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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906027/antiretroviral-treatment-regardless-of-cd4-count-the-universal-answer-to-a-contextual-question
#1
REVIEW
Serge P Eholié, Anani Badje, Gérard M Kouame, Jean-Baptiste N'takpe, Raoul Moh, Christine Danel, Xavier Anglaret
After a period where it was recommended to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, the CD4 threshold for treating asymptomatic adults dropped to 200/mm(3) at the beginning of the 2000s. This was mostly due to a great prudence with regards to drug toxicity. The ART-start CD4 threshold in most international guidelines was then raised to 350/mm(3) in 2006-2009 and to 500/mm(3) in 2009-2013. Between 2012 and 2015, international guidelines went the last step further and recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count...
July 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903037/resuscitation-update-for-general-practitioners
#2
Hugh Grantham Asm, Rowena Christiansen
BACKGROUND: The latest changes to resuscitation guidelines in Australia were released in 2016. Few of the changes will have an impact on general practitioners (GPs) but there are some additional issues that they, as health professionals and leaders in the community, should be informed about. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to provide an update for GPs on the current resuscitation guidelines. DISCUSSION: This article describes the latest changes in resuscitation recommendations in the fields of first aid, basic life support, advanced life support and paediatric resuscitation, with an emphasis on issues of particular relevance to GPs...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900741/-from-evidence-to-health-policy-making-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#3
Nai-Ying Ko
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in combination with traditional prevention strategies (such as condom use, voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections), has been shown to effectively prevent HIV infection. As of September 2015, the World Health Organization recommends that people at substantial risk of HIV infection should be offered PrEP as an additional prevention choice, as part of comprehensive prevention. This article introduces how to apply a systematic review using the methodology of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to write clinical guidelines...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896371/-mental-treatment-of-refugees-in-germany-model-for-a-stepped-approach
#4
F Schneider, M Bajbouj, A Heinz
The recent influx of refugees and asylum seekers into Germany poses a challenge for the national healthcare system. In compliance with the present Asylum Seekers Benefits Act, the national healthcare system can be expected to have 1.5 million new members by early 2017. Providing adequate care particularly for people with mental illnesses or disorders will represent an immense challenge for all actors in the system. The circumstances of the flight combined with the foreign linguistic and socio-cultural background increase the severity of the cases and the difficulties of treatment...
November 28, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895065/social-determinants-and-maternal-exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-of-obstetric-patients-with-severe-maternal-morbidity-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-systematic-review-protocol
#5
Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Angela Taft, Susan McDonald, Wendy Pollock, Joel Christian Roque Henriquez
INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality is a potentially preventable public health issue. Maternal morbidity is increasingly of interest to aid the reduction of maternal mortality. Obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are an important part of the global burden of maternal morbidity. Social determinants influence health outcomes of pregnant women. Additionally, intimate partner violence has a great negative impact on women's health and pregnancy outcome. However, little is known about the contextual and social aspects of obstetric patients treated in the ICU...
November 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893582/basic-burns-management-e-learning-a-new-teaching-tool
#6
Francesco M Egro
Burns teaching is organized only in a few medical schools in the United Kingdom. An e-learning tutorial was developed with the objective of incorporating burns teaching within the medical school curriculum. A 33-webpage e-learning was created, covering topics such as local and general response to burns, assessment of burns, first aid, primary and secondary survey, and referral guidelines. Medical student satisfaction was then evaluated using a 12-question feedback survey rated based on a Likert scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (very good)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892670/impact-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-elderly-breast-patients-in-taiwan-a-hospital-based-study
#7
Chuan Lee Hsiu, Yu Chen Wei, Tsung Huang Wen, Chen Cheng Kuo, Feng Tian Yu, Han Ho Chung, Jung Tsao Chao, Hsun Feng Yin
Purpose: Decisions as to whether to provide adjuvant treatment in older breast cancer patients remains challenging. Side effects of chemotherapy have to be weighed against life expectancy, comorbidities, functional status, and frailty. To aid decision-making, we retrospectively analyzed 110 women with breast cancer treated with a curative intention from 2006 to 2012. Survival data with clinical and pathological parameters were evaluated to address the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this study population. Method: A total of 110 elderly (>70 years) patients that received mastectomy at two hospitals in Taiwan were observed retrospectively for a medium of 51 months...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891360/why-should-viral-markers-be-mandatory-in-ocular-surgeries-a-hospital-based-retrospective-study
#8
Anita Ambastha, Rakhi Kusumesh, Gyan Bhasker
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus I, II (HIV-I,II) are serious global and public health problem. Knowledge of the seroprevalence would enable early diagnosis, treatment of patients and also help in prevention of horizontal spread of infection by application of universal infection control measures. AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV I, II infection in patients undergoing ocular surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888200/effect-of-principal-component-analysis-centering-and-scaling-on-classification-of-mycobacteria-from-raman-spectra
#9
Cynthia Hanson, Michael Sieverts, Elizabeth Vargis
Raman spectroscopy has been used for decades to detect and identify biological substances as it provides specific molecular information. Spectra collected from biological samples are often complex, requiring the aid of data truncation techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate classification methods. Classification results depend on the proper selection of principal components (PCs) and how PCA is performed (scaling and/or centering). There are also guidelines for choosing the optimal number of PCs such as a scree plot, Kaiser criterion, or cumulative percent variance...
November 25, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887644/copenhagen-comorbidity-in-hiv-infection-cocomo-study-a-study-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-non-interventional-assessment-of-non-aids-comorbidity-in-hiv-infection-in-denmark
#10
Andreas Ronit, Judith Haissman, Ditte Marie Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Thomas Skårup Kristensen, Anne-Mette Lebech, Thomas Benfield, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Lars Køber, Andreas Kjær, Klaus Kofoed, Jørgen Vestbo, Børge Nordestgaard, Jens Lundgren, Susanne Dam Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues to age. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of non-AIDS comorbidity among PLWHIV in Denmark in the cART era and to determine risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis...
November 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885972/protecting-the-confidentiality-and-security-of-personal-health-information-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-in-the-era-of-sdgs-and-big-data
#11
Eduard J Beck, Wayne Gill, Paul R De Lay
BACKGROUND: As increasing amounts of personal information are being collected through a plethora of electronic modalities by statutory and non-statutory organizations, ensuring the confidentiality and security of such information has become a major issue globally. While the use of many of these media can be beneficial to individuals or populations, they can also be open to abuse by individuals or statutory and non-statutory organizations. Recent examples include collection of personal information by national security systems and the development of national programs like the Chinese Social Credit System...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880996/oxidative-stress-induced-damage-to-paternal-genome-and-impact-of-meditation-and-yoga-can-it-reduce-incidence-of-childhood-cancer
#12
Dada Rima, Basant Kumar Shiv, Chawla Bhavna, Bisht Shilpa, Khan Saima
Background: Sperm DNA damage is underlying aetiology of poor implantation and pregnancy rates but also affects health of offspring and may also result in denovo mutations in germ line and post fertilization. This may result in complex diseases, polygenic disorders and childhood cancers. Childhood cancer like retinoblastoma (RB) is more prevalent in developing countries and the incidence of RB has increased more than three fold in India in the last decade. Recent studies have documented increased incidence of cancers in children born to fathers who consume alcohol in excess and tobacco or who were conceived by assisted conception...
January 9, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878858/non-invasive-tools-for-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-melanoma
#13
REVIEW
C Fink, H A Haenssle
BACKGROUND: While the excisional biopsy and histological examination of suspicious lesions remains the current gold standard for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma (CM), there is a demand for more objective and non-invasive examination methods that may support clinicians in their decision when to biopsy or not. METHODS: This review is based on publications and guidelines retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and MEDLINE and focused on non-invasive diagnostic strategies for detecting melanoma...
November 22, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867586/autofluorescence-imaging-bronchoscopy-as-a-novel-approach-to-the-management-of-tracheobronchopathia-osteochondroplastica-a-case-report
#14
Hiroaki Ihara, Ken Tajima, Hitomi Yoshikawa, Manabu Tajima, Norihiro Harada, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Toshimasa Uekusa, Tetsutaro Nagaoka, Kazuhisa Takahashi
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is not only rare but also presents highly varied and unpredictable clinical manifestations. Consequently, the management and treatment strategies remain unclear. An accurate evaluation tool is important for the management of individual patients in the absence of standard guidelines. Although bronchoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis, it cannot satisfactorily detect the treatment response and disease progression because subtle mucosal changes can go undetected...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867437/sero-prevalence-and-correlates-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-co-infection-among-hiv-infected-individuals-in-two-regional-hospitals-in-cameroon
#15
Henry Namme Luma, Servais Albert Fiacre Bagnaka Eloumou, Domin Sone Majunda Ekaney, Fernando Kemta Lekpa, Olivier Donfack-Sontsa, Bertrand Hugo Mbatchou Ngahane, Yacouba Njankouo Mapoure
BACKGROUND: Liver disease related to Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV in Cameroon remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the sero-prevalence and correlates of Hepatitis markers in HIV/AIDS patients in two Regional Hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out from December 2014 to March 2015. HIV/AIDS patients aged 21 were included and above, receiving care at HIV treatment centres...
2016: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865313/surgical-equinus-correction-for-the-diabetic-charcot-foot-what-the-evidence-reveals
#16
REVIEW
Claire M Capobianco
Triceps surae contracture, or equinus, is a known deforming force in the foot and ankle. Biomechanical studies have shown that ankle equinus significantly alters gait and plantar pressures, and in the diabetic neuropathic patient population, this can propagate plantar ulceration and/or Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN). Surgical correction of equinus is globally and frequently used to aid in plantar wound healing in the neuropathic diabetic patient, with and without CN. Treatment guidelines for equinus correction in this medically complex population are undefined and lack evidence from high-quality published peer-reviewed studies...
January 2017: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865297/cancer-screening-2016
#17
REVIEW
S Calvin Thigpen, Stephen A Geraci
The primary goal of cancer screening is to reduce cancer-related mortality without incurring significant harm. Screening efforts for solid tumors, therefore, have targeted the precursors of the most common and the most deadly cancers-breast, cervical, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer. Balancing risk and benefit has led to controversy regarding the timing of cancer screening-when to begin, how often to screen and when to stop-and the nature of the modality of cancer screening-invasive or noninvasive, laboratory-centered or imaging-centered...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863827/-assessment-of-physicians-and-nurses-knowledge-and-practices-of-aerosol-therapy
#18
N Eychenne, A Jaouadi, D Macquart de Terline, A Fratta, S Laribe-Caget, O Steichen, C Fernandez, M Antignac
INTRODUCTION: Aerosol therapy is an efficient, but complex procedure. National and international practice guidelines are regularly updated. However, only a few studies have assessed the application of guidelines by users. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians and nurses regarding these guidelines. METHODS: Two self-administered questionnaires were designed by a working team and presented to physicians and nurses of four university hospitals in Paris...
November 15, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861259/tailored-perioperative-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-urological-surgery-myth-or-reality
#19
Magnus J Grabe, Karl-Johan Lundström
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The controversies surrounding perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) are about the use and especially misuse of antibiotics. The overall lack of evidence to facilitate a rational perioperative AMP policy in urological surgery and the postoperative infectious complications remain a challenge. Therefore, a basic tool to aid decision-making would be useful. A model based on the patients' risk factors, the level of contamination and grading of surgical procedures is discussed...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860463/hiv-screening-intentions-behaviors-and-practices-among-nurse-practitioners
#20
Jodi L Sutherland, Gale A Spencer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: HIV/AIDS is a significant public health issue for individuals living in the United States. Federal agencies and key stakeholders recommend routine HIV/AIDS screening among individuals aged 13-64 of age, yet few studies focus on the nurse practitioner's (NP) perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine routine HIV screening intentions, behaviors, and practices using a national sample of NPs. METHODS: Cross-sectional study utilizing a random sample of 600 NPs from the American Association of Nurse Practitioners™ organization...
November 10, 2016: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
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