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The Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes

Samir S Soneji, Hai-Yen Sung, Brian A Primack, John P Pierce, James D Sargent
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help cigarette smokers quit smoking, yet they may also facilitate cigarette smoking for never-smokers. We quantify the balance of health benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use at the population level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Monte Carlo stochastic simulation model. Model parameters were drawn from census counts, national health and tobacco use surveys, and published literature. We calculate the expected years of life gained or lost from the impact of e-cigarette use on smoking cessation among current smokers and transition to long-term cigarette smoking among never smokers for the 2014 US population cohort...
2018: PloS One
Mark S Allen, Emma E Walter
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem among men and women and is associated with negative individual functioning, relationship difficulties, and lower quality of life. AIM: To determine the magnitude of associations between 6 health-related lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, caffeine, and cannabis use) and 3 common sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and female sexual dysfunction)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Bonnie M Vest, Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Rachel C Daws, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: The goal of this work was to examine associations among childhood trauma, combat trauma and substance use (alcohol problems, frequent heavy drinking (FHD), current cigarette smoking, and current/lifetime drug use) and the interaction effects of childhood trauma and combat exposure on those associations among National Guard/Reserve soldiers. METHODS: Participants (n = 248) completed an electronic survey asking questions about their military experiences, physical and mental health, and substance use...
February 27, 2018: Substance Abuse
Harmeet Singh Rehan, Jahnavi Maini, A Ps Hungin
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are devices with a heating element which produces aerosol for inhalation. They have been propagated as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking and a potential device for smoking cessation, despite non-documentation of their long-term adverse health effects. OBJECTIVES: With the glorification of ECIG, its use has increased even among non-tobacco users. This makes it critical to understand and discuss a true picture about safety and utility of ECIGs by reviewing the literature...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Safety
Kabindra Regmi, Dinesh Kaphle, Sabina Timilsina, Nik Annie Afiqah Tuha
BACKGROUND: Economic evidence relating to tobacco control is generally derived from the cost effectiveness of smoking-cessation programs or the economic impact of tobacco-induced disease, based on revealed-preference data. However, empirical estimates from stated-preference data on tobacco users' preferences, smoking behaviour and smoking cessation aids using analytical techniques such as discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) could be important for policy decision making in tobacco control...
March 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
(no author information available yet)
In a comprehensive analysis of existing studies, the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded that electronic cigarettes are addictive, though less toxic than conventional cigarettes. The report also identified key areas for future research, including smoking cessation, adolescent use, and long-term health effects.
February 5, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Gerhard Scherer
The health risk of tobacco smoking can best be avoided or reduced by not taking up or quitting the habit. The use of new and innovative tobacco (NTPs, e.g. electronic cigarettes) can either be an aid for smoking cessation or, for those who are not able or willing to quit, an alternative for smoking conventional tobacco products. Before the use of an NTP can be regarded as an effective approach in tobacco harm reduction (THR), the implicated risk has to be evaluated by suitable toxicological methods such as the analysis of the chemical composition as well as assessment of detrimental effects in animal and in vitro studies...
February 8, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Frances Thirlway
This paper uses the work of Bourdieu to theorise smoking and cessation through a class lens, showing that the struggle for distinction created the social gradient in smoking, with smoking stigma operating as a proxy for class stigma. This led to increased policy focus on the health of bystanders and children and later also to concerns about electronic cigarettes. Bourdieu's concept of habitus is deployed to argue that the e-cigarette helps middle-class smokers resolve smoking as a symptom of cleft habitus associated with social mobility or particular subcultures...
January 27, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Eduardo Moreira da Silva, Juliana Nunes da Silva Meirelles Dória Maia, Carine Gnatiuk Mitraud, Juliana do Espírito Santo Russo, Laiza Tatiana Poskus, José Guilherme Antunes Guimarães
Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Mohammad Saud Khan, Faisal Khateeb, Jamal Akhtar, Zubair Khan, Amos Lal, Veronika Kholodovych, Jeffrey Hammersley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (e cigarettes) are battery operated devices that produce aerosol by heating a solution typically made up of nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin and flavoring agents. The use of e cigarettes has risen dramatically in recent years especially among adolescents and young adults. These devices have been marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco smoking by their manufactures despite lack of adequate safety data. METHODS: We present a case of 40-year-old female patient who developed significant pulmonary toxicity secondary to e cigarette use and searched existing literature relevant to the case...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Darlie Simerson
Despite the decline in traditional tobacco use among teens and young adults, the rapid increase in electronic cigarette (EC) use has filled the gap, raising concern that this will usher in a new generation of tobacco users. Although long-term effects have not been clearly established, EC use is not without risks or hazards that may be encountered by the advanced practice nurse in the emergency department (ED). The ED presents an opportune moment for health promotion and risk reduction education for patients and families, but there are also dangers to EC use that the practitioner should be aware of and prepared to manage...
January 2018: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
Miłosz Knura, Jonasz Dragon, Krzysztof Łabuzek, Bogusław Okopień
The exponetial growth in popularity of electronic cigarettes in the world markets intensifies the debate about their health effects. The smoking of traditional tabacoo products is a factor associated with the endothelium damage and progression of atherosclerosis. The elimination of the combustion process in electronic cigarettes allows to conclude that they are less harmful to a vascular endothelium than traditional tobacco products. E-cigarette aerosol contains many compounds that have an influence on initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
January 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mary L Garcia-Cazarin, Rachel J Mandal, Rachel Grana, Kay L Wanke, Helen I Meissner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the focus and comprehensiveness of domains measured in e-cigarette research. METHODS: A portfolio analysis of National Institutes of Health grants focusing on e-cigarette research and funded between the fiscal years 2007 and 2015 was conducted. Grant proposals were retrieved using a government database and coded using the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment (HAVE) model as a framework to characterise the measures proposed...
January 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Mark P Doescher, Ming Wu, Elizabeth Rainwater, Ali S Khan, Dorothy A Rhoades
PURPOSE: Patient preferences regarding the role of the primary care provider (PCP) in discussing electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are unknown. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional survey to 568 adult patients in a family medicine clinic to explore e-cigarette use, sources of information on e-cigarettes, perceived knowledge about e-cigarette health effects, views regarding PCP knowledge of e-cigarettes, interest in discussing e-cigarettes with PCPs and preferred format for e-cigarette information...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Lawrence W Green, Jonathan E Fielding, Ross C Brownson
Two contrasting reviews (authored by Abrams et al. and Glanz & Bareham) in this volume have reached opposing conclusions on the effects of electronic cigarettes in a debate that is dividing the scientific and professional communities that have devoted careers to controlling the manufacture, advertising, sale, and use of combustible cigarettes. The research on the types, degree, and extent of harm from e-cigarettes is far from complete and, together with trends in teenage smoking and vaping, has raised new questions and prospects about the potential benefits that the new electronic products offer smokers of combustible cigarettes in quitting or at least cutting back on the known risks associated with the traditional forms of smoking...
January 11, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
Lauren Collins, Allison M Glasser, Haneen Abudayyeh, Jennifer L Pearson, Andrea C Villanti
Introduction: Given the lack of regulation on marketing of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the U.S. and the increasing exchange of e-cigarette-related information online, it is critical to understand how e-cigarette companies market e-cigarettes and how the public engages with e-cigarette information. Methods: Results are from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on e-cigarettes via a PubMed search through June 1, 2017. Search terms included: "e-cigarette*" OR "electronic cigarette" OR "electronic cigarettes" OR "electronic nicotine delivery" OR "vape" OR "vaping...
January 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Tanvir Walele, Jim Bush, Annelize Koch, Rebecca Savioz, Claire Martin, Grant O'Connell
The safety profile of Puritane™, a closed system electronic vapour product (EVP), was evaluated when used by smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) for 24 months in a real-life setting. The study was a two-centre ambulatory clinical study with 209 healthy volunteers. Outcome measures included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests, exposure to nicotine and selected smoke constituents, nicotine withdrawal effects and smoking desire. No serious AEs related to EVP use were observed...
December 14, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Steve Martino, Steven J Ondersma, Ariadna Forray, Todd A Olmstead, Kathryn Gilstad-Hayden, Heather B Howell, Trace Kershaw, Kimberly A Yonkers
BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment may reduce substance misuse but has received minimal study among women who are treated in reproductive health settings. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether "screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment" that is delivered either electronically or by clinician are more effective than enhanced usual care in decreasing days of primary substance use. STUDY DESIGN: Women from 2 reproductive centers who smoked cigarettes or misused alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medication were allocated randomly to "screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment" delivered electronically or by clinician or to enhanced usual care...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Seth M Noar, Erin L Sutfin
The Food and Drug Administration, which now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products meeting the statutory definition, is tasked with communicating the risks of these products to the public through health warnings and public education. However, there have been no attempts to summarize what is known about non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) health messaging. We conducted a systematic review to examine the existing literature on health communication for NCTPs and identify key research gaps. A total of 45 unique studies were retrieved and coded, with the majority focused on messaging for smokeless tobacco (SLT, k = 32, 71...
December 13, 2017: Health Communication
Amy M Franks, William A Hawes, Keith R McCain, Nalin Payakachat
INTRODUCTION: Our study evaluated the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, knowledge, and perceptions of health professional students enrolled in one of five colleges at a single academic health center. METHODS: A 56-item survey was conducted to examine the use, knowledge, and perceptions of e-cigarettes among health professional students. An e-cigarette knowledge score was calculated according to correct responses to eight true-false survey items, with possible scores ranging from zero to eight points...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
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