charlotte Cordonnier, Florence Pasquier, Laura Ravasi, Régis Bordet, Sophie Gautier
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) could contribute to cognitive impairment in the general population and in patients with dementia. We designed a study to (i) develop a murine model of CMBs, (ii) assess whether CMBs affect cognition in this model and (iii) assess whether this model is sensitive to pharmacological modulation. Male C57Bl6/J mice were stereotactically administered collagenase to induce cortical lesion analysed by MRI at 24 h. CMB-mice were assessed at six weeks post-lesion for cognitive performances (Barnes maze and Touchscreen automated paired-associated learning (PAL) task) and for cerebral metabolism (in vivo PET/CT with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG))...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333914/hybrid-pet-mri-imaging-in-healthy-unsedated-newborn-infants-with-quantitative-rcbf-measurements-using-15o-water-pet
#6
Julie B Andersen, Ulrich Lindberg, Oline V Olesen, Didier Benoit, Claes N Ladefoged, Henrik Bw Larsson, Liselotte Højgaard, Gorm Greisen, Ian Law
In this study, a new hybrid PET/MRI method for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements in healthy newborn infants was assessed and the low values of rCBF in white matter previously obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL) were tested. Four healthy full-term newborn subjects were scanned in a PET/MRI scanner during natural sleep after median intravenous injection of 14 MBq 15O-water. Regional CBF was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment model employing an image-derived input function (IDIF) from the left ventricle...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333681/myotropic-activity-and-immuno-localization-of-selected-neuropeptides-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-coleoptera-silphidae
#7
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333657/gelatin-methacryloyl-hydrogels-in-the-absence-of-a-crosslinker-as-3d-glioblastoma-multiforme-gbm-mimetic-microenvironment
#8
Pelin Erkoc, Fidan Seker, Tugba Bagci-Onder, Seda Kizilel
3D platforms are important for monitoring tumor progression and screening drug candidates to eradicate tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a malignant type of human brain tumor. Here, a new strategy is reported that exploits visible-light-induced crosslinking of gelatin where the reaction is carried out in the absence of an additional crosslinker. Visible light-induced crosslinking promotes the design of cancer microenvironment-mimetic system without compromising the cell viability during the process and absence of crosslinker facilitates the synthesis of the unique construct...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332564/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-intracerebral-haemorrhagic-stroke
#9
Gloria Bedini, Anna Bersano, Elisa R Zanier, Francesca Pischiutta, Eugenio A Parati
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a relatively common fatal disease, with an overall global incidence estimated at 24.6 per 100,000 person-years. Given the high degree of morbidity and mortality associated with ICH, therapies that may have neuroprotective effects are of increasing interest to clinicians. In this last context, cell therapies offer the promise of improving the disease course which cannot be addressed adequately by existing treatments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to evaluate the protective effects and molecular mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on haemorrhagic brain following ICH...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332257/kynurenic-acid-and-its-derivatives-are-able-to-modulate-the-adhesion-and-locomotion-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#10
Eszter Lajkó, Bernadett Tuka, Ferenc Fülöp, István Krizbai, József Toldi, Kálmán Magyar, László Vécsei, László Kőhidai
The neuroprotective actions of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its derivatives in several neurodegenerative disorders [characterized by damage to the cerebral endothelium and to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)] are well established. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is supposedly involved in recovery of impaired cerebral endothelium integrity (endothelial repair). The present work aimed to investigate the effects of KYNA and its synthetic derivatives on cellular behaviour (e.g. adhesion and locomotion) and on morphology of the GP8 rat brain endothelial cell line, modeling the BBB endothelium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#11
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332088/drug-delivery-for-movement-disorders
#12
Neil Barua, Steven Gill
There has been substantial research interest in delivering therapeutic neurotrophic factors directly to the brain for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and other movement disorders. Direct infusion of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor has been investigated in both pre-clinical models and clinical trials. In this chapter we discuss past and present research investigating the potential of direct drug delivery to the brain for the treatment of PD and other movement disorders.
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332081/radiosurgical-subthalamic-nucleotomy
#13
Jean Régis, Romain Carron, Tatiana Witjas
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the reference technique in Parkinson's disease (PD) at different stages of complications. Some patients cannot afford DBS due to anticoagulation or comorbidities or due to pecuniary reasons. Radiosurgery is a minimally invasive stereotactic technique, with no craniotomy and subsequently no risk of bleeding or infection. Its good safety efficacy profile has been established in the treatment of tremor, and the postoperative care issues are simple with a much shorter hospital stay (mean 48 h)...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332066/correlation-between-serum-calcineurin-activity-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-hypertensive-patients-and-its-clinical-significance
#14
Jia-Li Cao, Yu-Qing Yang, Dookhun Muhammad Nabeel, Ya-Li Sun, Hua-Yi-Yang Zou, Xiang-Qing Kong, Xin-Zheng Lu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between calcineurin (CaN) and hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy (HLVH) and to evaluate its potential clinical significance. DESIGN: The study involved 160 patients diagnosed with hypertension and 42 controls. Based on the exclusion criteria, 42 were not eligible for this study. The remaining 118 hypertensive patients were categorized into 2 subgroups based on left ventricular mass index and relative ventricular wall thickness: a normal model subgroup with hypertension (HNM) and an HLVH subgroup...
January 13, 2018: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332049/free-heme-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-fatal-liaison-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Elisabeth Chiziane, Henriette Telemann, Martin Krueger, Juliane Adler, Jürgen Arnhold, A Alia, Jörg Flemmig
While the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown, an increased formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and oxidative processes are major pathological mechanism of the disease. The interaction of Aβ with free heme leads to the formation of peroxidase-active Aβ-heme complexes. However, enzyme-kinetic data and systematic mutational studies are still missing. These aspects were addressed in this study to evaluate the role of Aβ-heme complexes in AD. The enzyme-kinetic measurements showed peroxidase-specific pH- and H2O2-dependencies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332044/does-the-genetic-feature-of-the-chinese-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-chinensis-support-its-potential-as-a-viable-model-for-alzheimer-s-disease-research
#16
Yu Fan, Rongcan Luo, Ling-Yan Su, Qun Xiang, Dandan Yu, Ling Xu, Jia-Qi Chen, Rui Bi, Dong-Dong Wu, Ping Zheng, Yong-Gang Yao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with increasing incidence across the world and no cure at the present time. An ideal animal model would facilitate the understanding of the pathogenesis of AD and discovery of potential therapeutic targets. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has a closer genetic affinity to primates relative to rodents, and can attain ages of 8 years or older, which represents another advantage for the study of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD compared to primates...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332042/protective-effects-of-indian-spice-curcumin-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Mary Catherine Grady, Andrew Mitchell, Sahil Tonk, Chandra Sekhar Kuruva, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Ramesh Kandimalla, Murali Vijayan, Subodh Kumar, Rui Wang, Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran, Gilbert Ogunmokun, Kavya Thamarai, Kandi Quesada, Annette Boles, Arubala P Reddy
The purpose of our article is to assess the current understanding of Indian spice, curcumin, against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Natural products, such as ginger, curcumin, and gingko biloba have been used as diets and dietary supplements to treat human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndromes, and neurological disorders. Products derived from plants are known to have protective effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-arthritis, pro-healing, and boosting memory cognitive functions...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332041/in-vivo-visualization-of-tau-accumulation-microglial-activation-and-brain-atrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-rtg4510
#18
Ai Ishikawa, Masaki Tokunaga, Jun Maeda, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Masafumi Shimojo, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Maiko Ono, Ruiqing Ni, Shigeki Hirano, Satoshi Kuwabara, Bin Ji, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Naruhiko Sahara
BACKGROUND: Tau imaging using PET is a promising tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of tau-related neurodegenerative disorders, but the relationship among PET-detectable tau, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration is not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate sequential changes in tau accumulation, neuroinflammation, and brain atrophy by PET and MRI in a tauopathy mouse model. METHODS: rTg4510 transgenic (tg) mice expressing P301L mutated tau and non-tg mice were examined with brain MRI and PET imaging (analyzed numbers: tg = 17, non-tg = 13; age 2...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331881/ameliorative-role-of-genistein-against-age-dependent-chronic-arsenic-toxicity-in-murine-brains-via-the-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-signaling-cascades
#19
Sukanya Saha, Pritam Sadhukhan, Sushweta Mahalanobish, Sayanta Dutta, Parames C Sil
Brain is highly prone to oxidative damage due to its huge lipid content and extensive energy requirements. Exogenous insult in brain via oxidative injury can lead to severe pathophysiological conditions. Age-dependent deterioration of normal brain functions is also noteworthy. Genistein, a polyphenolic isoflavonoid, obtained from the soy plant, is well known to protect against several diseased conditions. Here, in this study chronic brain toxicity model was developed using oral administration of arsenic for 90 days in adult and aged murines...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331730/exenatide-exerts-cognitive-effects-by-modulating-the-bdnf-trkb-neurotrophic-axis-in-adult-mice
#20
Manuela Bomba, Alberto Granzotto, Vanessa Castelli, Noemi Massetti, Elena Silvestri, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Annamaria Cimini, Stefano L Sensi
Modulation of insulin-dependent signaling is emerging as a valuable therapeutic tool to target neurodegeneration. In the brain, the activation of insulin receptors promotes cell growth, neuronal repair, and protection. Altered brain insulin signaling participates in the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease patients and the aging brain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates insulin secretion and, along with GLP-1 analogues, enhances neurotrophic signaling and counteracts cognitive deficits in preclinical models of neurodegeneration...
December 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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