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Boldenone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896593/biochemical-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-the-liver-and-kidneys-of-rats-submitted-to-different-protocols-of-anabolic-steroids
#1
Guilherme Lopes Dornelles, Andressa Bueno, Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva, Raqueli Teresinha França, Cássia Bagolin da Silva, Márcia Silveira Netto Machado, Letícia do Santos Petry, Fátima Husein Abdalla, Cibele Lima Lhamas, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different protocols (P1, P2, and P3) of boldenone undecylenate (BU) and stanozolol (ST) on markers of liver and kidney function and variables of oxidative stress in these organs. For this, 54 male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six animals each. Each animal received intramuscularly 5.0 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 4 weeks (P1); 2.5 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 8 weeks (P2); and 1.25 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 12 weeks (P3)...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487497/effects-of-boldenone-undecylenate-on-growth-performance-maintenance-behaviour-reproductive-hormones-and-carcass-traits-of-growing-rabbits
#2
H H Mohammed, M E Badawi, M S El-Tarabany, M Rania
The present study was done to evaluate the effect of boldenone undecylenate (BOL) on growth performance, maintenance behaviour, reproductive hormones and carcass traits of male rabbits. Sixty apparently healthy New Zealand White male rabbits, 5 weeks of age, were allotted to 3 equal groups. Each group was subdivided into 5 replicates, where the first group is control. The second group (B1) comprised rabbits that received 2 intramuscular injections of BOL (5 mg/kg) with 3 week intervals (9 and 12 weeks of age), while the third group (B2) included rabbits that received 3 intramuscular injections of BOL (5 mg/kg) with 2 week intervals (8, 10 and 12 weeks of age)...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472592/analysis-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-as-sulfate-conjugates-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
S Rzeppa, G Heinrich, P Hemmersbach
Improvements in doping analysis can be effected by speeding up analysis time and extending the detection time. Therefore, direct detection of phase II conjugates of doping agents, especially anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), is proposed. Besides direct detection of conjugates with glucuronic acid, the analysis of sulfate conjugates, which are usually not part of the routine doping control analysis, can be of high interest. Sulfate conjugates of methandienone and methyltestosterone metabolites have already been identified as long-term metabolites...
November 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352508/generation-of-phase-ii-in-vitro-metabolites-using-homogenized-horse-liver
#4
Jenny K Y Wong, George H M Chan, David K K Leung, Francis P W Tang, Terence S M Wan
The successful use of homogenized horse liver for the generation of phase I in vitro metabolites has been previously reported by the authors' laboratory. Prior to the use of homogenized liver, the authors' laboratory had been using mainly horse liver microsomes for carrying out equine in vitro metabolism studies. Homogenized horse liver has shown significant advantages over liver microsomes for in vitro metabolism studies as the procedures are much quicker and have higher capability for generating more in vitro metabolites...
February 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26319750/metabolism-study-of-boldenone-in-human-urine-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xinchen Wu, Feng Gao, Wenxin Zhang, Jian Ni
Boldenone (BOLD), an anabolic steroid, is likely to be abused in livestock breeding and in sports. Although some of BOLD metabolites in human urine, such as 5β-adrost-1-en-17β-ol-3-one (BM1), have been detected, investigations on their excretion patterns for both genders are insufficient. Moreover, little research on 17α-BOLD glucuronide as a metabolite in human urine has been reported. The aim of this study is to make a contribution to the knowledge of 17β-BOLD metabolism in humans. Three male and three female volunteers were orally administrated with 30mg 17β-BOLD...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26041220/suitability-of-bovine-bile-compared-to-urine-for-detection-of-free-sulfate-and-glucuronate-boldenone-androstadienedione-cortisol-cortisone-prednisolone-prednisone-and-dexamethasone-by-lc-ms-ms
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Luca Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Sara Panseri, Daniele Vigo, Radmila Pavlovic, Francesco Arioli
The administration of boldenone and androstadienedione to cattle is forbidden in the European Union, while prednisolone is permitted for therapeutic purposes. They are pseudoendogenous substances (endogenously produced under certain circumstances). The commonly used matrices in control analyses are urine or liver. With the aim of improving the residue controls, we previously validated a method for steroid analysis in bile. We now compare urine (a 'classic' matrix) to bile, both collected at the slaughterhouse, to understand whether the detection of steroids in the latter is easier...
December 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26031748/metabolic-study-of-androsta-1-4-6-triene-3-17-dione-in-horses-using-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#7
Wai Him Kwok, Gary N W Leung, Terence S M Wan, Peter Curl, Peter J Schiff
Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (ATD) is an irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor and is marketed as a supplement. It has been reported to effectively reduce estrogen biosynthesis and significantly increase the levels of endogenous steroids such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone in human. ATD abuses have been reported in human sports. Its metabolism in human has been studied, and the in vitro metabolic study of ATD in horses has been reported, however, little is known about its biotransformation and elimination in horses...
August 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26025555/the-development-and-single-laboratory-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-steroid-residues-in-fish-and-fish-products
#8
Lynn Watson, Ross Potter, Cory Murphy, Ryan Gibbs
Due to potential use in aquacultured fish products, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency has identified residue testing for steroids as a priority. These compounds are used in aquaculture primarily to direct sexual differentiation with both androgens and estrogens applied depending on the desired outcome. Published research is lacking with respect to steroid residue testing in fish; however, recent studies in other matrixes provided transferable cleanup techniques. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method was developed and validated for use in monitoring aquacultured fish products for the presence of methyltestosterone, nandrolone, epi-nandrolone, boldenone, and epi-boldenone residues...
May 2015: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973986/screening-hybridomas-for-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-by-steroid-analog-antigen-microarray
#9
Hongwu Du, Guangyu Chen, Yongzhong Bian, Cenzan Xing, Xue Ding, Mengliang Zhu, Yiping Xun, Peng Chen, Yabin Zhou, Shaoxu Li
BACKGROUND: Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested...
2015: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25903003/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-to-determine-boldenone-in-bovine-liver-tissues
#10
Rodrigo H M M Granja, Alessandro G Salerno, Andreia C de Lima, Cynthia Montalvo, Karine V G Reche, Fabio M Giannotti, Amarylis C B A Wanschel
Boldenone, an androgenic steroid, is forbidden for use in meat production in most countries worldwide. Residues of this drug in food present a potential risk to consumers. A sensitive LC/MS/MS method for analysis of 17β-boldenone using boldenone-d3 as an internal standard was developed. An enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction using ethyl acetate, methanol, and hexane were performed in the sample preparation. Parameters such as decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), precision, recovery, and ruggedness were evaluated according to the Brazilian Regulation 24/2009 (equivalent to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC) and International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025:2005...
September 2014: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880245/determination-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-adulterants-in-counterfeit-drugs-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#11
So-Hyun Cho, Hyoung Joon Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Jung-Ah Do, Seok Heo, Jeong Hwa Jo, Sooyeul Cho
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) have been illegally used in counterfeit drugs to improve the performance of athletes. In addition, AASs have been used for cosmetic purpose by non-athletes. To determine the presence of 26 AASs, an analysis method using ultra-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The validated method was applied to 19 counterfeit drugs collected from the Internet and off-line markets during 2014. Nearly 50% (9/19) of the samples contained one of these 26 AASs...
2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25768316/pseudoendogenous-presence-of-%C3%AE-boldenone-sulphate-and-glucuronide-in-untreated-young-bulls-from-the-food-chain
#12
Luca Chiesa, Elisa Pasquale, Sara Panseri, Francesca T Cannizzo, Bartolomeo Biolatti, Radmila Pavlovic, Francesco Arioli
The administration of boldenone (bold) to bovines, either for growth promotion or therapeutic purposes, has been banned in the EU since 1981. It is, however, a pseudoendogenous hormone, thus its detection in bovine urine, in the form of α-boldenone conjugates, is considered fully compliant up to 2 ng ml(-1). Greater attention has been placed on β-boldenone, the anabolic active epimer, whose conjugated form must be absent in urine. Recently, the identification of a biomarker representing unquestionable evidence of illicit treatment with bold or its precursor androstadienedione has been a major topic in the literature regarding the detection of residues in bovine urine, and β-boldenone sulphate is a candidate molecule...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25631391/enantioselective-palladium-catalyzed-dearomative-cyclization-for-the-efficient-synthesis-of-terpenes-and-steroids
#13
Kang Du, Pan Guo, Yuan Chen, Zhen Cao, Zheng Wang, Wenjun Tang
A novel enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization has been developed for the efficient construction of a series of chiral phenanthrenone derivatives bearing an all-carbon quaternary center. The effectiveness of this method in the synthesis of terpenes and steroids was demonstrated by a highly efficient synthesis of a kaurene intermediate, the facile construction of the skeleton of the anabolic steroid boldenone, and the enantioselective total synthesis of the antimicrobial diterpene natural product (-)-totaradiol...
March 2, 2015: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25595834/a-validated-uhplc-ms-ms-method-to-quantify-low-levels-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-naturally-present-in-urine-of-untreated-horses
#14
Anneleen Decloedt, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Julie Vanden Bussche, Patrice Garcia, Marie-Agnes Popot, Yves Bonnaire, Lynn Vanhaecke
Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method...
June 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25541059/formation-of-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-6-testosterone-metabolites-by-human-hepatocytes
#15
Andreu Fabregat, Josep Marcos, Rosa Ventura, Gregori Casals, Wladimiro Jimenez, Vedrana Reichenbach, Jordi Segura, Oscar J Pozo
The existence of urinary testosterone (T) metabolites conjugated with cysteine has been recently reported. The formation of a ring double bond by a phase I metabolic transformation and the subsequent nucleophilic conjugation with glutathione was proposed as a putative metabolic pathway for the occurrence of these metabolites in urine. The main goal of the present study was to confirm the first step of the postulated pathway. For that purpose, human hepatocyte cells systems were incubated with a pure T standard...
March 2015: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25454142/development-of-an-analytical-method-for-the-determination-of-the-misuse-in-sports-of-boldenone-through-the-analysis-of-urine-by-on-line-coupling-liquid-chromatography-gas-chromatography-combustion-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry
#16
R M Toledano, E M Díaz-Plaza, J M Cortes, A Aragón, A M Vázquez, J Villén, J Muñoz-Guerra
Boldenone (Bo), androsta-1,4-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is an anabolic androgenic steroid not clinically approved for human application. Despite this, many cases are reported every year of athletes testing positive for Bo or its main metabolite 5β-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one (BoM). Recently the capability of different human intestinal bacteria to produce enzymes able to modify endogenous steroids in Bo has been demonstrated. When a urinary concentration of Bo and/or BoM between 5 and 30 ng/mL is measured a complementary analysis by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) must be carried out to discriminate the endogenous or exogenous origin...
November 28, 2014: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25448362/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-nandrolone-bodipy-conjugates
#17
Michal Jurášek, Silvie Rimpelová, Vladimíra Pavlíčková, Tomáš Ruml, Oldřich Lapčík, Pavel B Drašar
Here, we report synthesis and biological evaluation of fluorescent nandrolone-3-carboxymethyloxime derivatives conjugated with green-emitting bodipy dye via PEG linkers. All the newly-synthesized compounds were evaluated for their effect on cell proliferation in vitro in MCF-7, LNCaP, PC-3 and HEK 293T model cell lines using WST-1 assay. By means of live-cell fluorescence microscopy, the intracellular localization of nandrolone-bodipy conjugates was revealed in endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, we performed competitive localization study with nonfluorescent nandrolone, metandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone, and testosterone...
May 2015: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25441890/detection-of-boldenone-its-conjugates-and-androstadienedione-as-well-as-five-corticosteroids-in-bovine-bile-through-a-unique-immunoaffinity-column-clean-up-and-two-validated-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analyses
#18
L Chiesa, M Nobile, S Panseri, C A Sgoifo Rossi, R Pavlovic, F Arioli
The presence of β-boldenone II phase metabolites and prednisolone in urine samples, owing to endogenous or natural origin or illicit treatment, is under debate within the European Union. The detection of β-boldenone conjugates, α-boldenone conjugates at concentrations higher than 2 ng mL(-1) and prednisolone above the cut-off level of 5 ng mL(-1) in urine have been, until now, critical in deciding if illegal drug use has occurred. The use of urine sometimes is not entirely satisfactory, especially when the drug is administrated at low doses or when its metabolic conversion is very fast...
December 10, 2014: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25388436/carbon-isotope-ratios-of-nandrolone-boldenone-and-testosterone-preparations-seized-in-norway-compared-to-those-of-endogenously-produced-steroids-in-a-nordic-reference-population
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ingunn Hullstein, Carlos Sagredo, Peter Hemmersbach
Determining the origin of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) that also are produced endogenously in the human body is a major issue in doping control. In some cases, the presence of nandrolone and boldenone metabolites might result from endogenous production. The GC-C-IRMS technique (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) enables the carbon isotopic ratio (CIR) to be measured to determine the origin of these metabolites. The aim of this study was to use GC-C-IRMS to determine the δ(13) CVPDB values of seized boldenone and nandrolone preparations to decide if the steroids themselves were depleted in (13) C, compared to what is normally seen in endogenously produced steroids...
November 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25281088/determination-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-boldenone-sulfate-glucuronide-and-free-forms-and-androstadienedione-in-bovine-urine-using-immunoaffinity-columns-clean-up-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#20
Luca Chiesa, Radmila Pavlovic, Guglielmo Dusi, Elisa Pasquale, Alessio Casati, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
The debate about the origins of boldenone in bovine urine is ongoing for two decades in Europe. Despite the fact that its use as a growth promoter has been banned in the European Union (EU) since 1981, its detection in bovine urine, in the form of α-boldenone conjugate, is considered fully compliant up to 2 ng mL(-1). The conjugated form of β-boldenone must be absent. In recent years, the literature about boldenone has focused on the identification of biomarkers that can indicate an illicit treatment. β-boldenone sulfate is a candidate molecule, even if the only studies currently available have taken place in small populations...
January 2015: Talanta
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