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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332084/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#1
Benjamin B Whiting, Alexander C Whiting, Donald M Whiting
The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been proven to be a safe and efficacious treatment for the management of many diseases. The most common indication for thalamic DBS remains essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders in the world. ET patients should be considered for surgical intervention when their tremor has demonstrated to be refractory to medication, a characteristic estimated to be present in roughly 50% of ET cases. Advantages of DBS over thalamotomy include its reversibility, the ability to adjust stimulation settings to optimize efficacy and minimize side effects, the ability to perform bilateral procedures safely, and an association with a lower risk of postoperative cognitive problems...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306976/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Tim A M Bouwens van der Vlis, Olaf E M G Schijns, Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Govert Hoogland, Pieter Kubben, Louis Wagner, Rob Rouhl, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
Despite the use of first-choice anti-epileptic drugs and satisfactory seizure outcome rates after resective epilepsy surgery, a considerable percentage of patients do not become seizure free. ANT-DBS may provide for an alternative treatment option in these patients. This literature review discusses the rationale, mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ANT-DBS in drug-resistant epilepsy patients. A review using systematic methods of the available literature was performed using relevant databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library pertaining to the different aspects ANT-DBS...
January 6, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278530/controversies-and-clarifications-in-the-classification-of-disorders-of-intellectual-development-new-genetic-findings-epilepsy-and-innovative-developmental-neuropsychiatric-treatments-deep-brain-stimulation-electroconvulsive-therapy-and-oxytocin
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223050/a-simple-rapid-and-stability-indicating-validated-method-for-quantification-of-lamotrigine-in-human-plasma-and-dry-plasma-spot-using-lc-esi-ms-ms-application-in-clinical-study
#5
Kuldeep Kumar Namdev, Jaya Dwivedi, Deepak Chandra Chilkoti, Swapnil Sharma
Lamotrigine (LTZ) is a phenyltriazine derivative which belongs to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) class and prescribed as mono- or adjunctive-therapy in treatment of epilepsy. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of AEDs provides a valid clinical tool in optimization of overall therapy. However, TDM is challenging due to the high biological samples (plasma/blood) storage/shipment costs and the limited availability of laboratories providing TDM services. Sampling in the form of dry plasma spot (DPS) or dry blood spot (DBS) are suitable alternative to overcome these issues...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218702/deep-brain-stimulation-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Michael C H Li, Mark J Cook
OBJECTIVES: To review clinical evidence on the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for drug-resistant epilepsy, its safety, and the factors influencing individual outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the medical literature (PubMed, Medline) was conducted to identify relevant articles investigating DBS therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Reference lists of these articles were used to source further articles. RESULTS: Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and hippocampus (HC) has been shown to decrease the frequency of refractory seizures...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152666/neuroanatomical-background-and-functional-considerations-for-stereotactic-interventions-in-the-h-fields-of-forel
#7
REVIEW
Clemens Neudorfer, Mohammad Maarouf
The H fields of Forel constitute an intricate neuroanatomical structure that occupies a central position within the posterior subthalamus. Anatomically, it features a dense concentration of fiber bundles including corticofugal, pallidothalamic, cerebellothalamic and other projections that connect functionally relevant areas of the brain. Functionally, the fields of Forel are embedded within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit and constitute the main link between the striatopallidal system and the thalamocortical network...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#8
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129763/mammillothalamic-and-mammillotegmental-tracts-as-new-targets-for-dementia-and-epilepsy-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Naci Balak, Ece Balkuv, Ali Karadag, Recep Basaran, Huseyin Biceroglu, Buruç Erkan, Necmettin Tanriover
Very recently, neuromodulation through deep brain stimulation (DBS) has appeared as a new surgical procedure in the treatment of some types of dementia and epilepsy. The mammillothalamic and the mammillotegmental tracts are involved among the new targets. To our knowledge, a review article focused specifically on these mammillary body efferents is lacking in the medical literature. Their contribution to memory is, regrettably, often overlooked. There is evidence that mammillary bodies can contribute to memory independently from hippocampal formation, but the mechanism is not yet known...
November 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119047/infections-in-deep-brain-stimulation-shaving-versus-not-shaving
#10
Felix S Gubler, Linda Ackermans, Pieter L Kubben, Aysun Damci, Mark L Kuijf, Mayke Oosterloo, R Jeroen Vermeulen, Sarah Hescham, Ersoy Kocabicak, Erkan Kurt, Yasin Temel
Background: To report our experience of infections in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries comparing shaving versus no shaving of cranial hair. Nonshaving is strongly preferred by patients due to aesthetic and psychological factors. Methods: This study is a prospective follow-up of the infection rate in 43 nonshaven DBS cases between April 2014 and December 2015 compared to our former infection rate with shaving in our center. Minimum follow-up was 6 months. All patients, except 7 epilepsy patients, received implantation of the electrodes together with the extension cables and internal pulse generator in one session...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089767/thalamo-cortical-network-underlying-deep-brain-stimulation-of-centromedian-thalamic-nuclei-in-intractable-epilepsy-a-multimodal-imaging-analysis
#11
Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Dong Won Yang, Jeong Hee Cho, Byung-Chul Son, Jiyeon Kim, Seung Bong Hong, Young-Min Shon
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM) can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040867/long-term-follow-up-of-anterior-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-epilepsy-a-11-year-single-center-experience
#12
Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Jiyeon Kim, Byung-Chul Son, Kyung Jin Lee, Young-Min Shon
PURPOSE: Anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation (ATN DBS) is an emerging, effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, but long-term results on its efficacy and safety are lacking. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ATN DBS treatment, as well as predictors of its success, in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE). METHOD: We retrospectively studied clinical outcomes in 29 consecutive refractory epilepsy patients treated by a single DBS team (two neurosurgeons, four neurologists) over an 11-year period, for whom follow-up was performed for up to 137 months (mean, 74...
November 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034573/memory-encoding-related-anterior-hippocampal-potentials-are-modulated-by-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-entorhinal-area
#13
Niels Hansen, Leila Chaieb, Marlene Derner, Kevin G Hampel, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges, Bernhard Staresina, Nikolai Axmacher, Juergen Fell
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the human entorhinal area using 50 Hz pulses has revealed conflicting results regarding memory performance. Moreover, its impact on memory-related hippocampal potentials has not yet been investigated. METHODS: We recorded data from seven epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and parahippocampal cortex. Entorhinal DBS (bipolar, biphasic 50 Hz pulses, on- and off-cycles of 15 s) was applied with low amplitude (0...
October 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960670/long-term-effects-of-anterior-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-spatial-learning-in-the-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Elenn Soares Ferreira, Laís Gabrielle Vieira, Daniela Macedo Moraes, Beatriz O Amorim, Jackeline Moraes Malheiros, Clement Hamani, Luciene Covolan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a significant comorbidity of temporal lobe epilepsy that is associated with extensive hippocampal cell loss. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior thalamic nucleus (ANT) has been used for the treatment of refractory partial seizures. In the pilocarpine model of epilepsy, ANT DBS applied during status epilepticus (SE) reduces hippocampal inflammation and apoptosis. When given to chronic epileptic animals it reduces hippocampal excitability and seizure frequency...
September 28, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929474/-new-thalamic-potential-associated-with-somatosensory-evoked-potentials
#15
L Vega-Zelaya, C V Torres, M Navas-Garcia, R G Sola, J Pastor
INTRODUCTION: The response of the thalamus during the study with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) is not sufficiently understood. CASE REPORT: A 17-year-old man undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation in the centromedian nucleus for drug-resistant epilepsy under complete sedation. During the intervention, the responses to SSEPs of the thalamic nuclei were recorded by means of four microelectrodes. These responses can be decomposed into three types: local field potentials (LFP), low amplitude fast oscillations (LFO), and high amplitude slow oscillations (HSO)...
October 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927833/modulation-of-hippocampal-activity-with-fornix-deep-brain-stimulation
#16
Paul H Stypulkowski, Scott R Stanslaski, Jonathon E Giftakis
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. OBJECTIVE: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921161/deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-with-an-emphasis-on-alleviation-of-seizure-frequency-outcome
#17
Bowen Chang, Jiwen Xu
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting conclusions have been reported regarding predictors of deep brain stimulation (DBS) outcome in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The main goal of this meta-analysis study was to identify possible predictors of remarkable seizure reduction (RSR). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of English-language literature published since 1990 and indexed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library that addressed seizure outcomes in patients who underwent DBS for refractory TLE...
September 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865483/suppression-of-cortical-seizures-by-optic-stimulation-of-the-reticular-thalamus-in-pv-mhchr2-yfp-bac-transgenic-mice
#18
Wei Jen Chang, Wei Pang Chang, Bai Chuang Shyu
Deep brain stimulation in thalamic regions has been proposed as a treatment for epilepsy. The electrical current excites thalamocortical activity which is controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRT). Previous studies showed that enhancing GABAergic inhibitory strength in the nRT reduces the duration and power of seizures, indicating that the thalamus plays an important role in modulating cortical seizures. The aim of the present study was to apply optogenetics to study the role of the nRT in modulating cortical seizures...
September 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859566/history-of-psychosurgery-at-sainte-anne-hospital-paris-france-through-translational-interactions-between-psychiatrists-and-neurosurgeons
#19
Marc Zanello, Johan Pallud, Nicolas Baup, Sophie Peeters, Baris Turak, Marie Odile Krebs, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Bertrand Devaux
Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782931/an-lc-ms-ms-based-method-for-the-quantification-of-pyridox-am-ine-5-phosphate-oxidase-activity-in-dried-blood-spots-from-patients-with-epilepsy
#20
Matthew P Wilson, Emma J Footitt, Apostolos Papandreou, Mari-Liis Uudelepp, Ronit Pressler, Danielle C Stevenson, Camila Gabriel, Mel McSweeney, Matthew Baggot, Derek Burke, Tommy Stödberg, Kate Riney, Manuel Schiff, Simon J R Heales, Kevin A Mills, Paul Gissen, Peter T Clayton, Philippa B Mills
We report the development of a rapid, simple, and robust LC-MS/MS-based enzyme assay using dried blood spots (DBS) for the diagnosis of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency (OMIM 610090). PNPO deficiency leads to potentially fatal early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, severe developmental delay, and other features of neurological dysfunction. However, upon prompt treatment with high doses of vitamin B6, affected patients can have a normal developmental outcome. Prognosis of these patients is therefore reliant upon a rapid diagnosis...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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