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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912368/natural-enemy-communities-and-biological-control-of-parthenolecanium-spp-hemiptera-coccidae-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#1
Ernesto Robayo Camacho, Juang-Horng Chong, S Kris Braman, Steven D Frank, Peter B Schultz
We documented the species composition, seasonal ecology, and impacts of parasitoids and predators of Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché) and P. quercifex (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in the urban landscapes of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, United States. Twenty-one parasitoid morphospecies and 12 predator species were collected through rearing, beat sheet, and sticky card trapping. Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was the most abundant parasitoid species in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, whereas Metaphycus sp...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860449/massive-parallel-regression-a-pr%C3%A3-cis-of-genetic-mechanisms-for-vision-loss-in-diving-beetles
#2
Simon M Tierney, Barbara Langille, William F Humphreys, Andrew D Austin, Steve J B Cooper
Two tribes of subterranean dytiscid diving beetles independently colonised groundwater systems of the Western Australian arid zone, a habitat transition that was most likely driven by the contraction of surface water bodies following late Neogene aridification of the Australian continent. These 'stygofauna' are now trapped within discrete calcrete aquifers that have formed in palaeodrainage valleys, resulting in the world's most diverse radiations of subterranean dytiscid beetles. Approximately 100 species from three genera exhibit partial or fully regressed visual systems and are essentially blind...
May 31, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847551/effects-of-abiotic-environmental-factors-and-land-use-on-the-diversity-of-carrion-visiting-silphid-beetles-coleoptera-silphidae-a-large-scale-carrion-study
#3
Christian von Hoermann, Dennis Jauch, Carolin Kubotsch, Kirsten Reichel-Jung, Sandra Steiger, Manfred Ayasse
Anthropogenic land use causes global declines in biodiversity. Despite the knowledge that animal carrion is the most nutrient-rich form of dead organic matter, studies on landscape and local scales determining whether and the means by which land use intensity influences the diversity of the carrion-associated insect fauna are globally scarce. We investigated the effects of land use intensity and abiotic and biotic environmental factors on the abundance, species richness, and diversity of the important ecosystem-service-providing silphid beetle taxon (carrion beetles) in three regions of Germany...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843605/dnaj-homolog-subfamily-a-member1-dnaj1-is-a-newly-discovered-anti-apoptotic-protein-regulated-by-azadirachtin-in-sf9-cells
#4
Benshui Shu, Jianwen Jia, Jingjing Zhang, Veeran Sethuraman, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
BACKGROUND: Azadirachtin, one of the most promising botanical insecticides, has been widely used for pest control. Azadirachtin induces apoptosis in insect cell lines, including Sf9, SL-1 and BTI-Tn-5B1-4. Mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways are likely involved in the azadirachtin-induced apoptosis, however, detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely undefined. RESULTS: Azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells was verified by morphological observation, Hoechst 33258 staining, and a Caspase-3-based analysis...
May 29, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801625/thermal-acclimation-is-not-induced-by-habitat-of-origin-maintenance-temperature-or-acute-exposure-to-low-or-high-temperatures-in-a-pit-building-wormlion-vermileo-sp
#5
Michael A Bar-Ziv, Inon Scharf
Wormlions are sit-and-wait insect predators that construct pit-traps to capture arthropod prey. They require loose soil and shelter from direct sun, both common in Mediterranean cities, and explaining their high abundance in urban habitats. We studied different aspects of thermal acclimation in wormlions. We compared chill-coma recovery time (CCRT) and heat-shock recovery time (HSRT) of wormlions from urban, semi-urban and natural habitats, expecting those originating from the urban habitat to be more heat tolerant and less cold tolerant...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800424/seasonal-patterns-of-protoschinia-scutosa-lepidoptera-noctuidae-migration-across-china-s-bohai-strait
#6
Shengyuan Zhao, Xiaowei Fu, Jianglong Guo, Yan Zhou, Kris Ag Wyckhuys, Kongming Wu
The spotted clover moth, Protoschinia scutosa (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important polyphagous pest that is widely distributed in the world. P. scutosa overwinters as pupae in agricultural soils in Northern China. Yet, it is unclear whether P. scutosa also engages in seasonal migration over mid- to long-range distances. In this study, we employ light trapping, field surveys, and ovarian dissection of captured adults over a 2003-2015 time period to assess P. scutosa migration in Northern China...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797077/predator-and-parasitoid-insects-along-elevational-gradients-role-of-temperature-and-habitat-diversity
#7
Daria Corcos, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Maurizio Mei, Augusto Vigna Taglianti, Dino Paniccia, Giacomo Santoiemma, Alessio De Biase, Lorenzo Marini
Elevational gradients are characterized by strong abiotic variation within small geographical distances and provide a powerful tool to evaluate community response to variation in climatic and other environmental factors. We explored how temperature and habitat diversity shape the diversity of holometabolous predator and parasitoid insects along temperate elevational gradients in the European Alps. We surveyed insect communities along 12 elevational transects that were selected to separate effects of temperature from those of habitat diversity...
May 24, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791767/increased-body-size-along-urbanization-gradients-at-both-community-and-intraspecific-level-in-macro-moths
#8
Thomas Merckx, Aurélien Kaiser, Hans Van Dyck
Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789922/temperature-affects-phenological-synchrony-in-a-tree-killing-bark-beetle
#9
J A Lombardo, A S Weed, C F Aoki, B T Sullivan, M P Ayres
Phenological synchrony can promote population growth in species with positive density dependence. Variation among life stages in the thermal thresholds for development can foster phenological synchrony under thermal regimes that include frequent occurrence of temperatures between developmental thresholds. The southern pine beetle is an insect with positive density dependence that has recently undergone important shifts in population abundance at the northern extremes of their distribution. We evaluated the hypothesis that cooler winter temperatures in their northern range cause a convergence of the population life stage structure that leads to synchrony in spring flight phenology...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781420/species-specific-aggregation-pheromones-contribute-to-coexistence-in-two-closely-related-thrips-species
#10
X Li, S Geng, Z Zhang, J Zhang, W Li, J Huang, W Lin, Y Bei, Y Lu
Pheromones play an important role in mediating interspecific interactions in insects. In an insect community, pheromones can reveal information about the senders, which could be used by other members of the food web (competitor, natural enemies, etc.) to their own advantage. The aggregation pheromones of two closely related thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa, have been identified with the same major compounds, (R)-lavandulyl acetate and neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, but in different ratios...
May 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774958/effect-of-trapping-method-on-species-identification-of-phlebotomine-sandflies-by-maldi-tof-ms-protein-profiling
#11
P Halada, K Hlavackova, J Risueño, E Berriatua, P Volf, V Dvorak
Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) (Newstead, 1911) are blood-feeding insects that transmit human pathogens including Leishmania (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) parasites, causative agents of the leishmaniases. To elucidate Leishmania transmission cycles, conclusive identification of vector species is essential. Molecular approaches including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein profiling have recently emerged to complement morphological identification...
May 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771331/a-home-made-trap-baited-with-sex-pheromone-for-monitoring-spodoptera-frugiperda-males-lepidoptera-noctuidae-in-corn-crops-in-mexico
#12
Edi A Malo, Samuel Cruz-Esteban, Francisco J González, Julio C Rojas
Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), populations are monitored with a variety of commercial sex pheromone-baited traps. However, a number of trap-related variables may affect the number of FAW males captured. In this study, we tested the effect of trap design, trap size, and trap color for monitoring FAW males in corn crops in Mexico. We found that plastic jug trap (a home-made trap), captured significantly more FAW males than a commercial trap (Scentry Heliothis) and water bottle trap (another home-made trap)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767708/resinosis-inhibits-monochamus-spp-coleoptera-cerambycidae-colonization-of-healthy-shortleaf-pines-in-southeastern-united-states
#13
Matthew W Ethington, Larry D Galligan, Fred M Stephen
The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767335/regulation-of-enzyme-activities-in-carnivorous-pitcher-plants-of-the-genus-nepenthes
#14
Michaela Saganová, Boris Bokor, Tibor Stolárik, Andrej Pavlovič
Nepenthes regulates enzyme activities by sensing stimuli from the insect prey. Protein is the best inductor mimicking the presence of an insect prey. Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved passive pitcher traps for prey capture. In this study, we investigated the ability of chemical signals from a prey (chitin, protein, and ammonium) to induce transcription and synthesis of digestive enzymes in Nepenthes × Mixta. We used real-time PCR and specific antibodies generated against the aspartic proteases nepenthesins, and type III and type IV chitinases to investigate the induction of digestive enzyme synthesis in response to different chemical stimuli from the prey...
May 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747429/a-vision-based-counting-and-recognition-system-for-flying-insects-in-intelligent-agriculture
#15
Yuanhong Zhong, Junyuan Gao, Qilun Lei, Yao Zhou
Rapid and accurate counting and recognition of flying insects are of great importance, especially for pest control. Traditional manual identification and counting of flying insects is labor intensive and inefficient. In this study, a vision-based counting and classification system for flying insects is designed and implemented. The system is constructed as follows: firstly, a yellow sticky trap is installed in the surveillance area to trap flying insects and a camera is set up to collect real-time images. Then the detection and coarse counting method based on You Only Look Once (YOLO) object detection, the classification method and fine counting based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) using global features are designed...
May 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745349/automated-moth-flight-analysis-in-the-vicinity-of-artificial-light
#16
P Gaydecki
Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743688/lethal-trap-created-by-adaptive-evolutionary-response-to-an-exotic-resource
#17
Michael C Singer, Camille Parmesan
Global transport of organisms by humans provides novel resources to wild species, which often respond maladaptively. Native herbivorous insects have been killed feeding on toxic exotic plants, which acted as 'ecological traps'1-4 . We document a novel 'eco-evolutionary trap' stemming from the opposite effect; that is, high fitness on an exotic resource despite lack of adaptation to it. Plantago lanceolata was introduced to western North America by cattle-ranching. Feeding on this exotic plant released a large, isolated population of the native butterfly Euphydryas editha from a longstanding trade-off between maternal fecundity and offspring mortality...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735653/arthropods-in-modern-resins-reveal-if-amber-accurately-recorded-forest-arthropod-communities
#18
Mónica M Solórzano Kraemer, Xavier Delclòs, Matthew E Clapham, Antonio Arillo, David Peris, Peter Jäger, Frauke Stebner, Enrique Peñalver
Amber is an organic multicompound derivative from the polymerization of resin of diverse higher plants. Compared with other modes of fossil preservation, amber records the anatomy of and ecological interactions between ancient soft-bodied organisms with exceptional fidelity. However, it is currently suggested that ambers do not accurately record the composition of arthropod forest paleocommunities, due to crucial taphonomic biases. We evaluated the effects of taphonomic processes on arthropod entrapment by resin from the plant Hymenaea , one of the most important resin-producing trees and a producer of tropical Cenozoic ambers and Anthropocene (or subfossil) resins...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732251/pollen-sleuthing-for-terrestrial-plant-surveys-locating-plant-populations-by-exploiting-pollen-movement
#19
Lesley G Campbell, Stephanie J Melles, Eric Vaz, Rebecca J Parker, Kevin S Burgess
Premise of the Study: We present an innovative technique for sampling, identifying, and locating plant populations that release pollen, without extensive ground surveys. This method (1) samples pollen at random locations within the target species' habitat, (2) detects species' presence using morphological pollen analysis, and (3) uses kriging to predict likely locations of populations to focus future search efforts. Methods: To demonstrate, we applied the pollen sleuthing system to search for artificially constructed populations of Brassica rapa in an old field...
January 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722869/screwworm-diptera-calliphoridae-in-the-united-states-response-to-and-elimination-of-the-2016-2017-outbreak-in-florida
#20
Steven R Skoda, Pamela L Phillips, John B Welch
Eradicating screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from continental North American via the sterile insect technique has provided huge economic benefit to livestock producers by eliminating screwworm myiasis. After confirmatory identification of fly samples from infested deer by the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory on September 30, 2016, an alert was issued that screwworm myiasis was discovered in the Florida Keys. Personnel from USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Research Service, the State of Florida, U...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
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