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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667336/optimal-breastfeeding-durations-for-hiv-exposed-infants-the-impact-of-maternal-art-use-infant-mortality-and-replacement-feeding-risk
#1
Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Roger Shapiro, Francois Dabis, Barbara Engelsmann, Kenneth A Freedberg, Valeriane Leroy, Shahin Lockman, Rochelle Walensky, Nigel Rollins, Andrea Ciaranello
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. METHODS: Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667318/physicochemical-property-guidelines-for-modern-agrochemicals
#2
Yu Zhang, Beth Lorsbach, Scott Castetter, William T Lambert, Jeremy Kister, Nick X Wang, Carla Klittich, Joshua Roth, Thomas C Sparks, Mike R Loso
The relentless need for the discovery and development of new agrochemicals continues due to driving forces such as loss of existing products through the development of resistance, the necessity for products with more favorable environmental and toxicological profiles, shifting pest spectra, and the changing agricultural needs and practices of the farming community. These new challenges underscore the demand for novel, high quality starting points to accelerate the discovery of new agrochemicals that address market challenges...
April 17, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665706/the-efficacy-of-using-computer-aided-detection-cad-for-detection-of-breast-cancer-in-mammography-screening-a-systematic-review
#3
Emilie L Henriksen, Jonathan F Carlsen, Ilse Mm Vejborg, Michael B Nielsen, Carsten A Lauridsen
Background Early detection of breast cancer (BC) is crucial in lowering the mortality. Purpose To present an overview of studies concerning computer-aided detection (CAD) in screening mammography for early detection of BC and compare diagnostic accuracy and recall rates (RR) of single reading (SR) with SR + CAD and double reading (DR) with SR + CAD. Material and Methods PRISMA guidelines were used as a review protocol. Articles on clinical trials concerning CAD for detection of BC in a screening population were included...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665288/dilute-russel-viper-venom-time-analysis-in-a-haematology-laboratory-an-audit
#4
W Kruger, P W A Meyer, J G Nel
INTRODUCTION: To determine whether the current set of evaluation criteria used for dilute Russel Viper Venom Time (dRVVT) investigations in the routine laboratory meet expectation and identify possible shortcomings. METHODS: All dRVVT assays requested from January 2015 to December 2015 were appraised in this cross-sectional study. The raw data panels were compared with the new reference interval, established in 2016, to determine the sequence of assays that should have been performed...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664734/potential-causes-of-asthma-in-the-united-arab-emirates-drawing-insights-from-the-arabian-gulf
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Dalibalta, Fatin Samara, Haya Qadri, Hibatallah Adouchana
There is considerable concern on the rise in the incidence of asthma worldwide with statistics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) indicating that at least 13% of schoolchildren, particularly of Emirati descent, suffer from asthma. With its high rates of hospital admissions, negative socioeconomic impact and significant morbidity, this is a disease that requires optimal guidelines for control and awareness. In this article, we review the current knowledge of asthma in the UAE and draw on studies, especially from the surrounding region, to identify its contributing factors within this population...
April 17, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664179/developing-and-pilot-testing-a-shared-decision-making-intervention-for-dialysis-choice
#6
Jeanette Finderup, Jens K D Jensen, Kirsten Lomborg
BACKGROUND: Evidence is inconclusive on how best to guide the patient in decision-making around haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis choice. International guidelines recommend involvement of the patient in the decision to choose the dialysis modality most suitable for the individual patient. Nevertheless, studies have shown lack of involvement of the patient in decision-making. OBJECTIVES: To develop and pilot test an intervention for shared decision-making targeting the choice of dialysis modality...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Renal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661260/implementing-routine-blood-borne-virus-testing-for-hcv-hbv-and-hiv-at-a-london-emergency-department-uncovering-the-iceberg
#7
S Parry, N Bundle, S Ullah, G R Foster, K Ahmad, C Y W Tong, S Balasegaram, C Orkin
UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in high prevalence emergency departments (ED) and targeted testing for HBV and HCV. The 'Going Viral' campaign implemented opt-out blood-borne virus (BBV) testing in adults in a high prevalence ED, to assess seroprevalence, uptake, linkage to care (LTC) rates and staff time taken to achieve LTC. Diagnosis status (new/known/unknown), current engagement in care, and severity of disease was established. LTC was defined as patient informed plus ⩾1 clinic visit. A total of 6211/24 981 ED attendees were tested (uptake 25%); 257 (4...
April 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657917/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-hlh-secondary-to-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-the-setting-of-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-aids
#8
Samuel Asanad, Brendan Cerk, Veronica Ramirez
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and aggressive disease involving immune system over-activation leading to hemophagocytosis. HLH requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We present a case of a middle-aged male with AIDS and renal failure, who developed HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis. Etoposide chemotherapy as recommended by the HLH 2004 Guidelines was deferred and treatment focused instead on anti-fungal therapy...
June 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650602/primary-care-of-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-2018-canadian-consensus-guidelines
#9
William F Sullivan, Heidi Diepstra, John Heng, Shara Ally, Elspeth Bradley, Ian Casson, Brian Hennen, Maureen Kelly, Marika Korossy, Karen McNeil, Dara Abells, Khush Amaria, Kerry Boyd, Meg Gemmill, Elizabeth Grier, Natalie Kennie-Kaulbach, Mackenzie Ketchell, Jessica Ladouceur, Amanda Lepp, Yona Lunsky, Shirley McMillan, Ullanda Niel, Samantha Sacks, Sarah Shea, Katherine Stringer, Kyle Sue, Sandra Witherbee
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2011 Canadian guidelines for primary care of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). METHODS: Family physicians and other health professionals experienced in the care of people with IDD reviewed and synthesized recent empirical, ecosystem, expert, and experiential knowledge. A system was developed to grade the strength of recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS: Adults with IDD are a heterogeneous group of patients and have health conditions and factors affecting their health that can vary in kind, manifestation, severity, or complexity from those of others in the community...
April 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644439/comparative-effects-of-antidepressant-medications-and-untreated-major-depression-on-pregnancy-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Jentina Mitchell, Janice Goodman
Psychopharmacological treatment of pregnant women is an area of continued controversy; extensive observational research on the use of antidepressant medications in pregnancy has found these medications to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. However, depression itself has also been associated with increased risk of those same outcomes, and only recently have researchers begun trying to compare treated with untreated depression. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to integrate those comparative studies and compare risks and benefits...
April 11, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642732/evaluation-of-appropriate-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-use-with-a-hyperkalemia-order-set-a-pilot-study
#11
Zachary T Mueller, Andrew J Crannage
BACKGROUND: No consensus guidelines exist to assist practitioners in the management of hyperkalemia. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) is a common treatment option for hyperkalemia. To aid health-care professionals, a hyperkalemia order set was created at a 979-bed community teaching hospital. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether use of a hyperkalemia order set is associated with appropriate use of SPS. METHODS: Orders for SPS were evaluated for appropriateness in this retrospective cohort of adult patients...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630021/changing-patterns-and-factors-associated-with-mode-of-delivery-among-pregnant-women-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-united-states
#12
Kartik K Venkatesh, Leavitt Morrison, Elizabeth G Livingston, Alice Stek, Jennifer S Read, David E Shapiro, Ruth E Tuomala
OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns and factors associated with mode of delivery among pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States in relation to evolving HIV-in-pregnancy guidelines. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of two observational studies, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group and International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network Protocol P1025, which enrolled pregnant women with HIV infection from 1998 to 2013 at more than 60 U...
April 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624450/national-athletic-trainers-association-position-statement-evaluation-management-and-outcomes-of-and-return-to-play-criteria-for-overhead-athletes-with-superior-labral-anterior-posterior-injuries
#13
Lori A Michener, Jeffrey S Abrams, Kellie C Huxel Bliven, Sue Falsone, Kevin G Laudner, Edward G McFarland, James E Tibone, Charles A Thigpen, Timothy L Uhl
OBJECTIVE:   To present recommendations for the diagnosis, management, outcomes, and return to play of athletes with superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) injuries. BACKGROUND:   In overhead athletes, SLAP tears are common as either acute or chronic injuries. The clinical guidelines presented here were developed based on a systematic review of the current evidence and the consensus of the writing panel. Clinicians can use these guidelines to inform decision making regarding the diagnosis, acute and long-term conservative and surgical treatment, and expected outcomes of and return-to-play guidelines for athletes with SLAP injuries...
March 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623779/long-term-use-of-darunavir-ritonavir-containing-regimens-in-daily-practice-in-belgium-retrospective-observational-cohort-data-of-1701-hiv-patients
#14
Stéphane De Wit, Eric Florence, Linos Vandekerckhove, Bernard Vandercam, Jean-Christophe Goffard, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Michel Moutschen, Remy Demeester, Pushpike Thilakarathne, Hilde Piryns
Background Once daily (QD) ritonavir or cobicistat-boosted darunavir (DRV/b), in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARVs), is recommended as a first-line option for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in European and USA guidelines. The objective of this study was to analyse the outcomes of DRV/r QD-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in real-life settings. Methods This is an observational, non-interventional, non-comparative, retrospective, multicentre cohort study. Data were collected from the databases of eight Belgian AIDS Reference Centres...
April 6, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623382/-the-heart-catheter-table-is-not-the-operating-table-intraindividual-comparison-of-pulmonary-artery-pressures
#15
M U Ziegler, H Reinelt
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery need extensive and invasive monitoring, which needs to be individually adapted for each patient and requires a diligent risk-benefit analysis. The use of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) seems to be justifiable in certain cases; therefore, the preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension represents an indication for perioperative monitoring with PAC in the S3 guidelines of the German Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI)...
April 5, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621302/factors-associated-with-death-and-loss-to-follow-up-in-children-on-antiretroviral-care-in-mingalardon-specialist-hospital-myanmar-2006-2016
#16
Kay Khaing Kaung Nyunt, Wai Wai Han, Srinath Satyanarayana, Petros Isaakidis, San Hone, Aye Aye Khaing, Hoa Nguyen Binh, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: Myanmar National AIDS programme's priority is to improve the survival of all people living with HIV by providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) care. More than 7200 children (aged <15 years) have been enrolled into ART care from 2005 to 2016. A previous study showed that ~11% children on ART care had either died or were lost to follow-up by 60 months. Factors associated with death and lost-to follow-up (adverse outcomes) have not been previously studied. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between demographic and clinical characteristics at enrollment into ART care with adverse outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619276/use-of-anticoagulants-remains-a-significant-threat-to-timely-hip-fracture-surgery
#17
Razvan Taranu, Chelsea Redclift, Patrick Williams, Marina Diament, Anne Tate, Jamie Maddox, Faye Wilson, Will Eardley
Introduction: Hip fracture remains the biggest single source of morbidity and mortality in the elderly trauma population, and any intervention focused on quality improvement and system efficiency is beneficial for both patients and clinicians. Two of the variables contributory to improving care and efficiency are time to theater and length of stay, with the overall goal being to improve care as reflected within the achievement of best practice tariff. One of the biggest barriers to optimizing these variables is preinjury anticoagulation...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618538/using-technology-to-improve-the-objectivity-of-criminal-responsibility-evaluations
#18
Michael J Vitacco, Emily D Gottfried, Ashley B Batastini
Criminal responsibility (or insanity) evaluations require forensic clinicians to reconstruct a defendant's decision-making abilities, behavioral control, and emotional state at the time of the criminal act. Forensic evaluators are ultimately tasked to evaluate whether an individual had the capacity to understand right from wrong, and in some jurisdictions, determine whether the defendant lacked substantial capacity to conform his behavior to the requirements of the law as a result of a threshold condition (e...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615396/different-knowledge-different-styles-of-reasoning-a-challenge-for-guideline-development
#19
Sietse Wieringa, Dunja Dreesens, Frode Forland, Carel Hulshof, Sue Lukersmith, Fergus Macbeth, Beth Shaw, Arlène van Vliet, Teun Zuiderent-Jerak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610038/impact-of-general-practitioner-transient-ischemic-attack-training-on-90-day-stroke-outcomes-secondary-analysis-of-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Annemarei Ranta, Susan Dovey, John Gommans, Murray Tilyard, Mark Weatherall
GOALS: Many patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) receive initial assessments by general practitioners (GPs) who may lack TIA management experience. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), we showed that electronic decision support for GPs improves patient outcomes and guideline adherence. Some stroke services prefer to improve referrer expertise through TIA/stroke education sessions instead of promoting TIA decision aids or triaging tools. This is a secondary analysis of whether a GP education session influenced TIA management and outcomes...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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