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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775915/impact-of-declining-exposure-to-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-in-public-places-to-decreasing-smoking-related-cancer-mortality-in-the-us-population
#1
Esther García-Esquinas, Angélica Jiménez, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Miranda R Jones, Beatriz Perez-Gomez, Ana Navas-Acien, Maria Tellez-Plaza
BACKGROUND: The major decrease in exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in public places in recent decades could have contributed to the decline in smoking-related cancer mortality observed in the US population. METHODS: Prospective study among 11,856 non-smoking adults aged ≥40 years who participated in NHANES 1988-1994 or 1999-2004 and were followed for mortality through 2006. We estimated the amount of change in cancer mortality over time attributed to the intermediate pathway of changes in SHS exposure in public places, after adjustment for risk factors and SHS exposure at home...
May 15, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773843/loss-of-live-coral-compromises-predator-avoidance-behaviour-in-coral-reef-damselfish
#2
Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Mary C Bonin, Philip L Munday, Geoffrey P Jones
Tropical reefs have experienced an unprecedented loss of live coral in the past few decades and the biodiversity of coral-dependent species is under threat. Many reef fish species decline in abundance as coral cover is lost, yet the mechanisms responsible for these losses are largely unknown. A commonly hypothesised cause of fish decline is the loss of shelter space between branches as dead corals become overgrown by algae. Here we tested this hypothesis by quantifying changes in predator-avoidance behaviour of a common damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, before and after the death of their coral colony...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771877/cholera-epidemic-lusaka-zambia-october-2017-may-2018
#3
Nyambe Sinyange, Joan M Brunkard, Nathan Kapata, Mazyanga Lucy Mazaba, Kunda G Musonda, Raymond Hamoonga, Muzala Kapina, Fred Kapaya, Lwito Mutale, Ernest Kateule, Francis Nanzaluka, James Zulu, Chileshe Lukwesa Musyani, Alison V Winstead, William W Davis, Hammad S N'cho, Nelia L Mulambya, Patrick Sakubita, Orbie Chewe, Sulani Nyimbili, Ezinne V C Onwuekwe, Nedghie Adrien, Anna J Blackstock, Travis W Brown, Gordana Derado, Nancy Garrett, Sunkyung Kim, Sydney Hubbard, Amy M Kahler, Warren Malambo, Eric Mintz, Jennifer Murphy, Rupa Narra, Gouthami G Rao, Margaret A Riggs, Nicole Weber, Ellen Yard, Khozya D Zyambo, Nathan Bakyaita, Namani Monze, Kennedy Malama, Jabbin Mulwanda, Victor M Mukonka
On October 6, 2017, an outbreak of cholera was declared in Zambia after laboratory confirmation of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, from stool specimens from two patients with acute watery diarrhea. The two patients had gone to a clinic in Lusaka, the capital city, on October 4. Cholera cases increased rapidly, from several hundred cases in early December 2017 to approximately 2,000 by early January 2018 (Figure). In collaboration with partners, the Zambia Ministry of Health (MoH) launched a multifaceted public health response that included increased chlorination of the Lusaka municipal water supply, provision of emergency water supplies, water quality monitoring and testing, enhanced surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, a cholera vaccination campaign, aggressive case management and health care worker training, and laboratory testing of clinical samples...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769489/pattern-of-disease-among-patients-attending-cardiology-outpatient-department-of-a-private-hospital-of-mymensingh-bangladesh
#4
G K Paul, B Sen, M K Khan, T K Bhowmik, T A Khan, A K Roy
Epidemiologic transition is taking place in every part of the world. Cardiovascular diseases became the most common cause of death accounting for 30% of deaths worldwide, with 80% of the burden now occurring in developing countries. The objective of the study was to assess the Pattern of disease among patients attending Cardiology outpatient department of a private hospital. The cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was conducted among 550 patients attending Cardiology outpatient department (COPD) of Sodesh Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from March 2016 to June 2016...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769257/optimum-hospice-at-home-services-for-end-of-life-care-protocol-of-a-mixed-methods-study-employing-realist-evaluation
#5
Claire Butler, Charlotte Brigden, Heather Gage, Peter Williams, Laura Holdsworth, Kay Greene, Bee Wee, Stephen Barclay, Patricia Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Hospice at home (HAH) services aim to enable patients to be cared for and die in their place of choice, if that is at home, and to achieve a 'good death'. There is a considerable range of HAH services operating in England. The published evidence focuses on evaluations of individual services which vary considerably, and there is a lack of consistency in terms of the outcome measures reported. The evidence, therefore, does not provide generalisable information, so the question 'What are the features of hospice at home service models that work, for whom, and under what circumstances?' remains unanswered...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766598/dying-at-home-in-rural-residential-aged-care-a-mixed-methods-study-in-the-snowy-monaro-region-australia
#6
Suzanne Rainsford, Christine B Phillips, Nicholas J Glasgow, Roderick D MacLeod, Robert B Wiles
Residential aged care (RAC) is a significant provider of end-of-life care for people aged 65 years and older. Rural residents perceive themselves as different to their urban counterparts. Most studies describing place of death (PoD) in RAC are quantitative and reflect an urban voice. Using a mixed-methods design, this paper examines the PoD of 80 RAC residents (15 short-stay residents who died in RAC during respite or during an attempted step-down transition from hospital to home, and 65 permanent residents), within the rural Snowy Monaro region, Australia, who died between 1 February 2015 and 31 May 2016...
May 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766142/improving-life-expectancy-a-broken-neck-doesn-t-have-to-be-a-terminal-diagnosis-for-the-elderly
#7
Laura N Godat, Leslie M Kobayashi, David C Chang, Raul Coimbra
Background: Elderly patients with cervical spine fractures require optimal care. Treatment with a cervical collar or halo instead of surgical fixation may increase mortality. This investigation intends to describe the life expectancy after injury and evaluate the impact of surgical intervention on mortality. Methods: Patients ≥65 years, with traumatic cervical spine fractures without cord injury were identified in the 1995-2009 California Office of Statewide Health and Planning database...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765957/genetic-insights-into-frailty-association-of-9p21-23-locus-with-frailty
#8
Sanish Sathyan, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon, Sofiya Milman, Emmeline Ayers, Joe Verghese
Frailty is a complex aging phenotype associated with increased vulnerability to disability and death. Understanding the biological antecedents of frailty may provide clues to healthy aging. The genome-wide association study hotspot, 9p21-23 region, is a risk locus for a number of age-related complex disorders associated with frailty. Hence, we conducted an association study to examine whether variations in 9p21-23 locus plays a role in the pathogenesis of frailty in 637 community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the LonGenity study...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765256/grazoprevir-elbasvir-for-the-treatment-of-adults-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-short-review-on-the-clinical-evidence-and-place-in-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Nimisha Sulejmani, Syed-Mohammed Jafri
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection impacts approximately 71 million people and approximately 400,000 deaths are attributed to HCV-related liver disease annually worldwide. Mainstay of treatment for over 25 years has been pegylated interferon until the advent of protease inhibitors, which has led to all-oral HCV treatment regimens that have changed the outlook of hepatitis C treatment. Grazoprevir/elbasvir provides high rates of efficacy and tolerability and is an all-oral once daily treatment option for HCV infection...
2018: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764678/re-engaging-with-places-understanding-bio-geo-graphical-disruption-and-flow-in-adult-brain-injury-survivors
#10
Louise Meijering, Nicky Theunissen, Ant T Lettinga
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults worldwide. After a period of rehabilitation, many ABI survivors still face complex mind/body conditions when they try to take up their former life again. Besides lasting visible impairments such as weakness and loss of body balance, there are often less obvious disabilities such as extreme fatigue, hypersensitivity for stimuli, memory, concentration and attention problems or personality changes. The aim of this paper is to understand how ABI survivors and their significant others renegotiate their engagements with everyday places, using the concepts of bio-geo-graphical disruption and flow...
May 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764495/cancer-mortality-in-serbia-1991-2015-an-age-period-cohort-and-joinpoint-regression-analysis
#11
Milena Ilic, Irena Ilic
BACKGROUND: As the result of dramatic political changes, civil wars, and a long-term refugee crisis from the end of the last to beginning of this century, the population of Serbia has experienced significant health problems. The aim of this study was to assess cancer mortality trends in Serbia. METHODS: This nationwide study was carried out to analyze cancer mortality in Serbia during 1991-2015 using official data. The age-standardized mortality rates (per 100,000) were calculated by direct standardization, using the world standard population by Segi...
April 10, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764435/use-of-hospital-palliative-care-according-to-the-place-of-death-and-disease-one-year-before-death-in-2013-a-french-national-observational-study
#12
Claire Poulalhon, Laureen Rotelli-Bihet, Sébastien Moine, Anne Fagot-Campagna, Régis Aubry, Philippe Tuppin
BACKGROUND: Only limited data are available concerning the diseases managed before death and hospital palliative care (HPC) use according to place of death in France. We therefore conducted an observational study based on administrative health data in a large population to identify the diseases treated one year before death in 2013, the place of stay with or without hospital palliative care, and the place of death. METHODS: French health insurance general scheme beneficiaries were identified in the National Health data Information System (Snds) with a selection of information...
May 16, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764416/safety-of-a-condom-uterine-balloon-tamponade-esm-ubt-device-for-uncontrolled-primary-postpartum-hemorrhage-among-facilities-in-kenya-and-sierra-leone
#13
Aparna Ramanathan, Melody J Eckardt, Brett D Nelson, Moytrayee Guha, Monica Oguttu, Zaid Altawil, Thomas Burke
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. While evidence on uterine balloon tamponade efficacy for severe hemorrhage is encouraging, little is known about safety of this intervention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of an ultra-low-cost uterine balloon tamponade package (named ESM-UBT) for facility-based management of uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in Kenya and Sierra Leone. METHODS: Data were collected on complications/adverse events in all women who had an ESM-UBT device placed among 92 facilities in Sierra Leone and Kenya, between September 2012 and December 2015, as part of a multi-country study...
May 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764176/scotland-s-public-health-palliative-care-alliance
#14
Mark A Hazelwood, Rebecca M Patterson
People's experiences of death, dying and bereavement are only partially determined by formal health and social care services. A broad-based alliance of organisations and individuals was established in Scotland in 2011 with the aim of influencing a wider range of social, cultural and other environmental factors which impact on people's experiences towards the end of life. Called Good Life, Good Death, Good Grief (GLGDGG) this alliance has grown and developed over the past 6 years, with a current diverse membership of over 1,100...
April 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764172/developing-compassionate-communities-in-australia-through-collective-caregiving-a-qualitative-study-exploring-network-centred-care-and-the-role-of-the-end-of-life-sector
#15
Debbie Horsfall
BACKGROUND: The new public health palliative care movement calls for a move away from an individualised model of caregiving to a whole of community approach which will increase expectations on community carers. In order to avoid carer isolation, exploitation and potential burnout there is then a very real need to understand environments and relationships which support collective community caregiving. In this research we explored in-home caring networks to understand if and how network centred care supports carers of the dying while developing a whole of community approach...
April 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763344/from-the-valley-of-death-to-the-crossroads-of-opportunity-a-discussion-of-evolving-benefit-risk-evaluation-standards
#16
Peter J Pitts, Patrick Brady
A series of recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals (such as Sarepta's Exondys 51, Merck's Keytruda, and Portola's Bevyxxa) has generated significant interest within the drug development ecosystem. Facilitated regulatory pathways aimed toward expediting medicines to patients suffering from serious and life-threatening conditions are a good thing, even if it raises curiosity and introduces some degree of uncertainty. Over the last 20 years, two key words in drug development have been speed and innovation...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762239/quality-and-safety-in-health-care-part-xliv-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-and-subcutaneous-defibrillator-implantable-devices
#17
Jay A Harolds
This article discusses 2 specialized implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) devices. A special type of implantable device is available for cardiac resynchronization therapy, which can also have a defibrillator, in which case it is called a CRT-D device. In patients who meet guidelines for eligibility, a CRT-D will diminish the number of significant cardiac events including death. A subcutaneous ICD device does not need any leads placed in the vascular system and therefore does not have some of the complications that may be seen with transvenous ICDs...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761165/a-real-world-observational-cohort-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-target-primary-biliary-cholangitis-study-design-and-rationale
#18
Cynthia Levy, Christopher L Bowlus, Elizabeth Carey, Julie M Crawford, Karen Deane, Marlyn J Mayo, W Ray Kim, Michael W Fried
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare chronic cholestatic liver disease that may progress to biliary cirrhosis if left untreated. The first-line therapy for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Unfortunately, 1 of 3 patients does not respond to UDCA. These patients are at risk for developing clinical events, including cirrhosis, complications of portal hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplant, or death. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved obeticholic acid to be used in certain patients with PBC...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760559/smoking-and-outcomes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-post-hoc-survival-analysis-of-the-favorit-trial
#19
Larry A Weinrauch, Brian Claggett, Jiankang Liu, Peter V Finn, Matthew R Weir, Daniel E Weiner, John A D'Elia
Background: Tobacco use remains an international health problem with between 10% and 40% of adults currently using tobacco. Given the rising number of patients either awaiting or having received a kidney transplant and the absence of smoking cessation as the criterion for transplantation in guidelines, we explored the association between smoking status and clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. Patients and methods: In this post hoc analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplant trial, the associations between smoking status, defined as never having smoked, formerly or currently smoking, and both all-cause mortality and graft survival were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759787/nationwide-longitudinal-follow-up-of-riata-leads-under-advisory-at-3-annual-screenings-report-from-the-netherlands-heart-rhythm-association-device-advisory-committee
#20
Dominic A M J Theuns, Lieselot van Erven, Geert P Kimman, Carel C de Cock, Arif Elvan, Marco A Alings, Jurren van Opstal, Mathias Meine
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine prospectively the rate of conductor externalization (CE), and whether this was associated with electrical failure. BACKGROUND: The Riata family of defibrillator leads was placed under U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory as of November 28, 2011 because of high rates of CE. METHODS: A nationwide cohort established in 2012 of 1,029 patients with recalled Riata leads with 147 CE were followed until death, lead discontinuation, or 3 annual screenings with fluoroscopy and device interrogation...
August 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
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