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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239771/can-training-change-attentional-breadth-failure-to-find-transfer-effects
#1
Lin Fang, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Lynn Bruyneel, Lies Notebaert, Colin MacLeod, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H W Koster
Recently, there is increasing interest in the causal relationship between attentional breadth and emotion regulation. To test this causal relationship, attentional breadth needs to be manipulated stringently. The aim of the current research was to establish whether visual attentional breadth could be manipulated through experimental training procedures. We conducted two single-session training experiments and one multiple-session training experiment, all of which contained pre- and post-training assessments to test the direct transfer effects of training on attentional breadth construed in different measures...
February 26, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239582/juvenile-perinasal-angiofibroma
#2
Anupam Mishra, Veerendra Verma, Subhash Chandra Mishra
The extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a separate clinical entity but those involving infratemporal fossa and cheek resemble juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and hence have been labelled as juvenile perinasal angiofibroma (JPA) in this paper. This paper presents a 7th case of JPA and attempts to review the world literature on JPA, along with a proposal of staging the disease. A 16 year male presented with a painless compressible facial swelling since 7 months without any epistaxis or nasal obstruction...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239408/the-effects-of-probiotics-on-depressive-symptoms-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Caroline J K Wallace, Roumen Milev
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from depression experience significant mood, anxiety, and cognitive symptoms. Currently, most antidepressants work by altering neurotransmitter activity in the brain to improve these symptoms. However, in the last decade, research has revealed an extensive bidirectional communication network between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, referred to as the "gut-brain axis." Advances in this field have linked psychiatric disorders to changes in the microbiome, making it a potential target for novel antidepressant treatments...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239400/mate-choice-for-major-histocompatibility-complex-complementarity-in-a-strictly-monogamous-bird-the-grey-partridge-perdix-perdix
#4
Dana Rymešová, Tereza Králová, Marta Promerová, Josef Bryja, Oldřich Tomášek, Jana Svobodová, Petr Šmilauer, Miroslav Šálek, Tomáš Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Sexual selection has been hypothesised as favouring mate choice resulting in production of viable offspring with genotypes providing high pathogen resistance. Specific pathogen recognition is mediated by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encoding proteins fundamental for adaptive immune response in jawed vertebrates. MHC genes may also play a role in odour-based individual recognition and mate choice, aimed at avoiding inbreeding. MHC genes are known to be involved in mate choice in a number of species, with 'good genes' (absolute criteria) and 'complementary genes' (self-referential criteria) being used to explain MHC-based mating...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239397/allergic-rhinitis-the-eligible-candidate-to-mite-immunotherapy-in-the-real-world
#5
Giorgio Ciprandi, Valentina Natoli, Paola Puccinelli, Cristoforo Incorvaia
As standard drug treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) is not completely satisfactory, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) represents the only current treatment with the potential to modify the natural history. House dust mite (HDM) allergy is very common. The aim of the current experience was to describe the clinical profile of HDM-allergic patients with AR who received AIT in a real world model, such as allergy clinics. Globally, 239 patients (126 adults and 113 children; 107 females and 132 males; mean age 21 years, age range 6-56 years) were evaluated...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239378/enterococcus-durans-ep1-a-promising-anti-inflammatory-probiotic-able-to-stimulate-siga-and-to-increase-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance
#6
Paula Carasi, Silvia María Racedo, Claudine Jacquot, Anne Marie Elie, María de Los Ángeles Serradell, María C Urdaci
Enterococcus species, principally Enterococcus faecium are used as probiotics since a long time with preference in animal applications but safety considerations were updated and also new uses as probiotics can be envisaged. Fifteen Enterococcus strains isolated from different foods were identified and analyzed for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Three Enterococcus durans strains were selected to study their immunomodulatory properties on PBMC and Caco2 cells. Two strains presented a profile toward a mild inflammatory Th1 response considering TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL-10 cytokines ratios...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239345/improvements-in-orientation-and-balancing-abilities-in-response-to-one-month-of-intensive-slackline-training-a-randomized-controlled-feasibility-study
#7
Milos Dordevic, Anita Hökelmann, Patrick Müller, Kathrin Rehfeld, Notger G Müller
Background: Slackline-training has been shown to improve mainly task-specific balancing skills. Non-task specific effects were assessed for tandem stance and preferred one-leg stance on stable and perturbed force platforms with open eyes. It is unclear whether transfer effects exist for other balancing conditions and which component of the balancing ability is affected. Also, it is not known whether slackline-training can improve non-visual-dependent spatial orientation abilities, a function mainly supported by the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239314/second-korean-guidelines-for-the-management-of-crohn-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jae Jun Park, Suk-Kyun Yang, Byong Duk Ye, Jong Wook Kim, Dong Il Park, Hyuk Yoon, Jong Pil Im, Kang Moon Lee, Sang Nam Yoon, Heeyoung Lee
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, progressive, and disabling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with an uncertain etiopathogenesis. CD can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, and is associated with serious complications, such as bowel strictures, perforations, and fistula formation. The incidence and prevalence rates of CD in Korea are still lower compared with those in Western countries, but they have been rapidly increasing during the recent decades. Although there are no definitive curative modalities for CD, various medical and surgical therapies have been applied for the treatment of this disease...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239258/euryhaline-preferences-of-the-decapod-crab-mioplax-socialis-enabled-it-to-survive-during-the-badenian-sarmatian-extinction-miocene-in-the-central-paratethys
#9
Matúš Hyžný, Oleg Mandic, Mathias Harzhauser, Peter Ledvák
Although decapod crustaceans of the Central Paratethys were diverse during the Badenian (Langhian-Early Serravallian), a dramatic drop in their diversity occurred at the boundary with the Sarmatian. A crab Mioplax socialis is one of the few decapods reported from the Lower Sarmatian (Mohrensternia Zone) of the Paratethys. Until now, this species has been known from only a handful of specimens from Austria, Croatia and Bulgaria (Central Paratethys), and its systematics and ecology remain poorly known. Here, on the basis of new specimens from the Sarmatian tuffitic clays of the Stretava Formation (Skároš, Eastern Slovakia) we confirm that this species belongs to the subfamily Chasmocarcininae...
April 2016: Geologica Carpathica: the Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239218/coping-mediates-the-association-between-gender-and-depressive-symptomatology-in-adolescence
#10
Ashley M Malooly, Kaitlin M Flannery, Christine McCauley Ohannessian
Previous studies have found evidence for gender and racial/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms in adolescence; however, the mechanisms driving this relationship are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the role of individual differences in dispositional coping in the relationships between gender and depressive symptomatology, and race/ethnicity and depressive symptomatology. Surveys were administered to 905 15-17 year old adolescents (mean age 16.10, SD = .67; 54% girls, n = 485) in the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009...
March 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239185/the-significance-of-spatial-memory-for-water-finding-in-a-tadpole-transporting-frog
#11
Andrius Pašukonis, Katharina Trenkwalder, Max Ringler, Eva Ringler, Rosanna Mangione, Jolanda Steininger, Ian Warrington, Walter Hödl
The ability to associate environmental cues with valuable resources strongly increases the chances of finding them again, and thus memory often guides animal movement. For example, many temperate region amphibians show strong breeding site fidelity and will return to the same areas even after the ponds have been destroyed. In contrast, many tropical amphibians depend on exploitation of small, scattered and fluctuating resources such as ephemeral pools for reproduction. It remains unknown whether tropical amphibians rely on spatial memory for effective exploitation of their reproductive resources...
June 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239161/weighing-words-adolescent-preferences-and-reactions-to-language-about-body-weight
#12
R M Puhl, M S Himmelstein, S C Armstrong, E Kingsford
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239021/needs-assessment-of-hcv-infected-individuals-experiencing-homelessness-and-implications
#13
Marguerite Beiser, Casey Leon, Jessie M Gaeta
The advent of tolerable, efficacious therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) creates an opportunity to provide HCV treatment for individuals experiencing homelessness. A federally-qualified community health center serving individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston conducted an anonymous needs assessment survey of a sample of HCV-infected patients in order to inform development of an HCV treatment program (N = 240). Primary care providers (PCPs) were identified as the chief source of HCV education. Main motivators to consider HCV treatment were identified as "taking care of your health" (73...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239014/-we-as-black-men-have-to-encourage-each-other-facilitators-and-barriers-associated-with-hiv-testing-among-black-african-american-men-in-rural-florida
#14
Ashley Murray, Lauren Toledo, Emma Ej Brown, Madeline Y Sutton
HIV testing for some African American men remains a challenge, and effective interventions are lacking. We explored facilitators and barriers associated with HIV testing among heterosexual African American men in rural Florida. We conducted focus group interviews with 67 African American men who were low-income, and HIV-uninfected based on prior testing or had unknown HIV status. Using computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses for main themes. Thematic analyses revealed three main themes regarding facilitators of HIV testing: 1) using preferred HIV testing community locations (park, library, gym); 2) receiving incentives (food or money); and 3) the importance of peer-led messaging for free, rapid HIV testing...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238914/biochemical-and-biophysical-properties-of-a-metagenome-derived-gh5-endoglucanase-displaying-an-unconventional-domain-architecture
#15
Agnes C Pimentel, Gabriela C G Ematsu, Marcelo V Liberato, Douglas A A Paixão, João Paulo L Franco Cairo, Fernanda Mandelli, Robson Tramontina, César A Gandin, Mario de Oliveira Neto, Fabio M Squina, Thabata M Alvarez
Endoglucanases are key enzymes in the degradation of cellulose, the most abundant polymer on Earth. The aim of this work was to perform the biochemical and biophysical characterization of CelE2, a soil metagenome derived endoglucanase. CelE2 harbors a conserved domain from glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) and a C-terminal domain with identity to Calx-beta domains. The recombinant CelE2 displayed preference for hydrolysis of oat beta-glucan, followed by lichenan and carboxymethyl cellulose. Optimum values of enzymatic activity were observed at 45°C and pH 5...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238895/hispanic-mothers-views-of-the-fathers-role-in-promoting-healthy-behaviors-at-home-focus-group-findings
#16
Karina R Lora, Marshall Cheney, Paul Branscum
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity prevention interventions rarely take into account the unique role of fathers in promoting healthy home environments. OBJECTIVE: To use qualitative methodology to examine the views of Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 to 5 years regarding fathers' roles in promoting healthy behaviors at home. DESIGN: Nine focus groups were conducted in Spanish with Hispanic mothers of preschool-aged children (N=55) from October to December 2015...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238894/a-narrative-review-of-social-media-and-game-based-nutrition-interventions-targeted-at-young-adults
#17
Monica Nour, Sin Hang Yeung, Stephanie Partridge, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
The increased popularity of social media and mobile gaming among young adults provides an opportunity for innovative nutrition programs. This review evaluated the efficacy of these strategies in interventions targeted at 18- to 35-year-olds. The protocol was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ten scientific databases, information technology conference proceedings, and gray literature were searched. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessments...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238892/attitudes-toward-health-and-taste-of-food-among-women-with-bulimia-nervosa-and-women-of-a-non-clinical-sample
#18
Priscila Koritar, Sonia Tucunduva Philippi, Marle Dos Santos Alvarenga
Taste preferences and health concerns play important roles in determining eating attitudes, thus influencing food choices. Disordered eating attitudes are common among women, and can lead to the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED). Attitudes toward health and taste of food among ED patients and its comparison with non-clinical women are not well known, and this knowledge could improve eating interventions. In this study, we compared taste preferences and health concerns in 27 women with diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN) and 216 women of a non-clinical sample...
February 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238847/-sociability-affects-the-intensity-of-mate-choice-copying-in-female-guppies-poecilia-reticulata
#19
REVIEW
David J White, Eliza Watts, Kelsey Pitchforth, Samuel Agyapong, Noam Miller
Selecting a quality mate can involve acquiring and accessing large amounts of information; information that can be obtained either independently or socially. One means of learning about mates socially is to attend to other members of one's sex and copy their mate choices. It is possible however that not all individuals of a species benefit equally from, or are equally effective at, copying. We examined whether female guppies copied the mate choices of other females. Then, in a separate context we measured each female's 'sociability': their proclivity to affiliate with other guppies...
February 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238826/environmental-factors-and-teenagers-personalities-the-role-of-personal-and-familial-socio-cultural-level
#20
Elisa Menardo, Giulia Balboni, Roberto Cubelli
: Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area...
February 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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