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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792379/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-lytic-antibiotic-therapy-are-we-adding-insult-to-injury-during-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-sepsis
#1
Lauren April Brown, Andrea M Mitchell, Tim J Mitchell
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), otherwise known as 'the pneumococcus', is a fascinating microbe that continues to pose a significant problem to public health. Currently there are no specific National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) or British Thoracic Society (BTS) clinical guidelines referring to the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infection. NICE clinical guidelines suggest the use of lytic β-lactam antibiotic regimens for the management of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis; infections for which S...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748855/clinical-characteristics-and-endoscopic-endonasal-removal-of-foreign-bodies-within-sinuses-orbit-and-skull-base
#2
Yi-Hui Wen, Wei-Jian Hou, Wen-Bin Lei, Feng-Hong Chen, Xiao-Lin Zhu, Zhang-Feng Wang, Ren-Qiang Ma, Wei-Ping Wen
BACKGROUND: Foreign bodies within the sinuses, orbit, and skull base (FBSOS) are rare; hence, diagnosis and management guidelines are lacking. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) removal is preferred because of the less invasiveness and minimal morbidity. This study was designed to summarize clinical experience with ESS management of FBSOS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes in consecutive patients with ESS removal of FBSOS between 2004 and 2015 at a tertiary academic medical center...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729240/empiric-antibiotic-use-and-susceptibility-in-infants-with-bacterial-infections-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Elana A Feldman, Russell J McCulloh, Angela L Myers, Paul L Aronson, Mark I Neuman, Miranda C Bradford, Elizabeth R Alpern, Frances Balamuth, Mercedes M Blackstone, Whitney L Browning, Katie Hayes, Rosalynne Korman, Rianna C Leazer, Lise E Nigrovic, Richard Marble, Emily Roben, Derek J Williams, Joel S Tieder
OBJECTIVES: To assess hospital differences in empirical antibiotic use, bacterial epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility for common antibiotic regimens among young infants with urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We reviewed medical records from infants <90 days old presenting to 8 US children's hospitals with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to identify cases and empirical antibiotic use and medical record review to determine infection, pathogen, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns...
July 20, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716240/a-study-of-neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-patients-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#4
Aniruddha More, Rajesh Verma, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Ravi Uniyal, Shweta Pandey, Madhukar Mittal
BACKGROUND: Endocrine dysfunction is known to occur in various infectious diseases of the brain. The neuroendocrine dysfunction is not well studied in patients of Tuberculous meningitis (TBM). In this study, we aimed at knowing pattern of endocrine dysfunction in newly diagnosed patients of tuberculous meningitis, structural changes occurring in hypothalamic-pituitary region, assessing its predictors and correlative factors related to outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681811/increasing-incidence-of-penicillin-and-cefotaxime-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-causing-meningitis-in-india-time-for-revision-of-treatment-guidelines
#5
Valsan Philip Verghese, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Ranjith Jayaraman, Rosemol Varghese, Ayyanraj Neeravi, Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Kurien Thomas, Sanjay M Mehendale
PURPOSE: Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening infection, requiring prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. Penicillin resistance in pneumococcal infections is a concern. Here, we present the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pneumococcal meningeal isolates from January 2008 to August 2016 to elucidate treatment guidelines for pneumococcal meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Invasive pneumococcal isolates from all age groups, were included in this study...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666562/emergency-medicine-myths-computed-tomography-of-the-head-prior%C3%A2-to-lumbar-puncture-in-adults-with-suspected-bacterial-meningitis-due-diligence-or-antiquated-practice
#6
Michael D April, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Various sources purport an association between lumbar puncture and brainstem herniation in patients with intracranial mass effect lesions. Several organizations and texts recommend head computed tomography (CT) prior to lumbar puncture in selected patients. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence regarding the utility of obtaining head CT prior to lumbar puncture in adults with suspected bacterial meningitis. DISCUSSION: Observational studies report a risk of post-lumbar puncture brainstem herniation in the presence of intracranial mass effect (1...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571129/comparative-diagnostic-utility-of-is6110-pcr-assay-in-csf-and-peripheral-blood-samples-of-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-a-pilot-study-from-central-india
#7
Sonali D Manke, Aliabbas A Husain, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra K Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis (CNS-TB) and constitutes about 6% of all Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases. Most guidelines for the diagnosis and management of TBM agree on the use of simple Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis using molecular tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). However, the sensitivity of PCR varies while using a CSF sample. In the present study, we have compared the diagnostic utility of PCR assay in both peripheral blood and CSF sample collected from TBM cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557973/cerebrospinal-fluid-dissemination-and-neoplastic-meningitis-in-primary-brain-tumors
#8
Sajeel Chowdhary, Sherri Damlo, Marc C Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic meningitis, also known as leptomeningeal disease, affects the entire neuraxis. The clinical manifestations of the disease may affect the cranial nerves, cerebral hemispheres, or the spine. Because of the extent of disease involvement, treatment options and disease staging should involve all compartments of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subarachnoid space. Few studies of patients with primary brain tumors have specifically addressed treatment for the secondary complication of neoplastic meningitis...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538574/sparing-a-craniotomy-the-role-of-intraoperative-methylene-blue-in-management-of-midline-dermoid-cysts
#9
Alannah L Phelan, Christine M Jones, Ashley S Ceschini, Cathy R Henry, Donald R Mackay, Thomas D Samson
BACKGROUND: Midline nasal dermoid cysts are rare congenital anomalies that extend intracranially in approximately 10 percent of cases. Cysts with intracranial extension require a craniotomy to avoid long-term complications, including meningitis, abscesses, and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Current guidelines recommend preoperative imaging with either magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography to determine appropriate management. METHODS: Patients who underwent excision of a midline nasal dermoid cyst between January 1995 and September 2016 were identified using Current Procedural Terminology codes...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438133/evaluation-of-the-enhanced-meningitis-surveillance-system-yendi-municipality-northern-ghana-2010-2015
#10
Basil Benduri Kaburi, Chrysantus Kubio, Ernest Kenu, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Jacob Yakubu Mahama, Samuel Oko Sackey, Edwin Andrew Afari
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges of the brain and or spinal cord. Global mortality rates vary from 2% to 30%. Epidemic meningitis remains a public health concern along the meningitis belt of Africa. Despite the operation of an enhanced meningitis surveillance system in Ghana, institutional mortality rates are estimated to range from 36% to 50%. In 2014, Yendi recorded 83 confirmed cases; with focal epidemics in some sub-municipals. We evaluated the system over a five-year period to find out whether it was achieving its objectives of systematic collection and analyses of data for the prevention or early detection of meningitis epidemics...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429866/successful-multiple-organ-donation-after-donor-brain-death-due-to-actinomyces-israelii-meningitis
#11
Leonel Lagunes, Oscar Len, Alberto Sandiumenge, Elena Martínez-Saez, Tomás Pumarola, Marta Bodro, Antonio Macías, Jose T Silva, F Xavier Nuvials, Ramon Charco, Francesc Moreso, Teresa Pont
The increasing gap between availability of solid organs for transplantation and the demand has led to the inclusion of donor organs that, according to current guidelines, may be discarded, some of them because of the possibility for transmission of infection to the recipients. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a case of a brain-dead donor with a localized and treated Actinomyces israelii central nervous system infection who, after a thorough evaluation, provided organs for successful transplant procedures in four recipients...
August 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417331/use-of-high-dose-oral-valacyclovir-during-an-intravenous-acyclovir-shortage-a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerability-and-drug-shortage-management
#12
Milena M McLaughlin, Sarah H Sutton, Ashley O Jensen, John S Esterly
INTRODUCTION: In late 2011, a shortage of IV acyclovir led to the need to empirically substitute high-dose oral valacyclovir (HDVA) to conserve IV acyclovir for patients with confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis or encephalitis. This report describes the management of the most recent national IV acyclovir shortage by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), Chicago, IL, USA, and the use of HDVA. Secondarily, we assessed the safety and tolerability of HDVA as an alternate to IV acyclovir during this shortage...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387984/practical-issues-in-using-eculizumab-for-children-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-the-acute-phase-a-review-of-4-patients
#13
Chikako Terano, Kenji Ishikura, Riku Hamada, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Wataru Kubota, Yusuke Okuda, Shunsuke Shinozuka, Ryoko Harada, Sunao Iyoda, Yoshihiro Fujimura, Yuko Hamasaki, Hiroshi Hataya, Masataka Honda
AIM: Recently eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody to C5, was found to improve the disease course of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and has been recommended as the first line treatment by an international consensus guideline. However, several practical issues in the use of eculizumab for the acute phase of aHUS have yet to be resolved. METHODS: Children who received eculizumab with diagnosis of aHUS between March 2010 and December 2015 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center were enrolled...
April 7, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369295/cranial-imaging-before-lumbar-puncture-in-adults-with-community-acquired-meningitis-clinical-utility-and-adherence-to-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-guidelines
#14
Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
Background.: The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines delineate criteria for the use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head before lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with community-acquired meningitis (CAM). There are limited data to document adherence to these guidelines and assess the clinical utility of brain imaging. Methods.: This was a retrospective analysis from January 2005 to January 2010 in Houston, Texas. Results...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351439/-revision-of-the-dutch-college-of-general-practitioners-practice-guideline-children-with-fever
#15
W E Eizenga, W Opstelten
- Fever in children is usually caused by benign viral infection.- Approximately 1-10% of children with fever has or develops a serious infection such as pneumonia, meningitis or pyelonephritis.- It is more important to timely recognize symptoms that may indicate a potentially serious disease course than to make an exact diagnosis.- Children < 3 months are at greater risk for a serious disease course.- During follow-up it is important to provide parents with proper advice on the expected disease course and who they should contact, and when, in cases of deterioration or concern...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279491/proposal-for-shorter-antibiotic-therapies
#16
C Wintenberger, B Guery, E Bonnet, B Castan, R Cohen, S Diamantis, P Lesprit, L Maulin, Y Péan, E Peju, L Piroth, J P Stahl, C Strady, E Varon, F Vuotto, R Gauzit
OBJECTIVES: Reducing antibiotic consumption has now become a major public health priority. Reducing treatment duration is one of the means to achieve this objective. Guidelines on the therapeutic management of the most frequent infections recommend ranges of treatment duration in the ratio of one to two. The Recommendation Group of the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) was asked to collect literature data to then recommend the shortest treatment durations possible for various infections...
March 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266699/rapidly-progressive-and-almost-lethal-pneumonia
#17
Juancarlo Martínez-González, Carlos Robles-Arias, William Rodríguez-Cintrón
We herein describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with Osler's triad, which is the combination of endocarditis, pneumonia, and meningitis. This report is even more unusual since the pathogen isolated was the invasive and virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. The clinical entity described is also called Austrian syndrome. Even though rare in this antibiotic era, the syndrome remains one of high morbidity and mortality. This particular case is of paramount importance for the clinician reader...
March 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264021/antimicrobial-use-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ethiopia
#18
Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Tewodros Eyob Woldehaimanot, Kabaye Kumela Goro
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255529/calcified-middle-cranial-fossa-mass
#19
James Botros, Kimmo Hatanpaa, Brandon Isaacson, Samuel L Barnett
A 21-year-old male presented for evaluation of transient loss of consciousness and was found to have a hyperdense mass in the left middle fossa. He underwent craniotomy for tumor resection. Intra- and extradural invasion was noted. Gross total resection was achieved. Pathology demonstrated a densely cellular neoplasm with predominately spindle cell morphology in a collagen-containing stroma, areas of vascular proliferation, focal mineralization, and regions of cartilage formation. High mitotic index and regions of necrosis were seen...
January 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242865/metronomic-capecitabine-effectively-blocks-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-breast-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Michela Maur, Claudia Omarini, Federico Piacentini, Annalisa Fontana, Elisa Pettorelli, Stefano Cascinu
BACKGROUND Meningeal carcinomatosis is a rare complication in breast cancer patients. At present, there are no defined guidelines for its management. The efficacy of systemic treatment seems to depend on its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier and its interaction with tumor vasculature. Metronomic chemotherapy is a known modality of drug administration able to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. CASE REPORT We present a case of symptomatic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer successfully treated with capecitabine...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
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