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Insect trap

T L Gordon, M Haseeb, L H B Kanga, J C Legaspi
The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Asterales: Asteraceae) and wild game feed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Poales: Poaceae) in both years, but different species of millet each year: browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2014 and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2015...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Magdalena Larska, Maria Grochowska, Lech Lechowski, Jan Franciszek Żmudziński
The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
Moises Thiago de Souza Freitas, Carlos Fernando Rocha Dos Santos, Edilberto Marinho de Andrade, Carlos Brisola Marcondes, Valdir de Queiroz Balbino, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa
Phlebotomine sand flies are small insects of great medical importance. This study presents new records of phlebotomine sand flies, which augment the list of species, recorded in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps. Collections were made between November 2008 and April 2016, in 47 municipalities within the state of Alagoas. Twenty-seven thousand two-hundred forty-four sand flies were collected, representing 18 species in seven genera. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (85...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Patricio Ponce, Diego Morales, Adriana Argoti, Varsovia E Cevallos
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito, is one of the most widespread invasive vector-borne disease insect in tropical and temperate zones. This species has invaded the Americas over the past 3 decades and has spread to six countries. We report Ae. albopictus in Guayaquil city, the first time it has been identified in Ecuador. Outdoor BG-Sentinel traps without lures collected a total of 21 Ae. albopictus.
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Elena V Gorb, Stanislav N Gorb
The long period of reciprocal antagonistic coevolution between some insect and plant species has led to the development of plant surface attributes that reduce insect attachment. These features serve as a defence against herbivores, sap-sucking insects and nectar robbers, contribute to a temporary capture of insect pollinators, and prevent the escape of insects from traps of carnivorous plants. This review summarises the literature on attachment-mediated insect-plant interactions. A short introduction to attachment systems of insects is presented and the effect of three-dimensional epicuticular waxes on insect attachment is illustrated by many examples...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
R P Carvalho, W T A Azevedo, A L Figueiredo, C S S Lessa, V M Aguiar
Each biome has its own fauna and intrinsic local conditions that determine the succession patterns of insects on carcasses. For this reason, regional studies are very important to forensics. This study deals with the flies that visit carcasses of Rattus rattus (L., 1758) in the Atlantic Forest remnant of Floresta da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We compare the diversity and relative abundance of fly families and species throughout the four seasons of the year and test for correlations between certain environmental variables and fly richness...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Vajinder Kumar, Dipnarayan Saha, Dhiraj Ramesh Thakare, Anjana Jajoo, Pradeep Kumar Jain, Shripad Ramachandra Bhat, Ramamurthy Srinivasan
A promoter trap mutant line of Arabidopsis carrying a promoterless β-glucuronidase (uidA) gene exhibited GUS expression predominantly in all the trichomes. In this mutant, the T-DNA insertion was localized at 147bp upstream of the putative start codon, ATG, of the At5g11190 (SHN2) gene. Transcript profiling of the SHN2 suggested a constitutive expression of the gene in all the tissues. Deletion analysis of the upstream sequences established that a 565bp (-594/-30) region confers trichome-specific gene expression...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Leonard C Dandalo, Basil D Brooke, Givemore Munhenga, Leanne N Lobb, Jabulani Zikhali, Sifiso P Ngxongo, Phineas M Zikhali, Sipho Msimang, Oliver R Wood, Mohlominyana Mofokeng, Eunice Misiani, Tobias Chirwa, Lizette L Koekemoer
Anopheles arabiensis (Patton; Diptera: Culicidae) is a major malaria vector in the southern African region. In South Africa, effective control of this species using indoor-based interventions is reduced owing to its tendency to rest outdoors. As South Africa moves towards malaria elimination there is a need for complementary vector control strategies. One of the methods under consideration is the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Key to the successful implementation of an SIT programme is prior knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the target population...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
B M Costa-Neta, A A da Silva, J M Brito, J L P Moraes, J M M Rebêlo, F S Silva
Numerous advantages over the standard incandescent lamp favor the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as an alternative and inexpensive light source for sampling medically important insects in surveillance studies. Previously published studies examined the response of mosquitoes to different wavelengths, but data on anopheline mosquito LED attraction are limited. Center for Disease Control and Prevention-type light traps were modified by replacing the standard incandescent lamp with 5-mm LEDs, one emitting at 520 nm (green) and the other at 470 nm (blue)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Seyed Ali Hosseini, Seyed Hossein Goldansaz, Steph B J Menken, Michiel van Wijk, Peter Roessingh, Astrid T Groot
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a devastating pest in high-value crops around the world. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is still missing for the management of this pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. Host plant volatiles attract herbivore insects and have shown to have good potential to be exploited as alternatives or supplements to sex pheromones. To explore this possibility in carob moth, we assessed the attraction of moths to the volatiles of mature pistachio and different fruit stages of pomegranate, alone and in combination with virgin females, using sticky delta traps in pomegranate orchards of Iran...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Stephen M Pawson, Bruce G Marcot, Owen G Woodberry
Daily flight activity patterns of forest insects are influenced by temporal and meteorological conditions. Temperature and time of day are frequently cited as key drivers of activity; however, complex interactions between multiple contributing factors have also been proposed. Here, we report individual Bayesian network models to assess the probability of flight activity of three exotic insects, Hylurgus ligniperda, Hylastes ater, and Arhopalus ferus in a managed plantation forest context. Models were built from 7,144 individual hours of insect sampling, temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, photon flux density, and temporal data...
2017: PloS One
June-Sun Yoon, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Subba Reddy Palli
RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells...
September 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yuri Zambon, Alessandro Canel, Assunta Bertaccini, Nicoletta Contaldo
A 3-year survey was conducted in Northern Italy to verify the presence and diversity of phytoplasmas in selected vineyards showing symptoms of severe yellows. Symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines were sampled, and insects were collected using yellow sticky traps. The phytoplasmas detected in grapevine samples were different according to the years: "flavescence dorée"(16SrV-C/D) was detected together with other phytoplasmas such as 16SrXII-A ('Candidatus Phytoplasma solani'-related, "bois noir"), 16SrI-B ('Ca...
September 15, 2017: Phytopathology
Elizabeth J Cieniewicz, Sarah Jane Pethybridge, Gregory M Loeb, Keith L Perry, Marc Fuchs
Limited information is available on the spread of grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV, genus Grablovirus, family Geminiviridae) in vineyards. To investigate ecological aspects of red blotch disease spread, sticky cards to catch flying insects were placed in 2015 (April to November) and 2016 (March to November) in a vineyard study site in California where disease incidence increased by nearly 20% between 2014 and 2016. Subsets of insect species/taxa were removed from sticky card traps and individual specimens were tested for the presence of GRBV by multiplex polymerase chain reaction...
September 14, 2017: Phytopathology
Tetsuo Kokubun
The chemical composition of the exudate mucilage droplets of the carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mucilage was found to contain beside a very large molecular weight polysaccharide a significant amount of myo-inositol. It appears that myo-inositol escaped detection due to the commonly applied methodology on the chemical analysis of plant mucilage, such as dialysis, precipitation of polysaccharide component with alcohol, acid hydrolysis and detection of the resultant monosaccharide (aldose) units...
September 22, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Wen-Qiang Xia, Xin-Ru Wang, Yan Liang, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
The adaptation of herbivorous insects to various host plants facilitates the spread and outbreak of many important invasive pests, however, the molecular mechanisms that underneath this process are poorly understood. In the past three decades, two species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean, have invaded many countries. Their rapid and widespread invasions are partially due to their ability to infest a wide range of host plants. In this study, we determined the transcriptome and phenotypic changes of one Mediterranean whitefly population during its adaptation to tobacco, an unsuitable host plant...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michela Begala
Isomeric chlorobenzoyl cations (m/z 139), under collision induced experiments, fragment identically. Chlorobenzoyl cations can be efficiently converted into cholorophenol radical cations by the reaction with methanol in the ion trap analyser under CI-MS(n) conditions. The substitution of the carbonyl group with a hydroxyl moiety is able to induce an ortho effect, which is absent in the starting ortho-chlorobenzoyl cation. This transformation could be useful to recognize ortho-chlorinated benzoyl derivatives without the need of MS spectra comparison of the whole set of isomers...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Tao Ma, Zhitao Liu, Cai Wang, Shengnan Zhang, Xianhui Shi, Zhaohui Sun, Xiaoyang Chen, Caijuan Jia, Changlu Wang, Yurong He, Xiujun Wen
Insect sex pheromones play a crucial role in the mate finding and calling behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Currently, little is known about the chemical ecology of Diaphania angustalis Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a severe and important defoliator attacking the medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris. In the present study, the pheromone components of D. angustalis females were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioral methods. Distilled hexane extracts of female pheromone glands were analyzed through electroantennogram (EAG) and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD), and the active compounds were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
L Hossard, S Guimier, F Vinatier, J M Barbier, S Delmotte, M Fontaine, J B Rivoal
Cixiid planthoppers are considered of major economic importance, as they can transmit phytoplasmas responsible for many plant diseases. While thorougly studied in vineyards, the epidemiology of stolbur phytoplasma, transmitted by Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, was rarely investigated on minor crops as lavender, where it leads to 'yellow decline' disease and large economic losses. The objective of this paper is to understand the effect of the local landscape characteristics on the presence and density of H. obsoletus in the 'Plateau de Valensole', southern France...
September 11, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Yongqiang Liu, Xiaowei Fu, Limi Mao, Zhenlong Xing, Kongming Wu
Adults of many insect species often become contaminated with pollen grains when feeding. Identification of plant hosts for M. separata moths could increase our understanding of their geographic origin and the coevolution of M. separata moths and their host plants. However, identifying the diet of noctuid moths using traditional direct observation is limited by their nocturnal and flight habits. In this study, we used core barcode markers and pollen morphology to identify pollen species. We found pollen from 13 plant species belonging to nine families on trapped M...
2017: PloS One
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