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central nervous system infection guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791951/nervous-system-infections-and-the-global-traveler
#1
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772402/serious-adverse-events-following-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-surgery
#2
Vikas Kotagal, Elizabeth Walkowiak, Jason A Heth
OBJECTIVE: Recent Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) practice guidelines describe a serious adverse event (SAE) rate following surgery of 11%. PATIENTS & METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 162 consecutive patients who have undergone work-up at our center's multidisciplinary NPH clinic over a 47 month time period (2/2014-12/2017). Of these, 22 ultimately underwent neurosurgical ventricular shunt surgery as treatment for NPH. Clinical records were reviewed for SAEs categorized as possibly/probably/definitely related to NPH surgery...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747285/-expert-consensus-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis
#3
Z Y Liu, G Q Wang, L P Zhu, X J Lyu, Q Q Zhang, Y S Yu, Z H Zhou, Y B Liu, W P Cai, R Y Li, W H Zhang, F J Zhang, H Wu, Y C Xu, H Z Lu, T S Li
Cryptococcal meningitis is a common and refractory central nervous system infection, with high rates of mortality and disability. The experts of the Society of Infectious Diseases of Chinese Medical Association have reached this consensus after a thorough discussion. Based on the current situation of cryptococcal meningitis in China, the management of cryptococcal meningitis includes 6 aspects: introduction, microorganism identification, clinical manifestations and diagnosis, principles of antifungal therapy, treatment of refractory and recurrent meningitis, treatment of intracranial hypertension...
May 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652926/assessment-of-costs-associated-with-adverse-events-in-patients-with-cancer
#4
William Wong, Yeun Mi Yim, Ashley Kim, Martin Cloutier, Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, Patrick Gagnon-Sanschagrin, Annie Guerin
Adverse event (AE)-related costs represent an important component of economic models for cancer care. However, since previous studies mostly focused on specific AEs, treatments, or cancer types, limited information is currently available. Therefore, this study assessed the incremental healthcare costs associated with a large number of AEs among patients diagnosed with some of the most prevalent types of cancer. Data were obtained from a large US claims database. Adult patients were included if diagnosed with and treated for one of the following cancer types: breast, digestive organs and peritoneum, genitourinary organs (including bladder and ovary and other uterine adnexa), lung, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue, and skin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579059/cardiac-findings-in-infants-with-in-utero-exposure-to-zika-virus-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Dulce H G Orofino, Sonia R L Passos, Raquel V C de Oliveira, Carla Verona B Farias, Maria de Fatima M P Leite, Sheila M Pone, Marcos V da S Pone, Helena A R Teixeira Mendes, Maria Elizabeth L Moreira, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Antenatal exposure to Zika virus (ZIKV) is related to severe neurological manifestations. A previous study in Brazil reported an increased incidence of non-severe congenital heart defects in infants with diagnosis of congenital Zika syndrome but without laboratory confirmation of ZIKV infection in the mother or infant. The objective of this study is to report echocardiographic (ECHO) findings in infants with laboratory confirmed antenatal exposure to ZIKV. METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional study of cardiologic assessments of infants born between November 2015 and January 2017 with confirmed vertical exposure to ZIKV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536563/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-neuroimaging-in-hepatitis-c-chronic-infection
#6
REVIEW
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
May 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453157/-the-spanish-society-of-paediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infections
#7
Fernando Baquero Artigao, Luis M Prieto Tato, José Tomás Ramos Amador, Ana Alarcón Allen, María de la Calle, Marie Antoinette Frick, Ana Goncé Mellgren, María Isabel González Tomé, David Moreno Pérez, Antoni Noguera Julian
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery...
February 13, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417764/prospective-evaluation-of-ceftriaxone-use-in-medical-and-emergency-wards-of-gondar-university-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#8
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Dessalegn Getnet Demssie, Amanual Getnet Mersha, Henok Getachew Tegegn
Ceftriaxone is among the most commonly utilized antibiotics owing to its high potency, wide spectrum of activity, and low risk of toxicity. It is used to treat different types of bacterial infections including pneumonia, bone infections, abdominal infections, Skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections. However, evidence around the globe shows the misuse of Ceftriaxone. This study aimed at evaluating the appropriateness of ceftriaxone use in medical and emergency wards of Gondar university referral hospital (GURH), Northwest Ethiopia...
February 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246206/the-association-between-hiv-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#9
Emily P Hyle, Bongani M Mayosi, Keren Middelkoop, Mosepele Mosepele, Emily B Martey, Rochelle P Walensky, Linda-Gail Bekker, Virginia A Triant
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has confronted decades of the HIV epidemic with substantial improvements in access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Now, with improved survival, people living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed the existing literature regarding the association of CVD outcomes and HIV in SSA. METHODS: We used the PRISMA guidelines to perform a systematic review of the published literature regarding the association of CVD and HIV in SSA with a focus on CVD surrogate and clinical outcomes in PLWH...
December 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163068/larger-subcortical-gray-matter-structures-and-smaller-corpora-callosa-at-age-5-years-in-hiv-infected-children-on-early-art
#10
Steven R Randall, Christopher M R Warton, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of HIV infected (HIV+) children. Since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS has transitioned to a chronic condition where central nervous system (CNS) damage may be ongoing. Although, most guidelines recommend early ART to reduce CNS viral reservoirs, the brain may be more vulnerable to potential neurotoxic effects of ART during the rapid development phase in the first years of life. Here we investigate differences in subcortical volumes between 5-year-old HIV+ children who received early ART (before age 18 months) and uninfected children using manual tracing of Magnetic Resonance Images...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132771/-neonatal-herpes-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#11
L Renesme
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. METHODS: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3)...
December 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715527/screening-criteria-for-ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#12
Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Julia Rossetto, Zilton Vasconcelos, Kristina Adachi, Stephanie Valderramos, Umme-Aiman Halai, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone, Sheila Moura Pone, Joel Carlos Barros Silveira Filho, Mitsue S Aibe, Ana Carolina C da Costa, Olivia A Zin, Rubens Belfort, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
Importance: Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. Objective: To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578421/aetiology-and-outcomes-of-suspected-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-children-in-mbarara-uganda
#13
Anne-Laure Page, Yap Boum Ii, Elizabeth Kemigisha, Nicolas Salez, Deborah Nanjebe, Céline Langendorf, Said Aberrane, Dan Nyehangane, Fabienne Nackers, Emmanuel Baron, Rémi Charrel, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are severe conditions, leading to neurological sequelae or death. Knowledge of the causative agents is essential to develop guidelines for case management in resource-limited settings. Between August 2009 and October 2012, we conducted a prospective descriptive study of the aetiology of suspected CNS infections in children two months to 12 years old, with fever and at least one sign of CNS involvement in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Children were clinically evaluated on admission and discharge, and followed-up for 6 months for neurological sequelae...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571129/comparative-diagnostic-utility-of-is6110-pcr-assay-in-csf-and-peripheral-blood-samples-of-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-a-pilot-study-from-central-india
#14
Sonali D Manke, Aliabbas A Husain, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra K Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis (CNS-TB) and constitutes about 6% of all Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases. Most guidelines for the diagnosis and management of TBM agree on the use of simple Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis using molecular tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). However, the sensitivity of PCR varies while using a CSF sample. In the present study, we have compared the diagnostic utility of PCR assay in both peripheral blood and CSF sample collected from TBM cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553418/analysis-of-the-literature-on-chronic-cough-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Marcello Bergamini, Ahmad Kantar, Renato Cutrera, Italian Pediatric Cough Interest Group
Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526178/late-onset-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#16
Whitley W Aamodt, James E Siegler, Angela N Viaene, Michael N Rubenstein
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease resulting from infection of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system with John Cunningham virus. Although PML is commonly diagnosed in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus, it can also arise in other immunodeficient states. In this report, we present an unusual case of PML occurring 40years after chemoradiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with normal total lymphocyte counts on annual surveillance...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429866/successful-multiple-organ-donation-after-donor-brain-death-due-to-actinomyces-israelii-meningitis
#17
Leonel Lagunes, Oscar Len, Alberto Sandiumenge, Elena Martínez-Saez, Tomás Pumarola, Marta Bodro, Antonio Macías, Jose T Silva, F Xavier Nuvials, Ramon Charco, Francesc Moreso, Teresa Pont
The increasing gap between availability of solid organs for transplantation and the demand has led to the inclusion of donor organs that, according to current guidelines, may be discarded, some of them because of the possibility for transmission of infection to the recipients. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a case of a brain-dead donor with a localized and treated Actinomyces israelii central nervous system infection who, after a thorough evaluation, provided organs for successful transplant procedures in four recipients...
August 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376856/the-causal-relationship-between-neurocysticercosis-infection-and-the-development-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system, the most common form of which involves infection of the brain parenchyma with the larval form of the Taenia solium tapeworm. A causal relationship between such an NCC infection and the development of epilepsy in infected individuals is acknowledged, in part supported by high levels of comorbidity in endemic countries worldwide. METHODS: This study undertook a systematic review and critical analysis of the NCC-epilepsy relationship with the primary objective of quantifying the risk of developing epilepsy following NCC infection...
April 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956075/natural-product-htp-screening-for-attenuation-of-cytokine-induced-neutrophil-chemo-attractants-cincs-and-no2-in-lps-ifn%C3%AE-activated-glioma-cells
#19
Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Patricia Mendonca, Equar Taka, Karam F A Soliman
Chronic and acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are contributors toward neurological injury associated with head trauma, stroke, infection, Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease. CNS inflammatory illnesses can also contribute toward risk of developing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). With growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), we conduct a high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 natural herbs, plants and over the counter (OTC) products for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated C6 glioma cells...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943261/efavirenz-or-nevirapine-in-three-drug-combination-therapy-with-two-nucleoside-or-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#20
REVIEW
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Sara Mursleen, James H Irlam, Alicen B Spaulding, George W Rutherford, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines focus on three classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors. Two of the most common medications given as first-line treatment are the NNRTIs, efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP)...
December 10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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