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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677153/entomofauna-associated-with-agroforestry-systems-of-timber-species-and-cacao-in-the-southern-region-of-the-maracaibo-lake-basin-m%C3%A3-rida-venezuela
#1
Marina Mazón, Daniel Sánchez-Angarita, Francisco A Díaz, Néstor Gutiérrez, Ramón Jaimez
Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela...
April 20, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648945/the-asian-citrus-psyllid-host-murraya-koenigii-is-immune-to-citrus-huanglongbing-pathogen-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus
#2
Vitor Hugo Beloti, Gustavo Alves, Helvécio Coletta-Filho, Pedro Yamamoto
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), is controlled by application of insecticides, which, although effective, has resulted in serious biological imbalances. New management tools are needed, and the technique known as 'trap crop' has been attracting attention. A potential plant for use as a trap crop in the management of the ACP is Murraya koenigii (curry leaf). However, for this plant to be used in the field, it needs to be attractive for the vector and must not harbor CLas...
April 12, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625979/soft-rot-enterobacteriaceae-are-carried-by-a-large-range-of-insect-species-in-potato-fields
#3
Simeon Rossmann, Merete Wiken Dees, Juliana Perminow, Richard Meadow, May Bente Brurberg
Pathogenic soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) belonging to the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya cause diseases in potato and numerous other crops. Seed potatoes are the most important source of infection, but how initially pathogen-free tubers become infected remains an enigma. Since the 1920s, insects have been hypothesized to contribute to SRE transmission. To validate this hypothesis and to map the insect species potentially involved in SRE dispersal, we have analyzed the occurrence of SRE in insects recovered from potato fields over a period of two years...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615723/identification-of-migratory-insects-from-their-physical-features-using-a-decision-tree-support-vector-machine-and-its-application-to-radar-entomology
#4
Cheng Hu, Shaoyang Kong, Rui Wang, Teng Long, Xiaowei Fu
Migration is a key process in the population dynamics of numerous insect species, including many that are pests or vectors of disease. Identification of insect migrants is critically important to studies of insect migration. Radar is an effective means of monitoring nocturnal insect migrants. However, species identification of migrating insects is often unachievable with current radar technology. Special-purpose entomological radar can measure radar cross-sections (RCSs) from which the insect mass, wingbeat frequency and body length-to-width ratio (a measure of morphological form) can be estimated...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603106/insect-community-composition-and-functional-roles-along-a-tropical-agricultural-production-gradient
#5
Angelina Sanderson Bellamy, Ola Svensson, Paul J van den Brink, Jonas Gunnarsson, Michael Tedengren
High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm insect diversity, using three different types of banana farm management systems: high-input conventional system, low-input conventional system, and organic system. Insect sampling was done using pitfall and yellow bowl traps, left for a 24-h period at two locations inside the banana farm, at the edge of the farm, and in adjacent forest...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568249/challenges-of-pheromone-based-mating-disruption-of-cydia-strobilella-and-dioryctria-abietella-in-spruce-seed-orchards
#6
Glenn P Svensson, Hong-Lei Wang, Erling V Jirle, Olle Rosenberg, Ilme Liblikas, J Michael Chong, Christer Löfstedt, Olle Anderbrant
Seed orchards function as the primary source of high-quality seeds for reforestation in many European countries, but their seed yields can be severely reduced due to seed- and cone-feeding insects. We evaluated various parameters of pheromone-based mating disruption for control of the moths Cydia strobilella and Dioryctria abietella , which are major pests in European Picea abies seed orchards. We applied different types of pheromone dispensers (rubber septa or wax droplets) at different densities and heights, and with different amounts of active components, covering whole orchards or part of an orchard...
2018: Journal of Pest Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566159/seasonal-occurrence-of-key-arthropod-pests-and-beneficial-insects-in-michigan-high-tunnel-and-field-grown-raspberries
#7
Heather Leach, Rufus Isaacs
Berry crops are increasingly produced in high tunnels, which provide growers with the opportunity to extend their production season. This is particularly beneficial for the northern region of the United States with short and unpredictable growing seasons and where rainfall limits fruit quality. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnels on the community of pests, natural enemies, or pollinators, especially in berry crops, and there are few reports of the insect community in raspberries in this region...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546318/seasonal-migration-of-pantala-flavesces-across-the-bohai-strait-in-northern-china
#8
Ling-Zhen Cao, Xiao-Wei Fu, Chao-Xing Hu, Kong-Ming Wu
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) (Odonata: Libellulidae) is one of the most common species of migratory dragonflies. P. flavescens adults were captured by a searchlight trap on Beihuang Island (BH Island; 38°24'N, 120°55'E) from 2003 to 2016, where there is no freshwater. This inspired our research to analyze the pattern of seasonal migration and population dynamics. Stable hydrogen isotope measurement and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) were used to simulate the migration pathway of P...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534747/composition-of-sand-fly-fauna-diptera-psychodidae-and-detection-of-leishmania-dna-kinetoplastida-trypanosomatidae-in-different-ecotopes-from-a-rural-settlement-in-the-central-amazon-brazil
#9
Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531713/improved-protocols-to-accelerate-the-assembly-of-dna-barcode-reference-libraries-for-freshwater-zooplankton
#10
Manuel Elías-Gutiérrez, Martha Valdez-Moreno, Janet Topan, Monica R Young, José Angel Cohuo-Colli
Currently, freshwater zooplankton sampling and identification methodologies have remained virtually unchanged since they were first established in the beginning of the XX century. One major contributing factor to this slow progress is the limited success of modern genetic methodologies, such as DNA barcoding, in several of the main groups. This study demonstrates improved protocols which enable the rapid assessment of most animal taxa inhabiting any freshwater system by combining the use of light traps, careful fixation at low temperatures using ethanol, and zooplankton-specific primers...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531707/environmental-consequences-of-deltamethrin-residues-in-cattle-feces-in-an-african-agricultural-landscape
#11
Bryony Sands, Neludo Mgidiswa, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Richard Wall
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control ectoparasites of livestock, particularly ticks and biting flies. Their use in African livestock systems is increasing, driven by the need to increase productivity and local food security. However, insecticide residues present in the dung after treatment are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects. In a semiarid agricultural habitat in Botswana, dung beetle adult mortality, brood ball production, and larval survival were compared between untreated cattle dung and cattle dung spiked with deltamethrin, to give concentrations of 0...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528640/pest-management-strategies-against-the-coffee-berry-borer-coleoptera-curculionidae-scolytinae
#12
Francisco Infante
Coffee (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ca. 80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over US$500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry), and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526022/volatiles-of-grape-inoculated-with-microorganisms-modulation-of-grapevine-moth-oviposition-and-field-attraction
#13
Marco Tasin, Sebastian Larsson Herrera, Alan L Knight, Wilson Barros-Parada, Eduardo Fuentes Contreras, Ilaria Pertot
Semiochemicals released by plant-microbe associations are used by herbivorous insects to access and evaluate food resources and oviposition sites. Adult insects may utilize microbial-derived nutrients to prolong their lifespan, promote egg development, and offer a high nutritional substrate to their offspring. Here, we examined the behavioral role of semiochemicals from grape-microbe interactions on oviposition and field attraction of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). The volatile constituents released by grape inoculated with yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Pitt...
March 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513406/relative-importance-of-long-term-changes-in-climate-and-land-use-on-the-phenology-and-abundance-of-legume-crop-specialist-and-generalist-aphids
#14
Martin Luquet, Maurice Hullé, Jean-Christophe Simon, Nicolas Parisey, Christelle Buchard, Bruno Jaloux
Insect populations are prone to respond to global changes through shifts in phenology, distribution and abundance. However, global changes cover several factors such as climate and land use, the relative importance of these being largely unknown. Here, we aim at disentangling the effects of climate, land use and geographical drivers on aphid abundance and phenology in France, at a regional scale and over the last 40 years. We used aerial data obtained from suction traps between 1978 and 2015 on five aphid species varying in their degree of specialization to legumes, along with climate, legume crop area and geographical data...
March 7, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506040/factors-affecting-population-dynamics-of-thrips-vectors-of-soybean-vein-necrosis-virus
#15
Stacy Keough, Jonathan Danielson, Jordan M Marshall, Doris Lagos-Kutz, David J Voegtlin, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan, Punya Nachappa
Thrips-infesting soybeans were considered of minor economic importance, but recent evidence of their ability to transmit a newly identified soybean virus, Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), has raised their profile as pests. Season-long surveys were conducted using suction traps to determine the effects of temperature and precipitation on the spatiotemporal patterns of three vector species of SVNV, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (soybean thrips), Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (eastern flower thrips), and Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (tobacco thrips) in soybean fields in Indiana in 2013 and 2014...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506032/host-plant-selection-by-the-wheat-bug-nysius-huttoni-hemiptera-lygaeidae-on-a-range-of-potential-trap-plant-species
#16
Sundar Tiwari, Nicholas Dickinson, David J Saville, Stephen D Wratten
The wheat bug, Nysius huttoni L. is an endemic New Zealand pest. The seedlings of forage brassicas are highly susceptible to direct feeding damage by this insect, and this can reduce plant establishment. Prophylactic use of pesticides is the usual practice for N. huttoni management. These practices have been linked to environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, and pollinator population declines in brassicas and other crops. Habitat management of the bug utilizing potential trap crops can be a better option for its management...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492770/assessing-bat-droppings-and-predatory-bird-pellets-for-vector-borne-bacteria-molecular-evidence-of-bat-associated-neorickettsia-sp-in-europe
#17
Sándor Hornok, Krisztina Szőke, Péter Estók, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Anne-Jifke Haarsma, Dávid Kováts, Sándor A Boldogh, Pál Morandini, Sándor Szekeres, Nóra Takács, Jenő Kontschán, Marina L Meli, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, José de la Fuente, Miklós Gyuranecz, Kinga M Sulyok, Beatrice Weibel, Enikő Gönczi, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
In Europe, several species of bats, owls and kestrels exemplify highly urbanised, flying vertebrates, which may get close to humans or domestic animals. Bat droppings and bird pellets may have epidemiological, as well as diagnostic significance from the point of view of pathogens. In this work 221 bat faecal and 118 bird pellet samples were screened for a broad range of vector-borne bacteria using PCR-based methods. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 13 bat faecal DNA extracts, including the sequence of a rickettsial insect endosymbiont, a novel Rickettsia genotype and Rickettsia helvetica...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491987/the-effect-of-fasting-and-body-reserves-on-cold-tolerance-in-2-pit-building-insect-predators
#18
Inon Scharf, Alma Daniel, Heath Andrew MacMillan, Noa Katz
Pit-building antlions and wormlions are 2 distantly-related insect species, whose larvae construct pits in loose soil to trap small arthropod prey. This convergent evolution of natural histories has led to additional similarities in their natural history and ecology, and thus, these 2 species encounter similar abiotic stress (such as periodic starvation) in their natural habitat. Here, we measured the cold tolerance of the 2 species and examined whether recent feeding or food deprivation, as well as body composition (body mass and lipid content) and condition (quantified as mass-to-size residuals) affect their cold tolerance...
June 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479808/2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines-are-potent-attractants-of-florivorous-scarabs-melolonthidae-cyclocephalini-associated-with-economically-exploitable-neotropical-palms-arecaceae
#19
Artur Campos Dália Maia, Geanne Karla Novais Santos, Eduardo Gomes Gonçalves, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Luis Alberto Nuñez
BACKGROUND: 2-Alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are naturally occuring aromatic compounds involved in insect chemical communication as both pheromones and allelochemicals. Although rarely characterized in floral scents, they have been identified as major constituents in headspace samples from palm inflorescences and evidence pointed towards their function as attractive cues for scent-oriented pollinators, as well as florivores. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of MPs in economically exploitable palms belonging to Acrocomia and Attalea through headspace floral scent analysis and assessed their role in the selective attraction of flower-feeding cyclocephaline scarabs (Melolonthidae, Cyclocephalini) in field bioassays conducted in Brazil and Colombia...
February 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470528/linear-relationship-between-peak-and-season-long-abundances-in-insects
#20
Ksenia S Onufrieva, Alexey V Onufriev
An accurate quantitative relationship between key characteristics of an insect population, such as season-long and peak abundances, can be very useful in pest management programs. To the best of our knowledge, no such relationship has yet been established. Here we establish a predictive linear relationship between insect catch Mpw during the week of peak abundance, the length of seasonal flight period, F (number of weeks) and season-long cumulative catch (abundance) A = 0.41MpwF. The derivation of the equation is based on several general assumptions and does not involve fitting to experimental data, which implies generality of the result...
2018: PloS One
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