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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423424/field-evaluation-of-potential-pheromone-lures-for-lygus-lineolaris-hemiptera-miridae-in-the-mid-south
#1
Katherine A Parys, David R Hall
Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lygus, and other closely related groups, indicated that they produce blends of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate, and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal. Varying ratios of the three compounds were loaded into pipette tips, and screened in combination with non-UV white sticky cards for attractiveness to field populations of L...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417591/effective-mosquito-and-arbovirus-surveillance-using-metabarcoding
#2
J Batovska, S E Lynch, N O I Cogan, K Brown, J M Darbro, E A Kho, M J Blacket
Effective vector and arbovirus surveillance requires timely and accurate screening techniques that can be easily upscaled. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a high-throughput technology that has the potential to modernise vector surveillance. When combined with DNA barcoding, it is termed 'metabarcoding'. The aim of our study was to establish a metabarcoding protocol to characterise pools of mosquitoes and screen them for virus. Pools contained 100 morphologically identified individuals, including one Ross River virus (RRV) infected mosquito, with three species present at different proportions: 1, 5, 94%...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416693/insect-haptoelectrical-stimulation-of-venus-flytrap-triggers-exocytosis-in-gland-cells
#3
Sönke Scherzer, Lana Shabala, Benjamin Hedrich, Jörg Fromm, Hubert Bauer, Eberhard Munz, Peter Jakob, Khaled A S Al-Rascheid, Ines Kreuzer, Dirk Becker, Monika Eiblmeier, Heinz Rennenberg, Sergey Shabala, Malcolm Bennett, Erwin Neher, Rainer Hedrich
The Venus flytrap Dionaea muscipula captures insects and consumes their flesh. Prey contacting touch-sensitive hairs trigger traveling electrical waves. These action potentials (APs) cause rapid closure of the trap and activate secretory functions of glands, which cover its inner surface. Such prey-induced haptoelectric stimulation activates the touch hormone jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway, which initiates secretion of an acidic hydrolase mixture to decompose the victim and acquire the animal nutrients. Although postulated since Darwin's pioneering studies, these secretory events have not been recorded so far...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406924/quantifying-dispersal-of-a-non-aggressive-saprophytic-bark-beetle
#4
Nicolas Meurisse, Stephen Pawson
Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401482/attractiveness-of-different-food-resources-to-dung-beetles-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-of-a-dry-tropical-area
#5
R P Salomão, A C D Maia, B M Bezerra, L Iannuzzi
Excrement scarcity is one of the main historical factors leading dung beetles to adapt to other food resources. In the Caatinga, a seasonally tropical dry forest, harsh environmental conditions seem to restrict the availability of food resources. In this scenario, the aim of our study was to experimentally investigate the attractiveness of different potential food resources to these insects in the Caatinga. Field samplings were performed, and we tested five resources in pitfall baited traps: excrement, carrion, fruits of two species of columnar cacti, and seeds of one species of Euphorbiaceae (Jatropha mollissima (Pohl))...
April 11, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399228/species-abundance-and-identification-of-forensically-important-flies-of-saudi-arabia-by-dna-barcoding
#6
Ashraf Mashaly, Reem Alajmi, Abd El-Zaher Mustafa, Ahmed Rady, Hussein Alkhedir
Because they may demonstrate characteristics of the environment where a body has been laying prior to the discovery, flies are insects of forensic interest. We investigated the fly abundance and the effect of location in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on fly species diversity that attack decomposing human and animal remains. Using baited traps deployed in each location, we collected 3,697 flies of seven species belonging to three families. Chrysomya albiceps Wiedmann represented 60.86% of the collected flies, whereas Musca domestica L...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398534/filth-fly-activity-associated-with-composted-and-noncomposted-beef-cadavers-and-laboratory-studies-on-volatile-organic-compounds
#7
T R Dubie, J L Talley, J B Payne, A W Wayadande, J Dillwith, C Richards
Commercial livestock facilities are faced with the challenge of managing large amounts of waste including manure and animal mortalities. One method of disposing of dead animals is composting. The cadavers are enveloped in carbon material that creates a barrier between the dead tissue and the surrounding environment. Dead tissue can release materials that not only contaminate the soil but also the groundwater and nearby surface water. Animal cadaver composting is designed to facilitate decomposition without the aid of carrion-feeding insects and reduce the presence of common pathogens associated with animal waste and dead tissue...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397990/germline-transformation-of-the-western-corn-rootworm-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera
#8
F Chu, W Klobasa, P Wu, S Pinzi, N Grubbs, S Gorski, Y Cardoza, M D Lorenzen
The western corn rootworm (WCR), a major pest of maize, is notorious for rapidly adapting biochemically, behaviourally and developmentally to a variety of control methods. Despite much effort, the genetic basis of WCR adaptation remains a mystery. Since transformation-based applications such as transposon tagging and enhancer trapping have facilitated genetic dissection of model species such as Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a germline-transformation system for WCR in an effort to gain a greater understanding of the basic biology of this economically important insect...
April 11, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390027/insects-associated-with-pig-carrion-in-two-environments-of-the-brazilian-savanna
#9
L S de Faria, M L Paseto, M S Couri, C A Mello-Patiu, J Mendes
Studies of carrion fauna have increased in Brazil and have contributed to the knowledge of this fauna in the national territory. Brazil has continental dimensions and presents various biomes in its territorial area. Most of the carrion fauna have seldom been studied, and this is especially true for the Savanna or "Cerrado." The present research examined the fauna visiting carrion in two environments and two seasons in a rural area situated in a region of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. The two environments studied were a pasture and a fragment of semi-deciduous forest...
April 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379550/does-passive-sampling-accurately-reflect-the-bee-apoidea-anthophila-communities-pollinating-apple-and-sour-cherry-orchards
#10
Jason Gibbs, Neelendra K Joshi, Julianna K Wilson, Nikki L Rothwell, Karen Powers, Mike Haas, Larry Gut, David J Biddinger, Rufus Isaacs
During bloom of spring orchard crops, bees are the primary providers of pollination service. Monitoring these insects for research projects is often done by timed observations or by direct aerial netting, but there has been increasing interest in blue vane traps as an efficient passive approach to collecting bees. Over multiple spring seasons in Michigan and Pennsylvania, orchards were monitored for wild bees using timed netting from crop flowers and blue vane traps. This revealed a distinctly different community of wild bees captured using the two methods, suggesting that blue vane traps can complement but cannot replace direct aerial netting...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378269/traps-and-baits-for-luring-grapholita-molesta-busck-adults-in-mating-disruption-treated-apple-orchards
#11
A C Padilha, C J Arioli, M I C Boff, J M Rosa, M Botton
Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the main pests in apple crops in Brazil, where it is controlled by mating disruption (MD) with the use of the synthetic sex pheromone. However, sex-pheromone-based monitoring is not effective in MD-treated areas and may result in losses in production. This work has defined a trap model and a bait for luring G. molesta adults in MD apple orchards. The experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards located in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. Three trap models-McPhail, Pot, and Ajar-and three baits-grape juice (25%) (GJ), sugarcane molasses (25%) (SM), and a solution containing brown sugar (8...
April 4, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369537/seasonal-patterns-of-stored-product-insects-at-a-rice-mill
#12
Tanja McKay, Amanda L White, Laura A Starkus, Frank H Arthur, James F Campbell
The temporal and spatial patterns in flight activity outside of a rice mill were evaluated for the lesser grain borer [Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)], warehouse beetle [Trogoderma variabile Ballion], cigarette beetle [Lasioderma serricorne (F.)], and Indian meal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hüϋbner)] to determine critical times of year when the mill would be vulnerable to invasion. Insect activity was monitored using pheromone-baited glue traps (N = 99) from June 2008 to October 2010. Traps were placed along exterior walls of all major buildings and along the fence around the perimeter of the facility...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369447/effectiveness-of-winkler-litter-extraction-and-pitfall-traps-in-sampling-ant-communities-and-functional-groups-in-a-temperate-forest
#13
Michael B Mahon, Kaitlin U Campbell, Thomas O Crist
Selection of proper sampling methods for measuring a community of interest is essential whether the study goals are to conduct a species inventory, environmental monitoring, or a manipulative experiment. Insect diversity studies often employ multiple collection methods at the expense of researcher time and funding. Ants (Formicidae) are widely used in environmental monitoring owing to their sensitivity to ecosystem changes. When sampling ant communities, two passive techniques are recommended in combination: pitfall traps and Winkler litter extraction...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369372/bed-bug-hemiptera-cimicidae-detection-in-low-income-high-rise-apartments-using-four-or-fewer-passive-monitors
#14
K M Vail, J G Chandler
Bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., management in low-income, high-rise housing for the elderly and disabled can be difficult. Early detection is key to slowing their spread, and reducing management cost and time needed for control. To determine the minimum number of passive monitors needed to detect low-level bed bug infestations in this environment, we evaluated three monitors placed one, two, or four per apartment in a 3 by 3 experimental design. One sticky monitor, The Bedbug Detection System, and the two pitfall monitors, ClimbUp Insect Interceptors BG and BlackOut BedBug Detectors, were evaluated...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365767/diel-patterns-of-activity-for-insect-pollinators-of-two-oil-palm-species-arecales-arecaceae
#15
Thomas Auffray, Brigitte Frérot, Roberto Poveda, Claude Louise, Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier
The pollination of two oil palm species, Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and Elaeis oleifera Cortés (Arecales: Arecaceae), depends on a mutualistic relation with insects, which use male inflorescences as a brood site, and visits female inflorescences lured by the emitted odor, which is similar to that of males. Although the activity of visiting the inflorescences by these insects is critical for the adequate natural pollination of the host plant, their activity is poorly documented. In the present study, we determine the diel activity of two specialized pollinator weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on inflorescences of their respective host-palm: Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust specialized on E...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355216/chirosurveillance-the-use-of-native-bats-to-detect-invasive-agricultural-pests
#16
Brooke Maslo, Rafael Valentin, Karen Leu, Kathleen Kerwin, George C Hamilton, Amanda Bevan, Nina H Fefferman, Dina M Fonseca
Invasive insect pests cost the agricultural industry billions of dollars annually in crop losses. Timely detection of pests is critical for management efficiency. Innovative pest detection strategies, such as environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques, combined with efficient predators, maximize sampling resolution across space and time and may improve surveillance. We tested the hypothesis that temperate insectivorous bats can be important sentinels of agricultural insect pest surveillance. Specifically, we used a new high-sensitivity molecular assay for invasive brown marmorated stink bugs (Halyomorpha halys) to examine the extent to which big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) detect agricultural pests in the landscape...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347327/mechanistic-model-for-predicting-the-seasonal-abundance-of-culicoides-biting-midges-and-the-impacts-of-insecticide-control
#17
Steven M White, Christopher J Sanders, Christopher R Shortall, Bethan V Purse
BACKGROUND: Understanding seasonal patterns of abundance of insect vectors is important for optimisation of control strategies of vector-borne diseases. Environmental drivers such as temperature, humidity and photoperiod influence vector abundance, but it is not generally known how these drivers combine to affect seasonal population dynamics. METHODS: In this paper, we derive and analyse a novel mechanistic stage-structured simulation model for Culicoides biting midges-the principle vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses which cause mortality and morbidity in livestock and impact trade...
March 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338605/comparing-species-composition-of-passive-trapping-of-adult-flies-with-larval-collections-from-the-body-during-scene-based-medicolegal-death-investigations
#18
Michelle R Sanford
Collection of insects at the scene is one of the most important aspects of forensic entomology and proper collection is one of the biggest challenges for any investigator. Adult flies are highly mobile and ubiquitous at scenes, yet their link to the body and the time of colonization (TOC) and post-mortem interval (PMI) estimates is not well established. Collection of adults is widely recommended for casework but has yet to be rigorously evaluated during medicolegal death investigations for its value to the investigation...
March 24, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335456/mosquito-traps-an-innovative-environmentally-friendly-technique-to-control-mosquitoes
#19
Brigitte Poulin, Gaëtan Lefebvre, Camille Muranyi-Kovacs, Samuel Hilaire
We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France) following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO₂ and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334411/first-report-of-mating-disruption-with-an-aggregation-pheromone-a-case-study-with-tetropium-fuscum-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#20
Jon Sweeney, Peter J Silk, Marc Rhainds, Wayne MacKay, Cory Hughes, Kate Van Rooyen, Wayne MacKinnon, Gaetan Leclair, Steve Holmes, Edward G Kettela
Tetropium fuscum (F.), native to Europe and established in Nova Scotia, Canada, since at least 1990, is considered a low-to-moderate threat to spruce (Picea spp.) forests in North America and regulated as a quarantine pest by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. We tested broadcast applications of the aggregation pheromone racemic (5E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (fuscumol), formulated at 10% concentration in Hercon Bio-Flakes (Hercon International, Emigsville, PA), for efficacy in disrupting T. fuscum mating and suppressing populations...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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