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Gregory Reychler, Justine Fabre, Amandine Lux, Gilles Caty, Thierry Pieters, Giuseppe Liistro
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different kinds of music on submaximal performance and exercise tolerance in healthy children by means of the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) and to explore the influence of gender. DESIGN: Cross-over study. METHOD: Ninety-seven children performed 6MWT in four conditions (without music, with their preferred music, with slow and with fast music). Distance, cardio-respiratory parameters, perceived exertion rate, and amount of dyspnea were measured...
October 25, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Nawel Haïli, Julien Louap, Michel Canonge, Franjo Jagic, Christelle Louis-Mondésir, Thierry Chardot, Pierre Briozzo
The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Shakir, Summaiya Hanif, Md Fazle Alam, Hina Younus
Novel bio-relevant monometallic Schiff base complexes of the type, [Cu(L(1))2] (1), [Zn(L(1))2]·2H2O (2), [Cu(L(2))2]·2H2O (3) and [Zn(L(2))2]·H2O (4) [L(1)(E)-3-(((3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol and L(2)(E)-2-chloro-4-((1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)amino)phenol] were synthesized and characterized. A comparative account of analytical, spectroscopic (FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, Mass, UV-vis and EPR), thermal (TGA/DTA), XRD and SEM studies revealed a correlation between the structure and function of these biologically active molecular entities...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Rebecca-Lee Kuhnert, Sander Begeer, Elian Fink, Marc de Rosnay
Although key differences have been found in boys' and girls' prosocial behavior toward peers, few studies have systematically examined gender differences in how intrinsic perspective-taking abilities-theory of mind (ToM) and emotion understanding (EU)-and the extrinsic peer environment relate to prosocial behavior. In this prospective longitudinal study, we studied gender differences in the relations between children's observed prosocial behavior and their ToM, EU, and social preference ratings in 114 children (58 boys and 56 girls)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Lisa I Iezzoni
Erroneous assumptions among health care professionals about the daily lives, preferences, values, and expectations of persons with disability can contribute to documented health care disparities, faulty communication, and substandard quality of care affecting this heterogeneous population. Efforts to reduce racial and ethnic disparities have focused on expanding diversity in the physician workforce. Would expanding the numbers of physicians with disability benefit patients with disability? Increasing the number of physicians who identify as "disabled" is one strategy for proactively confronting disability-related barriers affecting patients, but such efforts will likely face substantial challenges...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Natalie M Kintz, Lawrence A Palinkas
INTRODUCTION: Long-duration space explorations will involve significant communication delays that will likely impact individual and team outcomes. However, the extent of these impacts and the appropriate countermeasures for their mitigation remain largely unknown. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a research platform to assess the impacts of communication delays on individual and team behavior and performance. METHODS: For this study, 3 ISS crewmembers and 18 mission support personnel performed 10 tasks identified by subject matter experts as meeting study criteria, 6 tasks without a delay in communication and 4 tasks with a 50-s one-way delay...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Brian Wansink, Rebecca Robbins
OBJECTIVES: Which design features of nutrition infographics make them memorable and compelling? METHODS: First, we conducted 3 focus groups with a total of 28 participants to understand preferred infographic characteristics of adults who were mostly in their early 20s. Second, using between subject design, a slide show of single-image infographics was displayed to an independent sample of college students and young career university employees (N = 50). We assigned participants randomly to either active or passive processing conditions...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Trinh L Dinh, Kevin C Ngan, Charles B Shoemaker, David R Walt
This paper provides insights into the performance of single-molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay by examining the effects of various capture and detector antibody-antigen binding kinetic parameters. Simoa is similar to other immunoassays in that the overall Simoa performance is heavily dependent on the choice of antibodies; however, little is known about how the different properties of the antibodies result in the wide variations in assay performance. Here, we focus on antibody-antigen binding kinetics and demonstrate how the association (kon) and dissociation (koff) rate constants of the capture and detection antibodies affect Simoa performance...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Volker Sommer, Umaru Buba, Gonçalo Jesus, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVE: At some sites across Africa, chimpanzees consume army ants, often aided by plant tools, although consumption frequencies vary greatly. Other populations do not eat these insects at all, despite apparent abundance. The relative importance of this type of myrmecophagy for chimpanzee diet therefore remains unclear. We investigate if army ants constitute a preferred food or a fallback resource for chimpanzees at Gashaka, Nigeria, where army ants are consumed much more frequently than elsewhere...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer
PURPOSE: The move toward competency-based education will require medical schools and postgraduate training programs to restructure learning environments to motivate trainees to take personal ownership for learning. This qualitative study explores how medical students select and implement study strategies while enrolled in a unique, nontraditional program that emphasizes reflection on performance and competence rather than relying on high-stakes examinations or grades to motivate students to learn and excel...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Tavis Apramian, Sayra Cristancho, Chris Watling, Michael Ott, Lorelei Lingard
PURPOSE: Emerging research explores the educational implications of practice and procedural variation between faculty members. The potential effect of these variations on how surgeons make competence judgments about residents has not yet been thoroughly theorized. The authors explored how thresholds of principle and preference shaped surgeons' intraoperative judgments of resident competence. METHOD: This grounded theory study included reanalysis of data on the educational role of procedural variations and additional sampling to attend to their impact on assessment...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Yoon Soo Park, Matthew Lineberry, Abbas Hyderi, Georges Bordage, Kuan Xing, Rachel Yudkowsky
PURPOSE: Medical schools administer locally developed graduation competency examinations (GCEs) following the structure of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills that combine standardized patient (SP)-based physical examination and the patient note (PN) to create integrated clinical encounter (ICE) scores. This study examines how different subcomponent scoring weights in a locally developed GCE affect composite score reliability and pass-fail decisions for ICE scores, contributing to internal structure and consequential validity evidence...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jesse Burk-Rafel, Patricia B Mullan, Heather Wagenschutz, Alexandra Pulst-Korenberg, Eric Skye, Matthew M Davis
PURPOSE: Scholarly concentration programs-also known as scholarly projects, pathways, tracks, or pursuits-are increasingly common in U.S. medical schools. However, systematic, data-driven program development methods have not been described. METHOD: The authors examined scholarly concentration programs at U.S. medical schools that U.S. News & World Report ranked as top 25 for research or primary care (n = 43 institutions), coding concentrations and mission statements...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Emuella M Flood, Kelly F Bell, Marie C de la Cruz, France M Ginchereau-Sowell
OBJECTIVE: To identify which treatment attributes are most influential in determining patient preferences for diabetes treatments and explore patient preferences for diabetes drug classes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: U.S. adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes completed an online adaptive conjoint analysis survey. The survey examined 14 attributes, including efficacy, regimen, and risk of common side effects and rare, but serious adverse events. Respondents selected between hypothetical treatments with different attributes...
October 25, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Jaroslav Meluzin, Zdenek Starek, Tomas Kulik, Jiri Jez, Frantisek Lehar, Josef Tomandl, Ladislav Dusek, Jiri Wolf, Pavel Leinveber, Miroslav Novak
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive diagnosis of exercise-induced elevation of left ventricular filling pressure is difficult and remains unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the ratio of early diastolic transmitral (E) to mitral annular (e') velocity and to determine new parameters or parameter combinations with the ability to predict exercise-induced left atrial pressure (LAP) elevation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) referred for catheter AF ablation underwent simultaneous exercise echocardiography and direct invasive LAP measurements, as well as a resting and postexercise biomarker analysis...
October 25, 2016: Echocardiography
E Huertas-Hoyas, E J Pedrero-Perez, M Martinez-Campos, M Laselle-Lopez
INTRODUCTION: The use of self-reports about symptoms of malfunctioning in daily life derived from functional deficits of a prefrontal origin has become widespread in clinical practice, since they allow incremental ecological validity to be added to other specific tests. Yet it remains to be determined whether self-assessment is sufficient on its own or if the participation of an external evaluator would be preferable. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) was administered to 115 subjects being treated for a range of brain pathologies...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
J Lokkerbol, J Nuijen, S Evers, H Knegtering, P Delespaul, H Kroon, R Bruggeman
BACKGROUND People with serious mental illness (SMI) often suffer high healthcare costs and enduring loss of quality of life. Increasing our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of people with SMI is important when striving for optimal health at affordable costs. AIM To describe aspects that can be important for cost-effectiveness research targeting people with SMI. METHOD These aspects are demonstrated by considering pro-active care, rehabilitation and involuntary treatment RESULTS The possible involvement of a large number of stakeholders outside of healthcare requires cost-effectiveness research to also map the costs and benefits outside of healthcare, preferably for each stakeholder specifically...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Jia Loon Chong
Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for eligible end-stage renal disease patients. However, the supply of donated kidneys has been consistently insufficient to meet the transplantation requirements of the population. In this paper, I discuss the feasibility of several policy options that engage potential donors or key individuals in a Singapore context, including financial and non-financial incentives for deceased/living organ donors and their families, improving actualisation rates of both donation after brain death, donation after cardiac death through quality improvement programmes and remuneration schemes, and a media platform for directed organ donation...
October 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
B B Xiao, X B Jiang, X L Yang, Q Jiang, F Zheng
Pt1ML/Pd3Al, which comprises a Pd3Al core protected by a Pt monolayer, may experience Al dealloying because of the strong affinity of Al toward O. To circumvent this issue, the Pt2ML/Os/Pd3Al catalyst has been designed to suppress the migration of Al by inserting an Os monolayer at the interface between the Pd3Al core and two Pt monolayers. On the basis of segregation energies, Al leaching from the core to the 1st layer is determined to be endothermic even under O coverage, indicating an energetic preference for Al to reside in the core structure...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Aodhán Hickey, Eleanor Gunn, Lisa Alcock, Silvia Del Din, Alan Godfrey, Lynn Rochester, Brook Galna
Biomarkers are required to track disease progression and measure the effectiveness of interventions for people with spinocerebellar ataxia type-6 (SCA6). Gait is a potential biomarker that is sensitive to SCA6 which can be measured using wearable technology, reducing the need for expensive specialist facilities. However, algorithms used to calculate gait using data from wearables have not been validated in SCA6. This study sought to examine the validity of a single wearable for deriving 14 spatio-temporal gait characteristics in SCA6 and control cohorts...
October 25, 2016: Physiological Measurement
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