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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910106/identification-of-semiochemicals-attractive-to-simulium-vittatum-is-7
#1
G G Verocai, T W McGAHA, J P Iburg, C R Katholi, E W Cupp, R Noblet, T R Unnasch
Many blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) are economically important insect pests, both as nuisance biters and as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance. Among the important blackfly pest species in North America is Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt sensu lato. The objective of this study was to identify compounds excreted by mammalian hosts that are attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females. The attractiveness of putative compounds to colonized S. vittatum was tested through electrophysiological (electroantennography; n = 58 compounds) and behavioural (Y-tube assays; n = 7 compounds in three concentrations) bioassays...
December 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905493/increased-temperature-delays-the-late-season-phenology-of-multivoltine-insect
#2
Adam Glazaczow, David Orwin, Michał Bogdziewicz
We analyzed the impact of increased water temperature on the late-season phenology of the mayfly (Baetis liebenauae). The River Gwda, unlike two other examined rivers (controls), has reservoirs along its length and thus, higher water temperature. Elevated water temperature prolonged summer diapause of the mayfly and shifted its life cycle to the later autumn: the last generation of mayflies started development later in the Gwda than in the control rivers. This translated into terrestrial stages (subimagos) of the insect being more abundant at the water surface in the late autumn in the Gwda river than in the control rivers...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898001/potential-for-using-acetic-acid-plus-pear-ester-combination-lures-to-monitor-codling-moth-in-an-sit-program
#3
Gary J R Judd
Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT) and mating disruption (MD). Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio) using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination...
November 25, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832345/olfactory-cues-visual-cues-and-semiochemical-diversity-interact-during-host-location-by-invasive-forest-beetles
#4
Jessica L Kerr, Dave Kelly, Martin K-F Bader, Eckehard G Brockerhoff
Plant-feeding insects use visual and olfactory cues (shape, color, plant volatiles) for host location, but the relative importance of different cues and interactions with non-host-plant volatiles in ecosystems of varying plant biodiversity is unclear for most species. We studied invasive bark beetles and wood borers associated with pine trees to characterize interactions among color, host and non-host volatiles, by employing traps that mimic tree trunks. Cross-vane flight intercept traps (black, green, red, white, yellow, clear) and black funnel traps were used with and without attractants (α-pinene + ethanol), repellents (non-host green leaf volatiles, 'GLV'), and attractant/repellent combinations in four pine forests in New Zealand...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829483/long-term-changes-in-the-numbers-of-helicoverpa-punctigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae-in-a-cotton-production-landscape-in-northern-new-south-wales-australia
#5
G H Baker, C R Tann
Two noctuid moths, Helicoverpa punctigera and Helicoverpa armigera, are pests of several agricultural crops in Australia, most notably cotton. Cotton is a summer crop, grown predominantly in eastern Australia. The use of transgenic (Bt) cotton has reduced the damage caused by Helicoverpa spp., but the development of Bt resistance in these insects remains a threat. In the past, large populations of H. punctigera have built up in inland Australia, following autumn-winter rains. Moths have then migrated to the cropping regions in spring, when their inland host plants dried off...
November 10, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816487/arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-1-gene-tcaanat1-is-required-for-cuticle-morphology-and-pigmentation-of-the-adult-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#6
Mi Young Noh, Bonwoo Koo, Karl J Kramer, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Yasuyuki Arakane
In the insect cuticle tanning pathway (sclerotization and pigmentation), the enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the acetylation of dopamine to form N-acetyldopamine (NADA), which is one of the major precursors for quinone-mediated tanning. In this study we characterized and investigated the function of TcAANAT1 in cuticle pigmentation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We isolated a full length TcAANAT1 cDNA that encodes a protein of 256 amino acid residues with a predicted GCN5-related acetyltransferase domain containing an acetyl-CoA binding motif...
November 2, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815278/molecular-evidence-of-chlamydia-like-organisms-in-the-faeces-of-the-bat-myotis-daubentonii
#7
K Hokynar, E J Vesterinen, T M Lilley, A T Pulliainen, S J Korhonen, J Paavonen, M Puolakkainen
: Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs) are recently identified members of the Chlamydiales order. CLOs share intracellular lifestyle and biphasic developmental cycle and they have been detected in environmental samples as well as in various hosts like amoebae and arthropods. In this study we screened bat faeces for the presence of CLOs by molecular analysis. Using Pan-Chlamydiales-PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene, Chlamydiales DNA was detected in 54% of the specimens. PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA were used to classify positive specimens and infer their phylogenetic relationships...
November 4, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813665/the-impact-of-trap-type-and-design-features-on-survey-and-detection-of-bark-and-woodboring-beetles-and-their-associates-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Jeremy D Allison, Richard A Redak
A large literature on the survey and detection of forest Coleoptera and their associates exists. Identification of patterns in the effect of trap types and design features among guilds and families of forest insects would facilitate the optimization and development of intercept traps for use in management programs.Wereviewed the literature on trapping bark and woodboring beetles and their associates and conducted meta-analyses to examine patterns in effects across guilds and families; we observed the following general patterns: (a) Panel traps were superior to multiple-funnel traps, (b) bark beetles and woodborers were captured in higher numbers in traps treated with a surface treatment to make them slippery than untreated traps, (c) panel and multiple-funnel traps equipped with wet cups outperformed traps with dry cups, (d) black traps were superior to white and clear traps, and (e) purple traps were as good as or superior to green traps for Agrilus spp...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812647/frequency-and-diversity-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-in-sinop-state-of-mato-grosso-brazil
#9
Sirlei Franck Thies, Roberta Vieira de Morais Bronzoni, Mariano Martinez Espinosa, Cladson de Oliveira Souza, Ana Lucia Maria Ribeiro, Emerson Soares Dos Santos, Edelberto Santos Dias, Amílcar Sabino Damazo
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the diversity of sand flies is important for the epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis. This study aimed to understand the frequency, diversity, and seasonality of medically important sand flies in the municipality of Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The study was conducted in an urban area, including four ecotypes with different levels of urbanization. The sand flies were collected using light traps for three nights per month, from May 2014 to April 2015...
September 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810302/cross-ecosystem-fluxes-export-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-from-aquatic-to-terrestrial-ecosystems-via-emerging-insects
#10
Dominik Martin-Creuzburg, Carmen Kowarik, Dietmar Straile
Cross-ecosystem fluxes can crucially influence the productivity of adjacent habitats. Emerging aquatic insects represent one important pathway through which freshwater-derived organic matter can enter terrestrial food webs. Aquatic insects may be of superior food quality for terrestrial consumers because they contain high concentrations of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We quantified the export of PUFA via emerging insects from a midsize, mesotrophic lake. Insects were collected using emergence traps installed above different water depths and subjected to fatty acid analyses...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761333/aboveground-and-belowground-arthropods-experience-different-relative-influences-of-stochastic-versus-deterministic-community-assembly-processes-following-disturbance
#11
Scott Ferrenberg, Alexander S Martinez, Akasha M Faist
BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760785/monitoring-and-detecting-the-cigarette-beetle-coleoptera-anobiidae-using-ultraviolet-led-direct-and-reflected-lights-and-or-pheromone-traps-in-a-laboratory-and-a-storehouse
#12
Takahisa Miyatake, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Taro Fuchikawa, Nobuyoshi Korehisa, Toru Kamura, Kana Nanba, Shinsuke Ryouji, Nagisa Kamioka, Mantaro Hironaka, Midori Osada, Takahiko Hariyama, Rikiya Sasaki, Kazutaka Shinoda
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), is an important stored-product pest worldwide because it damages dry foods. Detection and removal of the female L. serricorne will help to facilitate the control of the insect by removal of the egg-laying populations. In this manuscript, we examined the responses by L. serricorne to direct and reflected light in transparent cube (50 m(3)) set in a chamber (200 m(3)) and a stored facility with both direct and reflected UV-LED lights. The study also examined the responses by the beetles to light in the presence or absence of pheromone in traps that are placed at different heights...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730581/degradfp-a-system-to-knockdown-gfp-tagged-proteins
#13
Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
Protein depletion by genetic means, in a very general sense including the use of RNA interference [1, 2] or CRISPR/Cas9-based methods, represents a central paradigm of modern biology to study protein functions in vivo. However, acting upstream the proteic level is a limiting factor if the turnover of the target protein is slow or the existing pool of the target protein is important (for instance, in insect embryos, as a consequence of a strong maternal contribution). In order to circumvent these problems, we developed deGradFP [3, 4]...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723044/epidemiology-of-a-bluetongue-outbreak-in-a-sheep-flock-in-brazil
#14
Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Mario Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Erica Azevedo Costa, Ju Lio Ce Sar Ca Mara Rosa, Aristo Teles Gomes Costa, Felipe Zandonadi Branda O, Ze Lia Ine S Portela Lobato
In January 2013, an outbreak of Bluetongue (BT) a ecting a Lacaune sheep ock occurred in Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. From March to August 2013, blood samples collection and clinical examination were performed monthly, in order to monitor the epidemiological pro le of Bluetongue virus (BTV) circulation and clinical disease in the ock. Agar gel immunodi usion (AGID) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting BTV segment 10 were used as diagnostic assays. Additionally, insect trapping was conducted in the farm from May to July 2013...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723035/design-features-of-a-proposed-insecticidal-sugar-trap-for-biting-midges
#15
Lee William Cohnstaedt, Darren Snyder
Insecticidal sugar baits for mosquitoes and house ies have proven e cacy to reduce insect populations and consequently, disease transmission rates. The new insecticidal sugar trap (IST) is designed speci cally for controlling biting midge disease vector populations around livestock and near larval habitats. The trap operates by combining light-emitting diode (LED) technology with insecticidal sugar baits. The positive photo attraction of Culicoides elicited by the LEDs, draws the insects to the insecticidal sugar bait, which can be made from various commercial insecticide formulations (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, etc...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701242/contributions-to-the-knowledge-of-the-biodiversity-of-heteroptera-insecta-%C3%A2-in-the-southern-cone-argentina
#16
José Luis Pall, María Del Carmen Coscarón
Insect studies for different regions are scarce as most of the material is collected in isolation, thus preventing extensive taxonomic listings. Conducting inventories of terrestrial biodiversity in a specific area is an arduous task, with many obstacles: mainly the lack of data on taxonomic and geographical distribution necessary to study them. The aim of this work is to present new contributions to the geographical distribution of Heteroptera in the Pampean, Espinal and Monte phytogeographic provinces, in the central region of Argentina, Southern Cone...
September 26, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692501/sexual-chemoecology-of-mosquitoes-diptera-culicidae-current-knowledge-and-implications-for-vector-control-programs
#17
Lucie Vaníčková, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687002/a-picture-is-worth-a-thousand-data-points-an-imagery-dataset-of-paired-shrub-open-microsites-within-the-carrizo-plain-national-monument
#18
Taylor J Noble, Christopher J Lortie, Michael Westphal, H Scott Butterfield
BACKGROUND: Carrizo Plain National Monument (San Joaquin Desert, California, USA) is home to many threatened and endangered species including the blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia sila). Vegetation is dominated by annual grasses, and shrubs such as Mormon tea (Ephedra californica), which is of relevance to our target species, the federally listed blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and likely also provides key ecosystem services. We used relatively nonintrusive camera traps, or trail cameras, to capture interactions between animals and these shrubs using a paired shrub-open deployment...
September 27, 2016: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686815/behavioral-responses-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-to-visual-stimuli-under-laboratory-semifield-and-field-conditions
#19
Kevin B Rice, Brent D Short, Sharon K Jones, Tracy C Leskey
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in North America and Europe that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding the specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistencies in trap performance indicate the need for the development of improved monitoring and management techniques for this insect. Our studies focused on identifying attractive visual cues for adult D. suzukii and incorporating these cues into a potential attract-and-kill tactic for D...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663859/simulation-modeling-to-interpret-the-captures-of-moths-in-pheromone-baited-traps-used-for-surveillance-of-invasive-species-the-gypsy-moth-as-a-model-case
#20
Josep Bau, Ring T Cardé
When pheromone traps are used for detection of an invasive pest and then delimitation of its distribution, an unresolved issue is the interpretation of failure to capture any target insects. Is a population present but not detected, a so-called false negative? Using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) as an exemplar, we modeled the probability of males being captured in traps deployed at densities typical for surveillance (1 per 2.6 km(2) or 1 per mi(2)) and delimitation (up to 49 per 2.6 km(2)). The simulations used a dynamic wind model generating a turbulent plume structure and varying wind direction, and a behavior model based on the documented maneuvers of gypsy moths during plume acquisition and along-plume navigation...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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