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The Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes

Alexa A Lopez, Marzena Hiler, Sarah Maloney, Thomas Eissenberg, Alison B Breland
BACKGROUND: Novel tobacco products entering the US market include electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) and products advertised to "heat, not burn" tobacco. There is a growing literature regarding the acute effects of ECIGs. Less is known about "heat, not burn" products. This study's purpose was to expand existing clinical laboratory methods to examine, in cigarette smokers, the acute effects of a "heat, not burn" "loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer" (LLTV). METHODS: Plasma nicotine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and tobacco abstinence symptom severity were measured before and after two 10-puff (30-s interpuff interval) product use bouts separated by 60min...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Claudia Baumung, Jürgen Rehm, Heike Franke, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Nicotine was not included in previous efforts to identify the most important toxicants of tobacco smoke. A health risk assessment of nicotine for smokers of cigarettes was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and results were compared to literature MOEs of various other tobacco toxicants. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Dose-response modelling of human and animal data was used to derive the benchmark dose. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations for daily cigarette smokers...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Isabel Mr Hess, Kishen Lachireddy, Adam Capon
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have recently become popular around the world, and their safety is being widely discussed in the scientific literature. Previous studies have examined the chemicals in e-liquids and vapour, and demonstrated that the aerosol from ECs can contain toxic chemicals that are harmful to health. However, little is known about the potential adverse health effects of passive exposure to EC vapour. The aim of this paper is to summarise and review all studies that have examined potential adverse health effects of passive exposure from inhaling EC vapour...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Maria Cooper, Melissa B Harrell, Adriana Pérez, Joanne Delk, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing trend in use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") among youth, it is crucial to understand how these products are perceived and how these perceptions are associated with their decision whether or not to use them. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a rapid response surveillance system of 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' tobacco use behaviors (sample [n] = 3704 from a population of students [N] = 434,601)...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Pieter S Hiemstra, Robert Bals
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the nicotine-containing cartridge fluid have been incompletely studied. Marketing targets diverse groups including older smokers but also young people...
October 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
Chitra Dinakar, George T O'Connor
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), also known as electronic nicotine-delivery systems, are devices that produce an aerosol by heating a liquid that contains a solvent (vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, or a mixture of these), one or more flavorings, and nicotine, although the nicotine may be..
October 6, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Lukasz Antoniewicz, Jenny A Bosson, Jeanette Kuhl, Samy M Abdel-Halim, Anna Kiessling, Fariborz Mobarrez, Magnus Lundbäck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The use of electronic cigarettes is increasing dramatically on a global scale and its effects on human health remain uncertain. In the present study, we measured endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and microvesicles (MVs) in healthy young volunteers following short-term exposure to inhalation of e-cigarette vapor (ECV) to determine vascular changes. METHODS: Sixteen healthy seldom smokers were randomized into two groups either exposed or not exposed to 10 puffs of ECV for 10 min, in a crossover design...
September 22, 2016: Atherosclerosis
David Azzopardi, Kharishma Patel, Tomasz Jaunky, Simone Santopietro, Oscar M Camacho, John McAughey, Marianna Gaça
Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures...
July 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Alexandra R Hershberger, J Davis VanderVeen, Kenny A Karyadi, Melissa A Cyders
OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are a nicotine delivery device that have recently been linked to alcohol use. Many individuals that smoke cigarettes transition to e-cigs as an alternative to cigarette use, despite potential negative health effects of e-cigs. No research to date has examined how former smokers that have transitioned to e-cigs differ from former smokers that do not use e-cigs, particularly in relation to alcohol use. Further, no research has examined how former smokers that use e-cigs regularly or socially may differ in alcohol consumption...
December 5, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
J Drew Payne, David Michaels, Menfil Orellana-Barrios, Kenneth Nugent
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
Ki-Hyun Kim, Ehsanul Kabir, Shamin Ara Jahan
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devised to deliver nicotine in a vapor rather than in smoke without tar. ECs are hence advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarette products as the chemical compounds inhaled in the former are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those of the latter. Hazardous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde) are nonetheless found to be generated incidentally by contacting the heated wire (i.e., the oxidation of glycerol/glycol in e-liquid). Although the extent of their release varies by several variables (e...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Noel J Leigh, Ralph I Lawton, Pamela A Hershberger, Maciej L Goniewicz
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are designed to deliver nicotine-containing aerosol via inhalation. Little is known about the health effects of flavoured ENDS aerosol when inhaled. METHODS: Aerosol from ENDS was generated using a smoking machine. Various types of ENDS devices or a tank system prefilled with liquids of different flavours, nicotine carrier, variable nicotine concentrations and with modified battery output voltage were tested...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
M G LeSage, M Staley, P Muelken, J R Smethells, I Stepanov, R I Vogel, P R Pentel, A C Harris
BACKGROUND: The popularity of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has increased dramatically despite their unknown health consequences. Because the abuse liability of ECs is one of the leading concerns of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), models to assess it are urgently needed to inform FDA regulatory decisions regarding these products. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative abuse liability of an EC liquid compared to nicotine alone in rats. Because this EC liquid contains non-nicotine constituents that may enhance its abuse liability, we hypothesized that it would have greater abuse liability than nicotine alone...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Chastain Anderson, Andrew Majeste, Jakub Hanus, Shusheng Wang
Cigarette smoking remains one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Vascular cell death and dysfunction is a central or exacerbating component in the majority of cigarette smoking related pathologies. The recent development of the electronic nicotine delivery systems known as e-cigarettes provides an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking; however, the potential vascular health risks of e-cigarette use remain unclear. This study evaluates the effects of e-cigarette aerosol extract (EAE) and conventional cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
September 9, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Oliver Knight-West, Christopher Bullen
In this review, we discuss current evidence on electronic cigarettes (ECs), a rapidly evolving class of nicotine delivery system, and their role in managing nicotine addiction, specifically in helping smokers to quit smoking and/or reduce the amount of tobacco they smoke. The current evidence base is limited to three randomized trials (only one compares ECs with nicotine replacement therapy) and a growing number of EC user surveys (n=6), case reports (n=4), and cohort studies (n=8). Collectively, these studies suggest modest cessation efficacy and a few adverse effects, at least with the short-term use...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Itsaso Garcia-Arcos, Patrick Geraghty, Nathalie Baumlin, Michael Campos, Abdoulaye Jules Dabo, Bakr Jundi, Neville Cummins, Edward Eden, Astrid Grosche, Matthias Salathe, Robert Foronjy
BACKGROUND: The use of electronic (e)-cigarettes is increasing rapidly, but their lung health effects are not established. Clinical studies examining the potential long-term impact of e-cigarette use on lung health will take decades. To address this gap in knowledge, this study investigated the effects of exposure to aerosolised nicotine-free and nicotine-containing e-cigarette fluid on mouse lungs and normal human airway epithelial cells. METHODS: Mice were exposed to aerosolised phosphate-buffered saline, nicotine-free or nicotine-containing e-cigarette solution, 1-hour daily for 4 months...
August 24, 2016: Thorax
Fabio Cibella, Davide Campagna, Pasquale Caponnetto, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Massimo Caruso, Cristina Russo, Donald W Cockcroft, Riccardo Polosa
Quitting smoking is the most important step smokers can take to improve their health. Nonetheless, there is little information on long-term improvements in lung function and/or respiratory symptoms after smoking cessation. Here we illustrate long-term changes in spirometric indices as well as in respiratory symptoms in smokers invited to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs). Prospective evaluation of cigarette consumption, spirometry and symptoms was performed in a 1-year randomized controlled trial of smokers receiving EC containing 2...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Benjamin J Pippard, Mark D Shipley
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use has risen dramatically in recent years, despite uncertainty over long-term health effects and concerns regarding efficacy as a smoking cessation device. Currently, there is no legislation prohibiting use in public, though many trusts have extended the NHS Smokefree policy to include e-cigarettes. The successful implementation of such policy is, however, unclear. AIM: This study examined staff attitudes towards the use of e-cigarettes in a hospital environment with respect to enforcement of a local trust smoking policy...
August 9, 2016: Perspectives in Public Health
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