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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337979/monolayer-optical-memory-cells-based-on-artificial-trap-mediated-charge-storage-and-release
#1
Juwon Lee, Sangyeon Pak, Young-Woo Lee, Yuljae Cho, John Hong, Paul Giraud, Hyeon Suk Shin, Stephen M Morris, Jung Inn Sohn, SeungNam Cha, Jong Min Kim
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are considered to be promising candidates for flexible and transparent optoelectronics applications due to their direct bandgap and strong light-matter interactions. Although several monolayer-based photodetectors have been demonstrated, single-layered optical memory devices suitable for high-quality image sensing have received little attention. Here we report a concept for monolayer MoS2 optoelectronic memory devices using artificially-structured charge trap layers through the functionalization of the monolayer/dielectric interfaces, leading to localized electronic states that serve as a basis for electrically-induced charge trapping and optically-mediated charge release...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336851/nano-photonic-structures-for-light-trapping-in-ultra-thin-crystalline-silicon-solar-cells
#2
Prathap Pathi, Akshit Peer, Rana Biswas
Thick wafer-silicon is the dominant solar cell technology. It is of great interest to develop ultra-thin solar cells that can reduce materials usage, but still achieve acceptable performance and high solar absorption. Accordingly, we developed a highly absorbing ultra-thin crystalline Si based solar cell architecture using periodically patterned front and rear dielectric nanocone arrays which provide enhanced light trapping. The rear nanocones are embedded in a silver back reflector. In contrast to previous approaches, we utilize dielectric photonic crystals with a completely flat silicon absorber layer, providing expected high electronic quality and low carrier recombination...
January 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335456/mosquito-traps-an-innovative-environmentally-friendly-technique-to-control-mosquitoes
#3
Brigitte Poulin, Gaëtan Lefebvre, Camille Muranyi-Kovacs, Samuel Hilaire
We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France) following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO₂ and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335283/electrically-tunable-absorption-enhancement-with-spectral-and-polarization-selectivity-through-graphene-plasmonic-light-trapping
#4
Wenbin Liu, Jianfa Zhang, Zhihong Zhu, Xiaodong Yuan, Shiqiao Qin
In this paper, anisotropic graphene plasmonic structures are explored for light trapping and absorption enhancement in surrounding media. It is shown that electrically tunable and versatile spectral and polarization selectivity can be realized. Particularly, it is possible to control absorption of the incident light's polarization component at a specific wavelength by varying the Fermi energy with suitable geometric designs. It may find applications for new types of infrared and THz photodetectors and will promote the research of other novel polarization devices...
August 23, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335223/ultraviolet-plasmonic-aluminium-nanoparticles-for-highly-efficient-light-incoupling-on-silicon-solar-cells
#5
Yinan Zhang, Boyuan Cai, Baohua Jia
Plasmonic metal nanoparticles supporting localized surface plasmon resonances have attracted a great deal of interest in boosting the light absorption in solar cells. Among the various plasmonic materials, the aluminium nanoparticles recently have become a rising star due to their unique ultraviolet plasmonic resonances, low cost, earth-abundance and high compatibility with the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process. Here, we report some key factors that determine the light incoupling of aluminium nanoparticles located on the front side of silicon solar cells...
May 24, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334297/the-knight-stick-trap-and-knight-stick-sticky-wraps-new-tools-for-stable-fly-diptera-muscidae-management
#6
Jerome A Hogsette, Daniel L Kline
Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), management can be difficult, especially in situations where pesticide usage is restricted or disallowed. Traps have been used for monitoring stable flies, but have rarely been used for management. The Knight Stick (KS) trap recently became available, and preliminary studies indicated that it might be an improvement to traps currently in use. The Olson Sticky Fly trap was chosen as the control trap for the purpose of comparisons. Both traps attract stable flies by alteration of light waves and capture flies on a sticky wrap covering the trap base...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327794/seasonality-of-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-and-leishmania-dna-detection-in-vector-species-in-an-area-with-endemic-visceral-leishmaniasis
#7
Lara Saraiva, Camila Gonçalves Leite, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Luiz Otávio Alves de Carvalho, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Felipe Dutra Rego, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, José Dilermando Andrade
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327717/one-step-synthesis-electronic-structure-and-photocatalytic-activity-of-earth-abundant-visible-light-driven-feal2o4
#8
Hui-Ying Mu, Fa-Tang Li, Xing-Tao An, Rui-Hong Liu, Yi-Lei Li, Xin Qian, Yong-Qi Hu
The development of inexpensive visible-light-driven photocatalysts is an important prerequisite for realizing the industrial application of photocatalysis technology. In this paper, an earth-abundant FeAl2O4 photocatalyst is prepared via facile solution combustion synthesis. Density functional theory and the scanning Kelvin probe technique are employed to ascertain the positions of the energy bands and the Fermi level. Phenol is taken as a model pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of FeAl2O4. The scavenger experiment results, ˙OH-trapping fluorescence technique, and electron spin resonance measurements confirm that the superoxide anion radical is the main active species generated in the photocatalytic process, which also further corroborates the proposed electronic structure of FeAl2O4...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326772/illuminating-the-reaction-pathways-of-viromimetic-assembly
#9
Hande E Cingil, Emre B Boz, Giovanni Biondaro, Renko de Vries, Martien A Cohen Stuart, Daniela J Kraft, Paul van der Schoot, Joris Sprakel
The co-assembly of well-defined biological nanostructures relies on a delicate balance between attractive and repulsive interactions between biomolecular building blocks. Viral capsids are a prototypical example, where coat proteins exhibit not only self-interactions but also interact with the cargo they encapsulate. In Nature the balance between antagonistic and synergistic interactions is evolved to avoid kinetic trapping and polymorphism. To date it has remained a major challenge to experimentally disentangle the complex kinetic reaction pathways that underlie successful co-assembly of biomolecular building blocks in a non-invasive approach with high temporal resolution...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326759/a-practical-cryogen-free-co2-purification-and-freezing-technique-for-stable-isotope-analysis
#10
Saburo Sakai, Shinichi Matsuda
 Since isotopic analysis by mass spectrometer began in the early 1900s, sample gas for light-element isotopic measurement has been purified by the use of cryogens and vacuum-line systems. However, this conventional purification technique can achieve only certain temperatures, which depend on the cryogens, and can be sustained only as long as there is a continuous cryogen supply. Here, we demonstrate a practical cryogen-free CO2 purification technique using an electrical operated cryocooler for stable isotope analysis...
March 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325914/exploring-the-diversity-of-blood-sucking-diptera-in-caves-of-central-africa
#11
Judicaël Obame-Nkoghe, Nil Rahola, Diego Ayala, Patrick Yangari, Davy Jiolle, Xavier Allene, Mathieu Bourgarel, Gael Darren Maganga, Nicolas Berthet, Eric-Maurice Leroy, Christophe Paupy
Caves house pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In Africa, previous studies identified mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges as the main potential vectors of cave-dwelling pathogens. However, to understand their involvement in pathogen spillover, it is crucial to characterize their diversity, community composition and dynamics. Using CDC light traps, we collected hematophagous Diptera in six caves of Gabon during one-shot or longitudinal sampling, and investigated their species diversity and dynamics in relation with external rainfall...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322558/a-family-of-octahedral-magnetic-molecules-based-on-nb-iv-cn-8-4
#12
Mirosław Arczyński, Michał Rams, Jan Stanek, Magdalena Fitta, Barbara Sieklucka, Kim R Dunbar, Dawid Pinkowicz
A building block approach has been used to prepare a new family of hexanuclear magnetic molecules Mn4Nb2, Fe4Nb2, and Co4Nb2 of general formula {[M(II)(tmphen)2]4[Nb(IV)(CN)8]2}·solv (M = Mn, Fe, Co; tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline; solv = MeOH and/or H2O). Mn4Nb2 exhibits a magnetocaloric effect at temperatures close to 1.8 K, and Fe4Nb2 undergoes an incomplete gradual spin crossover and a photomagnetic response related to light-induced excited spin state trapping.
March 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319382/time-resolved-spectroscopic-investigation-of-charge-trapping-in-carbon-nitrides-photocatalysts-for-hydrogen-generation
#13
Robert Godin, Yiou Wang, Martijn A Zwijnenburg, Junwang Tang, James R Durrant
Carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a benchmark polymer photocatalyst is attracting significant research interest because of its visible light photocatalytic performance combined with good stability and facile synthesis. However, little is known about the fundamental photophysical processes of g-C3N4, which are key to explain and promote photoactivity. Using time-resolved absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies, we have investigated the photophysics of a series of carbon nitrides on timescales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306254/white-light-emission-and-structural-distortion-in-new-corrugated-2d-lead-bromide-perovskites
#14
Lingling Mao, Yilei Wu, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Michael R Wasielewski, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range and was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium di-cations as templates which also emit white light: 1) α-(DMEN)PbBr4 (DMEN = 2-(Dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a =18...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304360/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-childhood-asthma-recent-advances-and-remaining-gaps-in-the-exposure-assessment-methods
#15
REVIEW
Haneen Khreis, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
Background: Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302039/bone-degeneration-inflammation-and-secondary-complications-of-arthritis-potential-targets-and-their-natural-inhibitors
#16
Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Ram M Thushara, Somanatahpura K NaveenKumar, Paul Manoj, Mahalingam S Sundaram, Kempaiah Kemparaju, Kesturu S Girish
Arthritis is marked with joint deterioration that affects articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Though cartilage degradation is a major damage during arthritis, the subsequent bone loss cannot be neglected. Progress in the arthritis research has identified clinical importance of bone erosion in destructive arthritis. Studies have showed the key role played by osteoclasts and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) signaling in bone erosion. Cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) are considered key enzymatic factors contributing to bone erosion...
March 15, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301136/broadband-omnidirectional-light-trapping-in-gold-decorated-zno-nanopillar-arrays
#17
Yuan-Ming Chang, Man-Ling Lin, Tung-Yen Lai, Chang-Hung Chen, Hsin-Yi Lee, Chih-Ming Lin, YewChung Sermon Wu, Yen-Fu Lin, Jenh-Yih Juang
The Photoluminescence (PL) and reflectivity characteristics of zinc oxide nanopillars (ZnO-NPs) grown on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glasses were investigated. The room temperature PL showed bright white-light emission for the undoped ZnO-NPs grown at 600 °C, suggesting the close relation between the optical characteristic and the growth conditions being carried out for obtaining the present ZnO-NPs. The reflectivity of the as-grown ZnO-NPs array was about ~29 % with the wavelength of the incident light ranging from 200-1800 nm...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298004/driven-optical-matter-dynamics-of-electrodynamically-coupled-nanoparticles-in-an-optical-ring-vortex
#18
Patrick Figliozzi, Nishant Sule, Zijie Yan, Ying Bao, Stanislav Burov, Stephen K Gray, Stuart A Rice, Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan, Norbert F Scherer
To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295639/role-of-charge-traps-in-the-performance-of-atomically-thin-transistors
#19
Iddo Amit, Tobias J Octon, Nicola J Townsend, Francesco Reale, C David Wright, Cecilia Mattevi, Monica F Craciun, Saverio Russo
Transient currents in atomically thin MoTe2 field-effect transistors (FETs) are measured during cycles of pulses through the gate electrode. The curves of the transient currents are analyzed in light of a newly proposed model for charge-trapping dynamics that renders a time-dependent change in the threshold voltage as the dominant effect on the channel hysteretic behavior over emission currents from the charge traps. The proposed model is expected to be instrumental in understanding the fundamental physics that governs the performance of atomically thin FETs and is applicable to the entire class of atomically thin-based devices...
March 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295074/ultra-low-threshold-polariton-condensation
#20
Mark Steger, Brian Fluegel, Kirstin Alberi, David W Snoke, Loren N Pfeiffer, Ken West, Angelo Mascarenhas
We demonstrate the condensation of microcavity polaritons with a very sharp threshold occurring at a two orders of magnitude pump intensity lower than previous demonstrations of condensation. The long cavity lifetime and trapping and pumping geometries are crucial to the realization of this low threshold. Polariton condensation, or "polariton lasing" has long been proposed as a promising source of coherent light at a lower threshold than traditional lasing, and these results indicate some considerations for optimizing designs for lower thresholds...
March 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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