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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670404/evaluation-of-vancomycin-therapy-in-the-adult-icus-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-southern-iran
#1
Afsaneh Vazin, Motahare Mahi Birjand, Masoud Darake
Background: Vancomycin resistance in intensive care units (ICUs) accounts for significant morbidity and excess costs. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriateness of vancomycin use in the various ICUs of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 95 critically ill patients (48 males and 47 females) who were treated with vancomycin for at least 3 subsequent doses in 6 ICUs during 12 months. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were collected by a pharmacist...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579059/cardiac-findings-in-infants-with-in-utero-exposure-to-zika-virus-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Dulce H G Orofino, Sonia R L Passos, Raquel V C de Oliveira, Carla Verona B Farias, Maria de Fatima M P Leite, Sheila M Pone, Marcos V da S Pone, Helena A R Teixeira Mendes, Maria Elizabeth L Moreira, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Antenatal exposure to Zika virus (ZIKV) is related to severe neurological manifestations. A previous study in Brazil reported an increased incidence of non-severe congenital heart defects in infants with diagnosis of congenital Zika syndrome but without laboratory confirmation of ZIKV infection in the mother or infant. The objective of this study is to report echocardiographic (ECHO) findings in infants with laboratory confirmed antenatal exposure to ZIKV. METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional study of cardiologic assessments of infants born between November 2015 and January 2017 with confirmed vertical exposure to ZIKV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474669/treatment-and-outcome-of-congenital-nephrotic-syndrome
#3
Sandra Bérody, Laurence Heidet, Olivier Gribouval, Jérome Harambat, Patrick Niaudet, Veronique Baudouin, Justine Bacchetta, Bernard Boudaillez, Maud Dehennault, Loïc de Parscau, Olivier Dunand, Hugues Flodrops, Marc Fila, Arnaud Garnier, Ferielle Louillet, Marie-Alice Macher, Adrien May, Elodie Merieau, Françoise Monceaux, Christine Pietrement, Caroline Rousset-Rouvière, Gwenaëlle Roussey, Sophie Taque, Julie Tenenbaum, Tim Ulinski, Rachel Vieux, Ariane Zaloszyc, Vincent Morinière, Rémi Salomon, Olivia Boyer
Background: Recommendations for management of Finnish-type congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) followed by many teams include daily albumin infusions, early bilateral nephrectomy, dialysis and transplantation. We aimed to assess the treatment and outcome of patients with CNS in France. Methods: We conducted a nationwide retrospective study on 55 consecutive children born between 2000 and 2014 treated for non-infectious CNS. Results: The estimated cumulative incidence of CNS was 0...
February 20, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453157/-the-spanish-society-of-paediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infections
#4
Fernando Baquero Artigao, Luis M Prieto Tato, José Tomás Ramos Amador, Ana Alarcón Allen, María de la Calle, Marie Antoinette Frick, Ana Goncé Mellgren, María Isabel González Tomé, David Moreno Pérez, Antoni Noguera Julian
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery...
February 13, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163068/larger-subcortical-gray-matter-structures-and-smaller-corpora-callosa-at-age-5-years-in-hiv-infected-children-on-early-art
#5
Steven R Randall, Christopher M R Warton, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of HIV infected (HIV+) children. Since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS has transitioned to a chronic condition where central nervous system (CNS) damage may be ongoing. Although, most guidelines recommend early ART to reduce CNS viral reservoirs, the brain may be more vulnerable to potential neurotoxic effects of ART during the rapid development phase in the first years of life. Here we investigate differences in subcortical volumes between 5-year-old HIV+ children who received early ART (before age 18 months) and uninfected children using manual tracing of Magnetic Resonance Images...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132771/-neonatal-herpes-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#6
L Renesme
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. METHODS: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3)...
December 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088943/the-role-of-icp-monitoring-in-meningitis
#7
Areej Tariq, Pedro Aguilar-Salinas, Ricardo A Hanel, Neeraj Naval, Mohamad Chmayssani
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been widely accepted in the management of traumatic brain injury. However, its use in other pathologies that affect ICP has not been advocated as strongly, especially in CNS infections. Despite the most aggressive and novel antimicrobial therapies for meningitis, the mortality rate associated with this disease is far from satisfactory. Although intracranial hypertension and subsequent death have long been known to complicate meningitis, no specific guidelines targeting ICP monitoring are available...
November 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578421/aetiology-and-outcomes-of-suspected-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-children-in-mbarara-uganda
#8
Anne-Laure Page, Yap Boum Ii, Elizabeth Kemigisha, Nicolas Salez, Deborah Nanjebe, Céline Langendorf, Said Aberrane, Dan Nyehangane, Fabienne Nackers, Emmanuel Baron, Rémi Charrel, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are severe conditions, leading to neurological sequelae or death. Knowledge of the causative agents is essential to develop guidelines for case management in resource-limited settings. Between August 2009 and October 2012, we conducted a prospective descriptive study of the aetiology of suspected CNS infections in children two months to 12 years old, with fever and at least one sign of CNS involvement in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Children were clinically evaluated on admission and discharge, and followed-up for 6 months for neurological sequelae...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571129/comparative-diagnostic-utility-of-is6110-pcr-assay-in-csf-and-peripheral-blood-samples-of-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-a-pilot-study-from-central-india
#9
Sonali D Manke, Aliabbas A Husain, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra K Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis (CNS-TB) and constitutes about 6% of all Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases. Most guidelines for the diagnosis and management of TBM agree on the use of simple Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis using molecular tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). However, the sensitivity of PCR varies while using a CSF sample. In the present study, we have compared the diagnostic utility of PCR assay in both peripheral blood and CSF sample collected from TBM cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454589/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-staphylococcus-in-dairy-farms-abattoir-and-humans-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#10
Takele Beyene, Halefom Hayishe, Fikru Gizaw, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Fufa Abunna, Bedaso Mammo, Dinka Ayana, Hika Waktole, Reta Duguma Abdi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus species cause mastitis and wound infection in livestock and food poisoning in humans through ingestion of contaminated foods, including meat and dairy products. They are evolving pathogens in that they readily acquire drug resistance, and multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococci and their drug resistance in dairy farms and abattoir settings of Addis Ababa...
April 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417331/use-of-high-dose-oral-valacyclovir-during-an-intravenous-acyclovir-shortage-a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerability-and-drug-shortage-management
#11
Milena M McLaughlin, Sarah H Sutton, Ashley O Jensen, John S Esterly
INTRODUCTION: In late 2011, a shortage of IV acyclovir led to the need to empirically substitute high-dose oral valacyclovir (HDVA) to conserve IV acyclovir for patients with confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis or encephalitis. This report describes the management of the most recent national IV acyclovir shortage by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), Chicago, IL, USA, and the use of HDVA. Secondarily, we assessed the safety and tolerability of HDVA as an alternate to IV acyclovir during this shortage...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142100/epilepsy-and-treatment-gap-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-the-southern-kazakhstan-in-adults
#12
Alla Guekht, Nazira Zharkinbekova, Alexander Shpak, W Allen Hauser
PURPOSE: There are no data in the English literature about the epidemiology of epilepsy in the large countries in the Asian region of the former Soviet Union. This paper presents the results of epidemiological studies of active epilepsy in the population 14years of age and older in the Province of South Kazakhstan. METHODS: The study population consisted of 306.44 thousand persons: 139.42 in the urban Enbekshinskiy district of the city of Shymkent and 167.02 in the rural Sairam district...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012531/improvement-of-psychiatric-symptoms-in-youth-following-resolution-of-sinusitis
#13
Talia Mahony, Douglas Sidell, Hayley Gans, Kayla Brown, Bahare Farhadian, Melissa Gustafson, Janell Sherr, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence supports a role for inflammation in psychiatric illness, and the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms may follow non-CNS infections. Here, we provide the first detailed description of obsessive-compulsive and related psychiatric symptoms arising concurrently with sinusitis. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 150 consecutive patients evaluated in our Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndromes clinic for documented sinusitis as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956075/natural-product-htp-screening-for-attenuation-of-cytokine-induced-neutrophil-chemo-attractants-cincs-and-no2-in-lps-ifn%C3%AE-activated-glioma-cells
#14
Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Patricia Mendonca, Equar Taka, Karam F A Soliman
Chronic and acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are contributors toward neurological injury associated with head trauma, stroke, infection, Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease. CNS inflammatory illnesses can also contribute toward risk of developing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). With growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), we conduct a high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 natural herbs, plants and over the counter (OTC) products for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated C6 glioma cells...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904816/an-unusual-presentation-of-nocardiosis-in-an-allogeneic-transplant-recipient
#15
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Farhan Mohammad, Terenig Terjanian
Nocardiosis is a rare cause of opportunistic infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) occurring in about 0.3% of patients. The risk factors include delayed immune reconstitution, prolonged neutropenia, and graft-versus-host disease. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by the brain and the skin. Concomitant pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is an extremely rare entity as presented in our case. We present the case of a 72-year-old male at 137 days post transplant presenting with complaints of headache and slurred speech...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599655/rethinking-the-risk-benefit-ratio-of-efavirenz-in-hiv-infected-children
#16
REVIEW
Lisa Van de Wijer, Arnt F A Schellekens, David M Burger, Judith R Homberg, Quirijn de Mast, Andre J A M van der Ven
The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is part of the WHO guidelines for preferred first-line treatment of HIV-1-infected adults, pregnant and lactating women, and children. Efavirenz is well known to cause CNS toxicity. Although good data for CNS toxicity are available for adults, the opposite is true for children. Paediatric studies on this topic frequently suffer from small sample sizes or absence of thorough neuropsychiatric assessments. In this Personal View, we focus on two knowledge gaps of CNS toxicity of efavirenz in children...
May 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306100/tuberculous-meningitis-is-a-major-cause-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-adults-with-central-nervous-system-infections-in-kota-kinabalu-sabah-malaysia-an-observational-study
#17
Heng Gee Lee, Timothy William, Jayaram Menon, Anna P Ralph, Eng Eong Ooi, Yan'an Hou, October Sessions, Tsin Wen Yeo
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. However, most published studies have been conducted in developed countries where the epidemiology and aetiology differ significantly from less developed areas. Additionally, there may be regional differences due to variation in the socio-economic levels, public health services and vaccination policies. Currently, no prospective studies have been conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia to define the epidemiology and aetiology of CNS infections...
June 16, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089861/high-frequency-of-neurosyphilis-in-hiv-positive-patients-diagnosed-with-early-syphilis
#18
E Firlag-Burkacka, P Swiecki, I Cielniak, E Siwak, J Gizinska, E Bakowska, J Kubicka, P Pulik, J Kowalski, R Podlasin, A Horban
BACKGROUND: Syphilis is an infection frequently seen with HIV, and European guidelines on the management of syphilis suggest that HIV-infected patients may have an increased risk of early neurological involvement, sometimes asymptomatic. Recent study shows a relationship between neurosyphilis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV viral load (VL), which in turn may be associated with subsequent neurocognitive decline. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The aim of the study was estimation of the frequency of neurosyphilis among HIV-positive patients with early syphilis...
May 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052648/cns-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-disorders-including-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#19
M Schmidt-Hieber, G Silling, E Schalk, W Heinz, J Panse, O Penack, M Christopeit, D Buchheidt, U Meyding-Lamadé, S Hähnel, H H Wolf, M Ruhnke, S Schwartz, G Maschmeyer
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are infrequently diagnosed in immunocompetent patients, but they do occur in a significant proportion of patients with hematological disorders. In particular, patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation carry a high risk for CNS infections of up to 15%. Fungi and Toxoplasma gondii are the predominant causative agents. The diagnosis of CNS infections is based on neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination and biopsy of suspicious lesions in selected patients...
July 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700078/role-of-prulifloxacin-in-the-treatment-of-acute-rhinosinusitis
#20
REVIEW
Desiderio Passali, Anna Crisanti, Luisa Maria Bellussi
Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a very common/disease faced more often by general practitioners than ear, nose and throat specialists, pneumologists or allergologists. In an outpatients setting, upper respiratory tract infection is the third most common cause of a primary care consultation, one third of which is attributable to ARS, diagnosed upon clinical presentation. In some cases however, signs and symptoms do not allow clear differentiation from viral, post-viral or bacterial infection. This compels GPs and family doctors to make a careful choice and first use the best antimicrobial treatment to avoid recurrences or complications and the rise of antibiotic resistance...
December 2015: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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