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central nervous system infection guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132771/-neonatal-herpes-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#1
L Renesme
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. METHODS: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3)...
November 10, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715527/screening-criteria-for-ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#2
Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Julia Rossetto, Zilton Vasconcelos, Kristina Adachi, Stephanie Valderramos, Umme-Aiman Halai, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone, Sheila Moura Pone, Joel Carlos Barros Silveira Filho, Mitsue S Aibe, Ana Carolina C da Costa, Olivia A Zin, Rubens Belfort, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
Importance: Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. Objective: To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578421/aetiology-and-outcomes-of-suspected-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-children-in-mbarara-uganda
#3
Anne-Laure Page, Yap Boum Ii, Elizabeth Kemigisha, Nicolas Salez, Deborah Nanjebe, Céline Langendorf, Said Aberrane, Dan Nyehangane, Fabienne Nackers, Emmanuel Baron, Rémi Charrel, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are severe conditions, leading to neurological sequelae or death. Knowledge of the causative agents is essential to develop guidelines for case management in resource-limited settings. Between August 2009 and October 2012, we conducted a prospective descriptive study of the aetiology of suspected CNS infections in children two months to 12 years old, with fever and at least one sign of CNS involvement in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Children were clinically evaluated on admission and discharge, and followed-up for 6 months for neurological sequelae...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571129/comparative-diagnostic-utility-of-is6110-pcr-assay-in-csf-and-peripheral-blood-samples-of-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-a-pilot-study-from-central-india
#4
Sonali D Manke, Aliabbas A Husain, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra K Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis (CNS-TB) and constitutes about 6% of all Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases. Most guidelines for the diagnosis and management of TBM agree on the use of simple Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis using molecular tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). However, the sensitivity of PCR varies while using a CSF sample. In the present study, we have compared the diagnostic utility of PCR assay in both peripheral blood and CSF sample collected from TBM cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553418/analysis-of-the-literature-on-chronic-cough-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Marcello Bergamini, Ahmad Kantar, Renato Cutrera, Italian Pediatric Cough Interest Group
Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526178/late-onset-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#6
Whitley W Aamodt, James E Siegler, Angela N Viaene, Michael N Rubenstein
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease resulting from infection of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system with John Cunningham virus. Although PML is commonly diagnosed in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus, it can also arise in other immunodeficient states. In this report, we present an unusual case of PML occurring 40years after chemoradiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with normal total lymphocyte counts on annual surveillance...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429866/successful-multiple-organ-donation-after-donor-brain-death-due-to-actinomyces-israelii-meningitis
#7
Leonel Lagunes, Oscar Len, Alberto Sandiumenge, Elena Martínez-Saez, Tomás Pumarola, Marta Bodro, Antonio Macías, Jose T Silva, F Xavier Nuvials, Ramon Charco, Francesc Moreso, Teresa Pont
The increasing gap between availability of solid organs for transplantation and the demand has led to the inclusion of donor organs that, according to current guidelines, may be discarded, some of them because of the possibility for transmission of infection to the recipients. We present the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of a case of a brain-dead donor with a localized and treated Actinomyces israelii central nervous system infection who, after a thorough evaluation, provided organs for successful transplant procedures in four recipients...
August 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376856/the-causal-relationship-between-neurocysticercosis-infection-and-the-development-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system, the most common form of which involves infection of the brain parenchyma with the larval form of the Taenia solium tapeworm. A causal relationship between such an NCC infection and the development of epilepsy in infected individuals is acknowledged, in part supported by high levels of comorbidity in endemic countries worldwide. METHODS: This study undertook a systematic review and critical analysis of the NCC-epilepsy relationship with the primary objective of quantifying the risk of developing epilepsy following NCC infection...
April 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956075/natural-product-htp-screening-for-attenuation-of-cytokine-induced-neutrophil-chemo-attractants-cincs-and-no2-in-lps-ifn%C3%AE-activated-glioma-cells
#9
Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Patricia Mendonca, Equar Taka, Karam F A Soliman
Chronic and acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are contributors toward neurological injury associated with head trauma, stroke, infection, Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease. CNS inflammatory illnesses can also contribute toward risk of developing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). With growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), we conduct a high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 natural herbs, plants and over the counter (OTC) products for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated C6 glioma cells...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943261/efavirenz-or-nevirapine-in-three-drug-combination-therapy-with-two-nucleoside-or-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#10
REVIEW
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Sara Mursleen, James H Irlam, Alicen B Spaulding, George W Rutherford, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines focus on three classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors. Two of the most common medications given as first-line treatment are the NNRTIs, efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP)...
December 10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904816/an-unusual-presentation-of-nocardiosis-in-an-allogeneic-transplant-recipient
#11
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Farhan Mohammad, Terenig Terjanian
Nocardiosis is a rare cause of opportunistic infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) occurring in about 0.3% of patients. The risk factors include delayed immune reconstitution, prolonged neutropenia, and graft-versus-host disease. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by the brain and the skin. Concomitant pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is an extremely rare entity as presented in our case. We present the case of a 72-year-old male at 137 days post transplant presenting with complaints of headache and slurred speech...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306100/tuberculous-meningitis-is-a-major-cause-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-adults-with-central-nervous-system-infections-in-kota-kinabalu-sabah-malaysia-an-observational-study
#12
Heng Gee Lee, Timothy William, Jayaram Menon, Anna P Ralph, Eng Eong Ooi, Yan'an Hou, October Sessions, Tsin Wen Yeo
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. However, most published studies have been conducted in developed countries where the epidemiology and aetiology differ significantly from less developed areas. Additionally, there may be regional differences due to variation in the socio-economic levels, public health services and vaccination policies. Currently, no prospective studies have been conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia to define the epidemiology and aetiology of CNS infections...
June 16, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052648/cns-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-disorders-including-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#13
M Schmidt-Hieber, G Silling, E Schalk, W Heinz, J Panse, O Penack, M Christopeit, D Buchheidt, U Meyding-Lamadé, S Hähnel, H H Wolf, M Ruhnke, S Schwartz, G Maschmeyer
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are infrequently diagnosed in immunocompetent patients, but they do occur in a significant proportion of patients with hematological disorders. In particular, patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation carry a high risk for CNS infections of up to 15%. Fungi and Toxoplasma gondii are the predominant causative agents. The diagnosis of CNS infections is based on neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination and biopsy of suspicious lesions in selected patients...
July 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000762/multidisciplinary-assessment-of-congenital-insensitivity-to-pain-syndrome
#14
Vugar Nabiyev, Ateş Kara, M Cemalettin Aksoy
BACKGROUND: Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare clinical condition characterized by the absence of normal subjective and objective responses to noxious stimuli in patients with intact central and peripheral nervous systems. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two patients with CIPA are reported. The first patient was a 13-year-old girl who presented to our hospital with multiple joint destructions secondary to osteomyelitis. The second patient was a 10-year-old boy who presented with multiple hand lesions and right leg osteomyelitis...
September 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958428/dilemmas-surrounding-the-diagnosis-of-deep-brain-stimulation-electrode-infection-without-associated-wound-complications-a-series-of-two-cases
#15
Ha Son Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani, Wade Mueller
BACKGROUND: When wounds are benign, diagnosis of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode infection and associated intraparenchymal infection can be challenging. Only a couple, such cases exist in literature. Since infections of the central nervous system can be life-threatening, prompt diagnosis is necessary to prevent neurological injury. Employed within the appropriate context, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, as well as laboratory data and clinical presentation, may help guide diagnosis...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892231/detection-of-treponema-pallidum-sp-pallidum-dna-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-by-two-pcr-techniques
#16
Rita Castro, Maria João Águas, Teresa Batista, Carlos Araújo, Kamal Mansinho, Filomena da Luz Martins Pereira
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of neurosyphilis is complicated especially when it is asymptomatic, no single laboratory test result being appropriate to diagnose central nervous system infectivity caused by Treponema pallidum. Our objective was to evaluate two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for the detection of T. pallidum DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with syphilis. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four CSF samples from patients with reactive blood tests for syphilis were obtained...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26815422/correlation-between-risk-factors-and-subsequent-surgical-management-following-internal-fixation-of-intracapsular-femoral-neck-fractures-in-patients-under-the-age-of-60-years
#17
A Sebestyén, F Tóth, J Sándor, J Nyárády, I Boncz
PURPOSE: Regarding intracapsular femoral neck fractures, the main focus of research is the correlation between fracture-related complications and prognostic factors. To evaluate the correlation between complications required surgery (fracture-related treatment) and, among others, several less extensively investigated prognostic factors (day of surgery, co-morbidities, hospital type) in a 2-year period following internal fixation in patients under the age of 60 years with intracapsular femoral neck fracture...
October 2011: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551497/performing-lumbar-punctures-for-suspected-cns-infections-experience-and-practice-of-trainee-doctors
#18
Sylviane Defres, Josephine Mayer, Ruth Backman, Rachel Kneen
Lumbar punctures are essential in the management of suspected CNS infections. However, despite clear guidelines their use can be haphazard. This survey investigated the training, knowledge and experience of UK doctors in training in relation to lumbar punctures.
November 2015: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508103/infectious-cause-of-death-determination-using-minimally-invasive-autopsies-in-developing-countries
#19
Miguel J Martínez, Sergio Massora, Inácio Mandomando, Esperança Ussene, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Paola Castillo, Alfredo Mayor, Cristina Rodriguez, Miriam Lopez-Villanueva, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Marcus V G Lacerda, Quique Bassat, Clara Menéndez, Jaume Ordi, Jordi Vila
In developing countries, the knowledge of the microorganisms causing fatal infections is critical and could help designing and implementing more effective preventive interventions and treatment guidelines. We aimed to develop and validate protocols for microbiological analysis in post-mortem samples obtained during minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) procedures and to assess their performance. Thirty MIAs performed in adults at Maputo Central Hospital in Southern Mozambique were included in the analysis. Microbiological tests included a universal screening for HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, Plasmodium falciparum, and bacterial/fungal culture...
January 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279982/pharmacogenetics-as-a-tool-to-tailor-antiretroviral-therapy-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Antonio Aceti, Laura Gianserra, Lara Lambiase, Alfredo Pennica, Elisabetta Teti
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has substantially changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from an inexorably fatal condition into a chronic disease with a longer life expectancy. This means that HIV patients should receive antiretroviral drugs lifelong, and the problems concerning with a chronic treatment (tolerability, side effects, adherence to treatment) have now become dominant. In this context, strategies for the treatment personalization have taken a central role in optimizing the therapeutic response and prevention of adverse drug reactions...
August 12, 2015: World Journal of Virology
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