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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429938/signaling-mode-of-the-broad-spectrum-conserved-co2-receptor-is-one-of-the-important-determinants-of-odor-valence-in-drosophila
#1
Dyan MacWilliam, Joel Kowalewski, Arun Kumar, Crystal Pontrello, Anandasankar Ray
Odor detection involves hundreds of olfactory receptors from diverse families, making modeling of hedonic valence of an odorant difficult, even in Drosophila melanogaster where most receptors have been deorphanised. We demonstrate that a broadly tuned heteromeric receptor that detects CO2 (Gr21a, Gr63a) and other odorants is a key determinant of valence along with a few members of the Odorant receptor family in a T-maze, but not in a trap assay. Gr21a and Gr63a have atypically high amino acid conservation in Dipteran insects, and they use both inhibition and activation to convey positive or negative valence for numerous odorants...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420732/comparison-of-techniques-for-sampling-adult-necrophilous-insects-from-pig-carcasses
#2
Angela Cruise, Eduardo Hatano, David W Watson, Coby Schal
Studies of the pre-colonization interval and mechanisms driving necrophilous insect ecological succession depend on effective sampling of adult insects and knowledge of their diel and successional activity patterns. The number of insects trapped, their diversity, and diel periodicity were compared with four sampling methods on neonate pigs. Sampling method, time of day and decomposition age of the pigs significantly affected the number of insects sampled from pigs. We also found significant interactions of sampling method and decomposition day, time of sampling and decomposition day...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411826/moldable-biomimetic-nanoscale-optoelectronic-platforms-for-simultaneous-enhancement-in-optical-absorption-and-charge-transport
#3
Jagdish A K, Kavita Garg, Praveen C Ramamurthy, Debiprosad Roy Mahapatra, Gopalkrishna Hegde
Nano-scale patterns such as those found on the exterior surface of the eyes of certain nocturnal insects have far-reaching implications in terms of optoelectronic device design. The advantage of using these patterns for optoelectronic enhancement in photovoltaic light harvesting has been less explored due to the lack of suitable engineered materials to easily fabricate such nanostructures. Here, an attempt is made to realize these complex patterns using a self-assembly based molding process on hitherto unexplored robust structural epoxies with excellent repeatability and scalability to a larger area...
February 7, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391174/dna-extracellular-traps-are-part-of-the-immune-repertoire-of-periplaneta-americana
#4
M T C Nascimento, K P Silva, M C F Garcia, M N Medeiros, E A Machado, S B Nascimento, E M Saraiva
Extracellular traps (ETs), web-like structures composed of DNA and histones, are released by innate immune cells in a wide range of organisms. ETs capture microorganisms, thereby avoiding their spread, and also concentrate antimicrobial molecules, which helps to kill microbes. Although vertebrate innate immune systems share homology with the insect immune system, ETosis have yet to be characterized in insects. Here, we report that the hemocytes of the hemimetabolous insect Periplaneta americana release ETs upon in vitro stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377489/pesticides-were-largely-reduced-by-insect-trapping-lamp-a-case-study-in-a-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotation-system
#5
Liyue Guo, Mahmud Abdimuratovich Muminov, Guanglei Wu, Xiaotian Liang, Caihong Li, Jie Meng, Lijun Li, Da Cheng, Yanjie Song, Xian Gu, Jianshe Zhao, Gaoming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, physical methods such as insect-trapping to control pests are being paid more and more attentions. In order to make clear how to combine pesticides with insect-trapping lamp reasonably and how much pesticide amount can be cut down, five treatments: (1) CK, only used pesticides; (2) LM, only used insect-trapping lamp; (3) LM1, insect-trapping lamp + one time pesticides (4) LM2, insect-trapping lamp + two times pesticides; (5) LM3, insect-trapping lamp + three times pesticides were arranged in a winter wheat -summer maize rotation system of Eastern China...
January 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377042/a-superhydrophobic-cone-to-facilitate-the-xenomonitoring-of-filarial-parasites-malaria-and-trypanosomes-using-mosquito-excreta-feces
#6
Darren A N Cook, Nils Pilotte, Corrado Minetti, Steven A Williams, Lisa J Reimer
Background: Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the testing of insect vectors for the presence of human pathogens, has the potential to provide a non-invasive and cost-effective method for monitoring the prevalence of disease within a community. Current MX methods require the capture and processing of large numbers of mosquitoes, particularly in areas of low endemicity, increasing the time, cost and labour required. Screening the excreta/feces (E/F) released from mosquitoes, rather than whole carcasses, improves the throughput by removing the need to discriminate vector species since non-vectors release ingested pathogens in E/F...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373995/ecology-feeding-and-natural-infection-by-leishmania-spp-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-in-an-area-of-high-incidence-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-in-the-municipality-of-rio-branco-acre-brazil
#7
Márcia Moreira de Ávila, Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Cristian Ferreira de Souza, Paula Dias Bevilacqua, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques...
January 26, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373820/molecular-detection-of-leishmania-leishmania-infantum-in-phlebotomine-sandflies-from-a-visceral-leishmaniasis-endemic-area-in-northwestern-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#8
Kate Bastos Dos Santos Brighente, Andre Antonio Cutolo, Gabriela Motoie, Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
This study identified the natural infection rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies collected in a neighborhood around a kennel, in Dracena, northwestern of São Paulo state. This region is highly endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Insects were captured during 2 to 3 nights monthly for 11 months (January-November 2012) using 10 automatic light traps around a kennel in a transition between periurban and urban neighborhood. Capture aimed the determination of the minimal infection rate (MIR) on the area...
January 23, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359258/a-technique-for-thermal-desorption-analyses-suitable-for-thermally-labile-volatile-compounds
#9
Hans T Alborn
Many plant and insect interactions are governed by odors released by the plants or insects and there exists a continual need for new or improved methods to collect and identify these odors. Our group has for some time studied below-ground, plant-produced volatile signals affecting nematode and insect behavior. The research requires repeated sampling of volatiles of intact plant/soil systems in the laboratory as well as the field with the help of probes to minimize unwanted effects on the systems we are studying...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358761/a-gigantic-marine-ostracod-crustacea-myodocopa-trapped-in-mid-cretaceous-burmese-amber
#10
Lida Xing, Benjamin Sames, Ryan C McKellar, Dangpeng Xi, Ming Bai, Xiaoqiao Wan
The mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (~99 Ma, Myanmar), widely known for exquisite preservation of theropods, also yields microfossils, which can provide important contextual information on paleoenvironment and amber formation. We report the first Cretaceous ostracod in amber-the gigantic (12.9 mm) right valve of an exclusively marine group (Myodocopa: Myodocopida) preserved in Burmese amber. Ostracods are usually small (0.5-2 mm), with well-calcified carapaces that provide an excellent fossil record extending to at least the Ordovician (~485 million years ago), but they are rarely encountered in amber...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342101/a-novel-methodology-for-improving-plant-pest-surveillance-in-vineyards-and-crops-using-uav-based-hyperspectral-and-spatial-data
#11
Fernando Vanegas, Dmitry Bratanov, Kevin Powell, John Weiss, Felipe Gonzalez
Recent advances in remote sensed imagery and geospatial image processing using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enabled the rapid and ongoing development of monitoring tools for crop management and the detection/surveillance of insect pests. This paper describes a (UAV) remote sensing-based methodology to increase the efficiency of existing surveillance practices (human inspectors and insect traps) for detecting pest infestations (e.g., grape phylloxera in vineyards). The methodology uses a UAV integrated with advanced digital hyperspectral, multispectral, and RGB sensors...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325093/a-comprehensive-caenorhabditis-elegans-n-glycan-shotgun-array
#12
Ewa Jankowska, Lisa M Parsons, Xuezheng Song, Dave F Smith, Richard D Cummings, John F Cipollo
Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. C. elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni...
January 9, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322057/epidemiological-study-on-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-an-endemic-area-of-qom-province-central-iran
#13
Abedin Saghafipour, Hassan Vatandoost, Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Moharram Karami Jooshin, Yavar Rassi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. There are two forms of the disease in Iran, anthroponotic and zoonotic CL. This study conducted to assess the epidemiological situation of CL in an endemic area of Qom Province, central Iran from Apr to Nov 2015. Methods: The sticky paper traps and aspirating tubes were used for collecting adult sand flies. Sherman traps and small insect nets were used to capture rodents and small mammals...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321267/extreme-call-amplitude-from-near-field-acoustic-wave-coupling-in-the-stridulating-water-insect-micronecta-scholtzi-micronectinae
#14
Andrew Reid, David J W Hardie, David Mackie, Joseph C Jackson, James F C Windmill
Underwater acoustic transducers, particularly at low frequencies, are beset by problems of scale and inefficiency due to the large wavelengths of sound in water. In insect mating calls, a high call volume is usually desirable, increasing the range of signal transmission and providing a form of advertisement of the signaller's quality to a potential mate; however, the strength of the call is constrained by body size and by the need to avoid predators who may be listening in. Male crickets and water boatmen avoid some of the limitations of body size by exploiting resonant structures, which produce sharply tuned species-specific songs, but call frequency and volume remain linked to body size...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317537/dual-evolutionary-origin-of-insect-wings-supported-by-an-investigation-of-the-abdominal-wing-serial-homologs-in-tribolium
#15
David M Linz, Yoshinori Tomoyasu
The origin of insect wings is still a highly debated mystery in biology, despite the importance of this evolutionary innovation. There are currently two prominent, but contrasting wing origin hypotheses (the tergal origin hypothesis and the pleural origin hypothesis). Through studies in the Tribolium beetle, we have previously obtained functional evidence supporting a third hypothesis, the dual origin hypothesis. Although this hypothesis can potentially unify the two competing hypotheses, it requires further testing from various fields...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307104/tiger-moths-in-savannas-in-eastern-amazon-first-assessment-of-diversity-and-seasonal-aspects
#16
D M P Valente, M M Zenker, J A Teston
Biodiversity knowledge on insects is urgently needed due to the ever growing demand for food and the consequent deforestation process and loss of natural habitats in many understudied tropical regions. In this paper, we describe the outcome of a biodiversity research on tiger moths performed for the first time in a poorly studied Amazonian landscape-the savanna. We sampled tiger moths monthly with UV automatic light traps for 12 consecutive months in two sampling points in an area of savanna in eastern Amazon, and we compared our results to previously available data for eastern Amazon...
January 6, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301048/spatial-displacement-of-a-lure-component-can-reduce-catches-of-two-nontarget-species-during-spring-monitoring-of-southern-pine-beetle
#17
William P Shepherd, Brian T Sullivan
Local outbreak risk for the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is forecast with a trapping survey conducted every spring throughout the southeastern United States. Traps baited with pine odors and components of the D. frontalis aggregation pheromone are used to obtain abundance estimates of both this species and its clerid predator Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae); these data are entered into a predictive model that estimates outbreak risk. An attractant synergist for D...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236740/evidence-of-behavior-based-utilization-by-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-of-a-combination-of-uv-and-green-or-yellow-wavelengths
#18
Thomson M Paris, Sandra A Allan, Bradley J Udell, Philip A Stansly
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vectors huanglongbing (HLB), the most serious disease affecting citrus globally. D. citri and HLB have spread to the major citrus growing regions of North America causing billions of dollars of damage in Florida alone. The visual behavior of D. citri is not well characterized and more knowledge is needed to improve attractive traps for monitoring and control of the D. citri. Bioassays were conducted to evaluate attraction to light transmitted through different colored filters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225609/efficiency-of-trichome-based-plant-defense-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-depends-on-insect-behavior-plant-ontogeny-and-structure
#19
Zhenlong Xing, Yongqiang Liu, Wanzhi Cai, Xinzheng Huang, Shengyong Wu, Zhongren Lei
Plant trichomes often function as physical barriers in preventing arthropod feeding and oviposition. Even though insects are frequently reported being entrapped and killed by trichome traps, the actual trapping behavior has not yet been described in detail. Capture experiments showed that capture efficiency during the plant's vegetative stage was considerably higher than in the fruiting and cotyledon stages. The ventral surface of the leaf was more effective in trapping flies than other parts of the plant. Capture-events monitoring showed that the mouthparts, legs, and ovipositor of Liriomyza trifolii adults are the body parts involved in entrapment by surface trichomes on Phaseolus vulgaris plants, and subsequently, deter their ability to feed, walk, and oviposit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221673/mother-doesn-t-always-know-best-maternal-wormlion-choice-of-oviposition-habitat-does-not-match-larval-habitat-choice
#20
Shay Adar, Roi Dor
Habitat choice is an important decision that influences animals' fitness. Insect larvae are less mobile than the adults. Consequently, the contribution of the maternal choice of habitat to the survival and development of the offspring is considered to be crucial. According to the "preference-performance hypothesis", ovipositing females are expected to choose habitats that will maximize the performance of their offspring. We tested this hypothesis in wormlions (Diptera: Vermileonidae), which are small sand-dwelling insects that dig pit-traps in sandy patches and ambush small arthropods...
December 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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