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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095875/assessment-of-synthetic-floral-based-attractants-and-sugar-baits-to-capture-male-and-female-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae
#1
Kara Fikrig, Brian J Johnson, Durland Fish, Scott A Ritchie
BACKGROUND: The viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, including dengue and Zika viruses, are rapidly expanding in geographic range and as a threat to public health. In response, control programs are increasingly turning to the use of sterile insect techniques resulting in a need to trap male Ae. aegypti to monitor the efficacy of the intervention. However, there is a lack of effective and cheap methods for trapping males. Thus, we attempted to exploit the physiological need to obtain energy from sugar feeding in order to passively capture male and female Ae...
January 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075346/automated-surveillance-of-fruit-flies
#2
Ilyas Potamitis, Iraklis Rigakis, Nicolaos-Alexandros Tatlas
Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat...
January 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073979/effect-of-the-presence-of-live-or-dead-insects-on-subsequent-captures-of-six-stored-product-beetle-species-the-relative-species-matters
#3
Christos G Athanassiou, Nickolas G Kavallieratos, James F Campbell
In trapping programs prior capture of individuals of the same or different species may influence subsequent attractiveness of the trap. To evaluate this process with stored-product insects, the effect of the presence of dead or alive adults in traps on the behavioral responses of six stored-product insect species, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, T. castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), S. granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) and O...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071812/recovery-of-aquatic-insect-mediated-methylmercury-flux-from-ponds-following-drying-disturbance
#4
Matthew M Chumchal, Ray W Drenner, Frank M Greenhill, James H Kennedy, Ashlyn E Courville, Charlie A A Gober, Luke O Lossau
Small ponds exist across a permanence gradient and pond permanence is hypothesized to be a primary determinant of insect community structure and insect-mediated methylmercury (MeHg) flux from ponds to the surrounding terrestrial landscape. Here we present the first experiment examining the recovery of insect-mediated MeHg flux following a drying disturbance that converted permanent ponds with insectivorous fish to semi-permanent ponds without fish. We used floating emergence traps to collect emergent insects for 10 weeks in the spring and summer from five ponds with fish (permanent) and five ponds that were drained to remove fish, dried and refilled with water (semi-permanent)...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059148/enhancement-of-mosquito-trapping-efficiency-by-using-pulse-width-modulated-light-emitting-diodes
#5
Yu-Nan Liu, Yu-Jen Liu, Yi-Chian Chen, Hsin-Yi Ma, Hsiao-Yi Lee
In this study, a light-driving bug zapper is presented for well controlling the diseases brought by insects, such as mosquitoes. In order to have the device efficient to trap the insect pests in off-grid areas, pulse width modulated light emitting diodes (PWM-LED) combined with a solar power module are proposed and implemented. With specific PWM electric signals to drive the LED, it is found that no matter what the ability of catching insects or the consumed power efficiency can be enhanced thus. It is demonstrated that 40% of the UV LED consumed power and 25...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042105/a-comparison-of-trapping-techniques-coleoptera-carabidae-buprestidae-cerambycidae-and-curculionoidea-excluding-scolytinae
#6
Michael J Skvarla, Ashley P G Dowling
Beetles (Coleoptera) are a charismatic group of insects targeted by collectors and often used in biodiversity surveys. As part of a larger project, we surveyed a small (4 hectare) plot in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas using 70 traps of 12 trap types and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter and identified all Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea (Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brachyceridae, Brentidae, and Curculionidae excluding Scolytinae) to species. This resulted in the collection of 7,973 specimens representing 242 species arranged in 8 families...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028105/flight-period-of-mountain-pine-beetle-coleoptera-curculionidae-in-its-recently-expanded-range
#7
K P Bleiker, B H Van Hezewijk
The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028095/behavioral-responses-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-to-visual-stimuli-under-laboratory-semifield-and-field-conditions
#8
Kevin B Rice, Brent D Short, Sharon K Jones, Tracy C Leskey
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in North America and Europe that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding the specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistencies in trap performance indicate the need for the development of improved monitoring and management techniques for this insect. Our studies focused on identifying attractive visual cues for adult D. suzukii and incorporating these cues into a potential attract-and-kill tactic for D...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025314/cucumber-lure-trapping-of-zeugodacus-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae-in-hawaii-and-taiwan-longevity-and-nontargets-captures
#9
Eric B Jang, Lori A F N Carvalho, Chung-Chien Chen, Matthew S Siderhurst
The melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a serious pest of tropical horticulture, causing damage to cucurbits, tree fruits, and fruiting vegetables. Melon flies are especially attractive to freshly sliced cucumber, and this has led to the identification of a nine-compound kairomone lure that can be used to trap both female and male flies. In this study, a seven-compound lure, containing (Z)-6-nonenal, (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, hexanal, and 1-hexanol, was formulated into PVC plugs (100 or 300 mg/plug) for field testing in wet traps...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011735/occurrence-of-amblyomma-americanum-acari-ixodidae-and-human-infection-with-ehrlichia-chaffeensis-in-wisconsin-2008-2015
#10
Megan Christenson, Xia Lee, Scott Larson, Diep Hoang Johnson, Julia Jensen, Megan Meller, Susan Paskewitz
Because of the increasing incidence of human ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin, we assessed reports of human infections by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and the distribution of its vector, the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum (L.)). From 2008 through 2015, 158 probable and confirmed human cases of E. chaffeensis infections were reported to the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. Five cases without travel history outside of Wisconsin were confirmed as E. chaffeensis by polymerase chain reaction. Surveillance for the vector occurred from 2008 through 2015 and was based on active and passive methods, including examination of white-tailed deer, collections from live-trapped small mammals, submissions of ticks removed from wild and domestic animals through the Wisconsin Surveillance of Animals for Ticks (SWAT) program, digital or physical submissions by the public to the University of Wisconsin Insect Diagnostic or Medical Entomology laboratories, and active tick dragging...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011679/seasonal-population-dynamics-of-thrips-thysanoptera-in-wisconsin-and-iowa-soybean-fields
#11
Chris Bloomingdale, Melissa D Irizarry, Russell L Groves, Daren S Mueller, Damon L Smith
With the discovery of Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) as a vector of Soybean vein necrosis virus (Family Bunyaviridae Genus Tospovirus), a relatively new pathogen of soybean, a multiyear study was initiated in Wisconsin (2013 and 2014) and Iowa (2014 and 2015) to determine the phenology and species composition of thrips in soybean fields. Yellow sticky card traps were used to sample thrips at regular intervals in five counties within each state's primary soybean-growing region. The assemblage of species present in Wisconsin was determined in all site-years, revealing that N...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007833/insect-resistance-management-in-bt-maize-wild-host-plants-of-stem-borers-do-not-serve-as-refuges-in-africa
#12
J Van den Berg
Resistance evolution by target pests threatens the sustainability of Bt maize in Africa where insect resistance management (IRM) strategies are faced by unique challenges. The assumptions, on which current IRM strategies for stem borers are based, are not all valid for African maize stem borer species. The high dose-refuge strategy which is used to delay resistance evolution relies heavily on the presence of appropriate refuges (non-Bt plants) where pests are not under selection pressure and where sufficient numbers of Bt-susceptible individuals are produced to mate with possible survivors on the Bt maize crop...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001216/sandflies-diptera-psychodidae-in-an-urban-area-of-northeastern-brazil
#13
Maria Claudia Ribeiro Agra, Pietra Lemos Costa, Anderson Enio Silva Duque, Efraim Naftali Lopes Soares, Leucio Câmara Alves, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Gílcia Aparecida de Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994979/diet-of-the-endangered-big-headed-turtle-platysternon-megacephalum
#14
Yik-Hei Sung, Billy C H Hau, Nancy E Karraker
Populations of the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum are declining at unprecedented rates across most of its distribution in Southeast Asia owing to unsustainable harvest for pet, food, and Chinese medicine markets. Research on Asian freshwater turtles becomes more challenging as populations decline and basic ecological information is needed to inform conservation efforts. We examined fecal samples collected from P. megacephalum in five streams in Hong Kong to quantify the diet, and we compared the germination success of ingested and uningested seeds...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990328/bioluminescence-in-the-ghost-fungus-omphalotus-nidiformis-does-not-attract-potential-spore-dispersing-insects
#15
Philip Weinstein, Steven Delean, Tom Wood, Andrew D Austin
Bioluminescence has been known from fungi since ancient times, but little work has been done to establish its potential role. There is evidence that some bioluminescent fungi differentially attract potential spore-dispersing insects, and we aimed to establish if this was the case for the ghost fungus, Omphalotus nidiformis (Agaricales,Marasmiaceae), a widespread Australian temperate zone species. We examined three corroborative lines of evidence: circadian rhythmicity of bioluminescence; field-recorded insect abundance at the time of basidiome production; and attractiveness of glowing fungi to flying insects...
December 2016: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982353/sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-in-an-endemic-area-of-leishmaniasis-in-aquidauana-municipality-pantanal-of-mato-grosso-do-sul-brazil
#16
Helen Rezende de Figueiredo, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha Santos, Aline Etelvina Casaril, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura Infran, Leticia Moraes Ribeiro, Carlos Eurico Dos Santos Fernandes, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev...
December 8, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940217/ants-and-antlions-the-impact-of-ecology-coevolution-and-learning-on-an-insect-predator-prey-relationship
#17
Karen L Hollis
A behavioural ecological approach to the relationship between pit-digging larval antlions and their common prey, ants, provides yet another example of how the specific ecological niche that species inhabit imposes selection pressures leading to unique behavioural adaptations. Antlions rely on multiple strategies to capture prey with a minimal expenditure of energy and extraordinary efficiency while ants employ several different strategies for avoiding capture, including rescue of trapped nestmates. Importantly, both ants and antlions rely heavily on their capacity for learning, a tool that sometimes is overlooked in predator-prey relationships, leading to the implicit assumption that behavioural adaptations are the result of fixed, hard-wired responses...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933609/the-role-of-electrical-and-jasmonate-signalling-in-the-recognition-of-captured-prey-in-the-carnivorous-sundew-plant-drosera-capensis
#18
Miroslav Krausko, Zdeněk Perutka, Marek Šebela, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj, Ondřej Novák, Andrej Pavlovič
The carnivorous sundew plant (Drosera capensis) captures prey using sticky tentacles. We investigated the tentacle and trap reactions in response to the electrical and jasmonate signalling evoked by different stimuli to reveal how carnivorous sundews recognize digestible captured prey in their traps. We measured the electrical signals, phytohormone concentration, enzyme activities and Chla fluorescence in response to mechanical stimulation, wounding or insect feeding in local and systemic traps. Seven new proteins in the digestive fluid were identified using mass spectrometry...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932930/testing-the-global-malaise-trap-program-how-well-does-the-current-barcode-reference-library-identify-flying-insects-in-germany
#19
Matthias F Geiger, Jerome Moriniere, Axel Hausmann, Gerhard Haszprunar, Wolfgang Wägele, Paul D N Hebert, Björn Rulik
BACKGROUND: Biodiversity patterns are inherently complex and difficult to comprehensively assess. Yet, deciphering shifts in species composition through time and space are crucial for efficient and successful management of ecosystem services, as well as for predicting change. To better understand species diversity patterns, Germany participated in the Global Malaise Trap Program, a world-wide collection program for arthropods using this sampling method followed by their DNA barcode analysis...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910106/identification-of-semiochemicals-attractive-to-simulium-vittatum-is-7
#20
G G Verocai, T W McGAHA, J P Iburg, C R Katholi, E W Cupp, R Noblet, T R Unnasch
Many blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) are economically important insect pests, both as nuisance biters and as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance. Among the important blackfly pest species in North America is Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt sensu lato. The objective of this study was to identify compounds excreted by mammalian hosts that are attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females. The attractiveness of putative compounds to colonized S. vittatum was tested through electrophysiological (electroantennography; n = 58 compounds) and behavioural (Y-tube assays; n = 7 compounds in three concentrations) bioassays...
December 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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