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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225609/efficiency-of-trichome-based-plant-defense-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-depends-on-insect-behavior-plant-ontogeny-and-structure
#1
Zhenlong Xing, Yongqiang Liu, Wanzhi Cai, Xinzheng Huang, Shengyong Wu, Zhongren Lei
Plant trichomes often function as physical barriers in preventing arthropod feeding and oviposition. Even though insects are frequently reported being entrapped and killed by trichome traps, the actual trapping behavior has not yet been described in detail. Capture experiments showed that capture efficiency during the plant's vegetative stage was considerably higher than in the fruiting and cotyledon stages. The ventral surface of the leaf was more effective in trapping flies than other parts of the plant. Capture-events monitoring showed that the mouthparts, legs, and ovipositor of Liriomyza trifolii adults are the body parts involved in entrapment by surface trichomes on Phaseolus vulgaris plants, and subsequently, deter their ability to feed, walk, and oviposit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221673/mother-doesn-t-always-know-best-maternal-wormlion-choice-of-oviposition-habitat-does-not-match-larval-habitat-choice
#2
Shay Adar, Roi Dor
Habitat choice is an important decision that influences animals' fitness. Insect larvae are less mobile than the adults. Consequently, the contribution of the maternal choice of habitat to the survival and development of the offspring is considered to be crucial. According to the "preference-performance hypothesis", ovipositing females are expected to choose habitats that will maximize the performance of their offspring. We tested this hypothesis in wormlions (Diptera: Vermileonidae), which are small sand-dwelling insects that dig pit-traps in sandy patches and ambush small arthropods...
December 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186543/field-evaluation-of-commercial-attractants-and-trap-placement-for-monitoring-pine-sawyer-beetle-monochamus-alternatus-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-guangdong-china
#3
Tao Ma, Xianhui Shi, Jing Shen, Cai Wang, Shengnan Zhang, Xuelei Lu, Zhaohui Sun, Xiaoyang Chen, Changlu Wang, Weilong Xie, Xiujun Wen
The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious insect pest of pine trees by vectoring the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Field studies were carried out during 2013-2015 in Guangdong (China) to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial attractants, effect of trap placement for monitoring M. alternatus, and temporal patterns of trap catch. Four commercial attractants, three trap placements (0, 1...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182772/identification-of-ceratitis-capitata-diptera-tephritidae-sperm-from-females-in-traps-the-importance-of-the-ventral-receptacle
#4
L López-Muñoz, E F López, C A Feliciano, D N Soto, D Pérez-Staples
The monitoring of a pest population often relies on the identification of individuals from traps. For area-wide programs utilizing the sterile insect technique, the further identification of the mated status of females found in traps is of utmost importance. For the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), this is usually verified through the assessment of sperm in the spermathecae. However, this can be misleading for species where there are other sperm storage organs such as the ventral receptacle...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169903/-new-public-health-challenges-in-vector-management-black-flies-in-murcia-spain
#5
Pedro F Sánchez-López, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo, Heiko Kotter, Francisco Pacheco Martínez, Manuel Segovia Hernández, M Elisa Gómez Campoy
Historically, no black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) nuisance has been reported in the Murcia Region. Back in September 2016 the Ojós City Council has contacted the Regional Public Health General Directorate for help regarding a local insect nuisance, most probably based on mosquitoes. After sampling with a BG-sentinel 2 trap, collecting adult specimens with an entomological aspirator, and collect larvae and pupae on submerged giant cane stalks at the river, it turned out that Simulium sergenti was the insect species causing the nuisance...
November 20, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166979/explaining-variations-in-the-diversity-of-parasitoid-assemblages-in-a-biosphere-reserve-of-mexico-evidence-from-vegetation-land-management-and-seasonality
#6
A González-Moreno, S Bordera, J Leirana-Alcocer, H Delfín-González, H S Ballina-Gómez
Insect fauna biodiversity in natural protected areas has not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess whether and how vegetation types, land management and seasonality influence the diversity of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) in the Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve (Mexico). A sampling programme was conducted using Malaise traps from 2008 to 2009 in three vegetation types, each with two conservation zones (core and buffer zones). Three seasons were considered: rainy, dry and north-winds (isolated storms from November to February)...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145003/the-importance-of-saprinus-semistriatus-coleoptera-histeridae-for-estimating-the-minimum-post-mortem-interval
#7
I Szelecz, N Feddern, C V W Seppey, J Amendt, E A D Mitchell
In forensic science, the use of entomological evidence to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval can be crucial. However, not all cadaver-visiting insects are equally useful. Our focus is on the histerid beetle Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba 1790) (Histeridae; Coleoptera). Histeridae are common predators that feed mainly on dipteran larvae on carrion and dung. We review 23 publications mentioning this species and provide new experimental data on its temporal pattern beneath and on hanging pig cadavers. In a field experiment near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, we recorded the abundance of S...
November 10, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132398/traditions-beliefs-and-indigenous-technologies-in-connection-with-the-edible-longhorn-grasshopper-ruspolia-differens-serville-1838-in-tanzania
#8
Mercy W Mmari, John N Kinyuru, Henry S Laswai, Judith K Okoth
BACKGROUND: Edible insects are an important source of food to many African populations. The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville 1838), commonly known as senene in Tanzania is one of the most appreciated edible insects by societies around Lake Victoria crescent. Senene is primarily an essential treat for the tribes around the lake, e.g., the Haya of Tanzania, Luo of Kenya and Baganda of Uganda. Despite its importance as a food item and appreciation as a delicacy, there are few studies dealing with culture, beliefs and indigenous technology in connection with the senene...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117243/virome-analysis-of-two-sympatric-bat-species-desmodus-rotundus-and-molossus-molossus-in-french-guiana
#9
Arielle Salmier, Sourakhata Tirera, Benoit de Thoisy, Alain Franc, Edith Darcissac, Damien Donato, Christiane Bouchier, Vincent Lacoste, Anne Lavergne
Environmental disturbances in the Neotropics (e.g., deforestation, agriculture intensification, urbanization) contribute to an increasing risk of cross-species transmission of microorganisms and to disease outbreaks due to changing ecosystems of reservoir hosts. Although Amazonia encompasses the greatest diversity of reservoir species, the outsized viral population diversity (virome) has yet to be investigated. Here, through a metagenomic approach, we identified 10,991 viral sequences in the saliva and feces of two bat species, Desmodus rotundus (hematophagous), trapped in two different caves surrounded by primary lowland forest, and Molossus molossus (insectivorous), trapped in forest and urban habitats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104309/quantification-of-within-and-between-farm-dispersal-of-culicoides-biting-midges-using-an-immunomarking-technique
#10
Christopher J Sanders, Lara E Harrup, Laura A Tugwell, Victor A Brugman, Marion England, Simon Carpenter
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of arboviruses that cause significant economic and welfare impact. Local-scale spread of Culicoides-borne arboviruses is largely determined by the between-farm movement of infected Culicoides.Study of the dispersal behaviour of Culicoides by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) is problematic due to the likelihood of mortality and changes in behaviour upon capture caused by the small size and fragility of these insects, evidenced by low recapture rates...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078044/invasive-oaks-escape-pre-dispersal-insect-seed-predation-and-trap-enemies-in-their-seeds
#11
Michał Bogdziewicz, Raul Bonal, Josep M Espelta, Ewa M Kalemba, Michael A Steele, Rafał Zwolak
Species introduced to habitats outside their native range often escape control by their natural enemies. Besides competing with native species, an alien species might also affect the native herbivores by introducing a new source of different quality food. Here, we describe the case of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) invasion in Europe. We collected data on insect (moth Cydia spp. and weevil Curculio spp.) seed predation of northern red oak in its native (USA, North America) and invasive (Poland, Europe) range, as well as for sessile oaks (Q...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075471/ecological-response-hides-behind-the-species-abundance-distribution-community-response-to-low-intensity-disturbance-in-managed-grasslands
#12
Atte Komonen, Merja Elo
Land-use and management are disturbance factors that have diverse effects on community composition and structure. In traditional rural grasslands, such as meadows and pastures, low-intensity management is maintained to enhance biodiversity. Maintenance of road verges, in turn, creates habitat, which may complement traditional rural grasslands. To evaluate the effect of low-intensity disturbance on insect communities, we characterized species abundance distributions (SAD) for Carabidae, Formicidae, and Heteroptera in three grassland types, which differed in management: meadows, pastures, and road verges...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064185/field-efficacy-of-insect-pathogen-botanical-and-jasmonic-acid-for-the-management-of-wheat-midge-sitodiplosis-mosellana-and-the-impact-on-adult-parasitoid-macroglenes-penetrans-populations-in-spring-wheat
#13
Govinda Shrestha, Gadi V P Reddy
The wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, is a serious pest of wheat worldwide. In North America, management of S. mosellana in spring wheat relies on the timely application of pesticides, based on midge adults levels caught in pheromone traps or seen via field scouting during wheat heading. In this context, biopesticides can be an effective alternative to pesticides for controlling S. mosellana within an integrated pest management program. A field study using insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana GHA, nematode Steinernema feltiae with Barricade polymer gel 1 %, pyrethrin, combined formulations of B...
October 24, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058978/advances-in-attract-and-kill-for-agricultural-pests-beyond-pheromones
#14
Peter C Gregg, Alice P Del Socorro, Peter J Landolt
Attract-and-kill has considerable potential as a tactic in integrated management of pests of agricultural crops, but the use of sex pheromones as attractants is limited by male multiple mating and immigration of mated females into treated areas. Attractants for both sexes, and particularly females, would minimize these difficulties. Volatile compounds derived from plants or fermentation of plant products can attract females and have been used in traps for monitoring and control, and in sprayable attract-and-kill formulations or bait stations...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053788/tropical-rainforest-and-human-modified-landscapes-support-unique-butterfly-communities-that-differ-in-abundance-and-diversity
#15
Hemchandranauth Sambhu, Tobin Northfield, Alliea Nankishore, Abdullah Ansari, Stephen Turton
Tropical forests account for at least 50% of documented diversity, but anthropogenic activities are converting forests to agriculture and urban areas at an alarming rate, with potentially strong effects on insect abundance and diversity. However, the questions remain whether insect populations are uniformly affected by land conversion and if insect conservation can occur in agricultural margins and urban gardens. We compare butterfly populations in tropical secondary forests to those found in sugarcane and urban areas in coastal Guyana and evaluate the potential for particular butterfly communities to inhabit human-modified landscapes...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053677/building-double-decker-traps-for-early-detection-of-emerald-ash-borer
#16
Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), the most destructive forest insect to have invaded North America, has killed hundreds of millions of forest and landscape ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Several artificial trap designs to attract and capture EAB beetles have been developed to detect, delineate, and monitor infestations. Double-decker (DD) traps consist of two corrugated plastic prisms, one green and one purple, attached to a 3 m tall polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe supported by a t-post. The green prism at the top of the PVC pipe is baited with cis-3-hexenol, a compound produced by ash foliage...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046462/distinct-roles-of-cellular-escrt-i-and-escrt-iii-proteins-in-efficient-entry-and-egress-of-budded-virions-of-autographa-californica-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus
#17
Qi Yue, Qianlong Yu, Qi Yang, Ye Xu, Ya Guo, Gary W Blissard, Zhaofei Li
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is necessary for budding by many enveloped viruses. Recently, it was demonstrated that Vps4, the key regulator for recycling of the ESCRT-III complex, is required for efficient infection of the baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). However, ESCRT assembly, regulation and function are complex and little is known regarding details of participation of specific ESCRT complexes in AcMNPV infection. In this study, the core components of ESCRT-I (Tsg101 and Vps28) and ESCRT-III (Vps2B, Vps20, Vps24, Snf7, Vps46, and Vps60) were cloned from Spodoptera frugiperda Using a viral complementation system and RNAi assays, we found that ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III complexes are required for efficient entry of AcMNPV into insect cells...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045418/more-than-75-percent-decline-over-27-years-in-total-flying-insect-biomass-in-protected-areas
#18
Caspar A Hallmann, Martin Sorg, Eelke Jongejans, Henk Siepel, Nick Hofland, Heinz Schwan, Werner Stenmans, Andreas Müller, Hubert Sumser, Thomas Hörren, Dave Goulson, Hans de Kroon
Global declines in insects have sparked wide interest among scientists, politicians, and the general public. Loss of insect diversity and abundance is expected to provoke cascading effects on food webs and to jeopardize ecosystem services. Our understanding of the extent and underlying causes of this decline is based on the abundance of single species or taxonomic groups only, rather than changes in insect biomass which is more relevant for ecological functioning. Here, we used a standardized protocol to measure total insect biomass using Malaise traps, deployed over 27 years in 63 nature protection areas in Germany (96 unique location-year combinations) to infer on the status and trend of local entomofauna...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042676/semiochemical-mediated-enhancement-of-males-to-complement-sterile-insect-technique-in-management-of-the-tephritid-pest-bactrocera-tryoni-froggatt
#19
Mohammed Abul Monjur Khan, Nicholas C Manoukis, Terry Osborne, Idris M Barchia, Geoff M Gurr, Olivia L Reynolds
Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), is the most significant pest of Australia's $9 billion horticulture industry. The sterile insect technique (SIT) and cue-lure (a synthetic analogue of raspberry ketone (RK))-based male annihilation technique (MAT) are two of the most effective management tools against this pest. However, combining these two approaches is considered incompatible as MAT kills sterile and 'wild' males indiscriminately. In the present study we tested the effect of pre-release feeding of B...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040660/potential-of-three-trap-crops-in-managing-nezara-viridula-hemiptera-pentatomidae-on-tomatoes-in-florida
#20
T L Gordon, M Haseeb, L H B Kanga, J C Legaspi
The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Asterales: Asteraceae) and wild game feed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Poales: Poaceae) in both years, but different species of millet each year: browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2014 and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2015...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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