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The Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522563/biomarkers-of-exposure-to-new-and-emerging-tobacco-and-nicotine-delivery-products
#1
Suzaynn F Schick, Benjamin C Blount, Peyton Jacob, Najat A Saliba, John T Bernert, Ahmad El Hellani, Peter Jatlow, R Steve Pappas, Lanqing Wang, Jonathan Foulds, Arunava Ghosh, Stephen S Hecht, John C Gomez, Jessica R Martin, Clementina Mesaros, Sanjay Srivastava, Gideon St Helen, Robert Tarran, Pawel K Lorkiewicz, Ian A Blair, Heather L Kimmel, Claire M Doerschuk, Neal L Benowitz, Aruni Bhatnagar
Accurate and reliable measurements of exposure to tobacco products are essential for identifying and confirming patterns of tobacco product use and for assessing their potential biological effects in both human populations and experimental systems. Due to the introduction of new tobacco-derived products and the development of novel ways to modify and use conventional tobacco products, precise and specific assessments of exposure to tobacco are now more important than ever. Biomarkers that were developed and validated to measure exposure to cigarettes are being evaluated to assess their utility for measuring exposure to these new products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515485/e-cigarettes-induce-toxicological-effects-that-can-raise-the-cancer-risk
#2
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476553/measurement-of-cardiovascular-and-pulmonary-function-endpoints-and-other-physiological-effects-following-partial-or-complete-substitution-of-cigarettes-with-electronic-cigarettes-in-adult-smokers
#3
Carl D D'Ruiz, Grant O'Connell, Donald W Graff, X Sherwin Yan
Acute changes in select physiological parameters associated with cardiovascular physiology (systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR)), pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and exhaled CO and NO) and adverse events were measured in 105 clinically confined subjects who were randomized into groups that either completely or partially switched from conventional cigarettes to e-cigarettes or completely discontinued using tobacco and nicotine products altogether. Use of the e-cigarettes for five days under the various study conditions did not lead to higher BP or HR values, negative respiratory health outcomes or serious adverse health events...
May 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470141/a-comparative-study-of-electronic-cigarette-vapor-extracts-on-airway-related-cell-lines-in-vitro
#4
Laura J Leslie, Pranav Vasanthi Bathrinarayanan, Pamela Jackson, Justin A Mabiala Ma Muanda, Ross Pallett, Christopher J P Stillman, Lindsay J Marshall
The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is rapidly increasing worldwide; however, scientific evidence regarding EC cytotoxicity is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of EC vapor extract (ECE) on airway-related cells in vitro. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE), vapor extract of fifteen brands/flavors of ECs and the extract from the E-vehicle (propylene glycol and glycerin) was collected. Extracts, in concentrations of 100-12.5%, were added to human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B, IB3-1 and C38), fibroblast (Wi-38) and macrophage (J774 and THP-1) cell lines...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464934/study-protocol-of-the-german-study-on-tobacco-use-debra-a-national-household-survey-of-smoking-behaviour-and-cessation
#5
Sabrina Kastaun, Jamie Brown, Leonie S Brose, Elena Ratschen, Tobias Raupach, Dennis Nowak, Constanze Cholmakow-Bodechtel, Lion Shahab, Robert West, Daniel Kotz
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%). Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the "real-world" effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context...
May 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443340/e-cigs-are-they-cool-talking-to-teens-about-e-cigarettes
#6
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Camille Alvarado
Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes as they are commonly called, have gained wide acceptance among adolescents, especially those with sweet flavors such as bubble gum and cheesecake. Although health effects of e-cigarettes have not been well characterized, their use increases a teen's exposure to nicotine and may serve as a gateway to traditional cigarettes. This article outlines the basics of e-cigarettes and potential health hazards, followed by selected literature on teens' perceptions of e-cigarettes, as well as motivational interviewing strategies that can be used in talking to teens about using electronic cigarettes...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439113/microrna-expression-profiling-defines-the-impact-of-electronic-cigarettes-on-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#7
Siva Kumar Solleti, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Ausaf Ahmad, Qian Wang, Jared Mereness, Tirumalai Rangasamy, Thomas J Mariani
While all forms of tobacco exposure have negative health effects, the significance of exposure to electronic cigarettes (eCig) is not fully understood. Here, we studied the global effects of eCig on the micro RNA (miRNA) transcriptome in human lung epithelial cells. Primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells differentiated at air-liquid interface were exposed to eCig liquid. Exposure of NHBE to any eCig liquid resulted in the induction of oxidative stress-response genes including GCLM, GCLC, GPX2, NQO1 and HO-1...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414730/elements-including-metals-in-the-atomizer-and-aerosol-of-disposable-electronic-cigarettes-and-electronic-hookahs
#8
Monique Williams, Krassimir Bozhilov, Sanjay Ghai, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to quantify 36 inorganic chemical elements in aerosols from disposable electronic cigarettes (ECs) and electronic hookahs (EHs), examine the effect of puffing topography on elements in aerosols, and identify the source of the elements. METHODS: Thirty-six inorganic chemical elements and their concentrations in EC/EH aerosols were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and their source was identified by analyzing disassembled atomizers using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393367/increasing-popularity-of-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-and-electronic-cigarette-use-implications-for-oral-healthcare
#9
REVIEW
C P Ramôa, T Eissenberg, S E Sahingur
Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing several systemic conditions including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Cigarette smoking is also detrimental to oral health as it increases the incidence and severity of oral cancer, periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis, as well as impacting negatively on the dental patients' response to therapy. Therefore, consideration of smoking behavior and recommendation of smoking cessation are important parts of dental treatment planning. However, cigarettes are no longer the most popular form of tobacco use among adolescents in the United States and globally...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390232/media-exposure-and-tobacco-product-addiction-beliefs-findings-from-the-2015-health-information-national-trends-survey-hints-fda-2015
#10
Elisabeth A Donaldson, Allison C Hoffman, Izabella Zandberg, Kelly D Blake
BACKGROUND: Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes...
April 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388912/environmental-pollutants-a-possible-etiology-for-premature-ovarian-insufficiency-a-narrative-review-of-animal-and-human-data
#11
REVIEW
Pauline Vabre, Nicolas Gatimel, Jessika Moreau, Véronique Gayrard, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Jean Parinaud, Roger D Leandri
BACKGROUND: Because only 25% of cases of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) have a known etiology, the aim of this review was to summarize the associations and mechanisms of the impact of the environment on this pathology. Eligible studies were selected from an electronic literature search from the PUBMED database from January 2000 to February 2016 and associated references in published studies. Search terms included ovary, follicle, oocyte, endocrine disruptor, environmental exposure, occupational exposure, environmental contaminant, pesticide, polyaromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl PCB, phenol, bisphenol, flame retardant, phthalate, dioxin, phytoestrogen, tobacco, smoke, cigarette, cosmetic, xenobiotic...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379177/a-comparative-health-risk-assessment-of-electronic-cigarettes-and-conventional-cigarettes
#12
Jinsong Chen, Chris Bullen, Kim Dirks
Background: Although some studies have identified hazardous substances in electronic cigarette (EC) liquids and emissions, there is limited information about the health risks of using ECs. Methods: In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health risk assessment model and findings of a literature review were used to determine and profile hazards. Focus was put on the toxicants reported in the literature on conventional cigarette (CC) smoke that most strongly associated with adverse health effects...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360111/the-effects-of-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-exposure-on-inflammation-and-lung-function-in-mice
#13
Alexander N Larcombe, Maxine A Janka, Benjamin J Mullins, Luke J Berry, Arne Bredin, Peter J Franklin
Electronic cigarette usage is increasing worldwide, yet there is a paucity of information on the respiratory health effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette) aerosol would alter lung function and pulmonary inflammation in mice, and to compare the severity of any alterations with mice exposed to mainstream tobacco smoke. Female BALB/c mice were exposed for 8 weeks to tobacco smoke, medical air (control) or one of 4 different types of e-cigarette aerosol...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358990/a-feasibility-study-on-using-an-internet-panel-survey-to-measure-perceptions-of-e-cigarettes-in-3-metropolitan-areas-2015
#14
Eric A Miller, Lewis Berman, Audie Atienza, Deirdre Middleton, Ronaldo Iachan, Robert Tortora, John Boyle
OBJECTIVES: Internet-panel surveys are emerging as a means to quickly and cost-effectively collect health data, and because of their large memberships, they could be used for community-level surveys. To determine the feasibility of using an internet-panel survey to quickly provide community-level data, we conducted a pilot test of a health survey in 3 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: We conducted internet-panel surveys in Cleveland, Ohio; New York, New York; and Seattle, Washington, in 2015...
May 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342844/a-system-dynamics-modelling-approach-to-assess-the-impact-of-launching-a-new-nicotine-product-on-population-health-outcomes
#15
Andrew Hill, Oscar M Camacho
In 2012 the US FDA suggested the use of mathematical models to assess the impact of releasing new nicotine or tobacco products on population health outcomes. A model based on system dynamics methodology was developed to project the potential effects of a new nicotine product at a population level. A model representing traditional smoking populations (never, current and former smokers) and calibrated using historical data was extended to a two-product model by including electronic cigarettes use statuses. Smoking mechanisms, such as product initiation, switching, transition to dual use, and cessation, were represented as flows between smoking statuses (stocks) and the potential effect of smoking renormalisation through a feedback system...
March 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#16
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332500/cardiovascular-effects-of-electronic-cigarettes
#17
REVIEW
Neal L Benowitz, Joseph B Fraiman
Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296556/beliefs-about-the-direct-comparison-of-e-cigarettes-and-cigarettes
#18
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, J Davis VanderVeen, Melissa A Cyders
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that positive beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) use can lead to later e-cig use. Considering that many advertisements claim that e-cigs are superior to cigarettes, individuals' likelihood to view e-cigs more favorably than cigarettes can also influence subsequent e-cig use; however, no studies have directly assessed such a comparison. OBJECTIVES: The present study created and validated the Comparing E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes questionnaire (CEAC), which asks individuals to directly compare e-cigs and cigarettes on a number of dimensions, in two independent samples...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277706/user-identified-positive-outcome-expectancies-of-electronic-cigarette-use-a-concept-mapping-study
#19
Eric K Soule, Sarah F Maloney, Mignonne C Guy, Thomas Eissenberg, Pebbles Fagan
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use is growing in popularity, but little is known about the perceived positive outcomes of ECIG use. This study used concept mapping (CM) to examine positive ECIG outcome expectancies. Sixty-three past 30-day ECIG users (38.1% female) between the ages of 18 and 64 (M = 37.8, SD = 13.3) completed a CM module. In an online program, participants provided statements that completed a prompt: "A specific positive, enjoyable, or exciting effect (i.e., physical or psychological) that I have experienced WHILE USING or IMMEDIATELY AFTER USING an electronic cigarette/electronic vaping device is...
May 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263891/skin-contamination-as-pathway-for-nicotine-intoxication-in-vapers
#20
Giovanni Maina, Carlotta Castagnoli, Giordana Ghione, Valter Passini, Gianpiero Adami, Francesca Larese Filon, Matteo Crosera
Growing warnings on health effects related to electronic cigarettes have met inconclusive findings at present. This study analyzed the in vitro percutaneous absorption of nicotine resulting by skin contamination with two e-liquids (refill 1 and 2) containing nicotine at 1.8%. Donor chambers of 6 Franz cells for each refill liquid were filled with 1mL of nicotine e-liquid for 24h; at selected intervals, 1.5mL of the receptor solutions were collected for nicotine concentration analysis by mean gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LOD: 0...
March 2, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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