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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106262/phlebotomine-sandfly-ecology-on-the-indian-subcontinent-does-village-vegetation-play-a-role-in-sandfly-distribution-in-bihar-india
#1
D M Poché, R M Poché, S Mukherjee, G A Franckowiak, L N Briley, D J Somers, R B Garlapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that results in approximately 50 000 human deaths annually. It is transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sandflies and around two-thirds of cases occur on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the efficacy of which depends upon sandfly adults resting indoors, is the only sandfly control method used in India. Recently, in Bihar, India, considerable sandfly numbers have been recorded outdoors in village vegetation, which suggests that IRS may control only a portion of the population...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105813/generation-and-trapping-of-nitrosocarbonyl-intermediates
#2
Misal Giuseppe Memeo, Paolo Quadrelli
The nitrosocarbonyls (R-CONO) are highly reactive species and remarkable intermediates toward different synthetic targets. This review will cover a research area whose impact in current organic synthesis is constantly increasing in the chemical community. This review represents the first and comprehensive picture on the generation and trapping of nitrosocarbonyls and is solidly built on more than 380 papers. Six different classes of key starting materials such as hydroxamic acids, N-hydroxy carbamates, N-hydroxyureas, nitrile oxides, and 1,2,4-oxadiazole-4-oxides were highlighted...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094394/complete-ultrafast-charge-carrier-dynamics-in-photo-excited-all-inorganic-perovskite-nanocrystals-cspbx3
#3
Navendu Mondal, Anunay Samanta
Understanding the nature and dynamics of the photo-induced transients of all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) is key to their exploitation in potential applications. In order to determine the nature of charge carriers, their deactivation pathways and dynamics, the photo-induced transients of CsPbBr3, CsPbBr2I, CsPbBr1.5I1.5 and CsPbI3 NCs are spectrally and temporally characterized employing a combination of femtosecond transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) up-conversion techniques and global analysis of the data...
January 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092436/single-upconversion-nanoparticle-bacterium-cotrapping-for-single-bacterium-labeling-and-analysis
#4
Hongbao Xin, Yuchao Li, Dekang Xu, Yueli Zhang, Chia-Hung Chen, Baojun Li
Detecting and analyzing pathogenic bacteria in an effective and reliable manner is crucial for the diagnosis of acute bacterial infection and initial antibiotic therapy. However, the precise labeling and analysis of bacteria at the single-bacterium level are a technical challenge but very important to reveal important details about the heterogeneity of cells and responds to environment. This study demonstrates an optical strategy for single-bacterium labeling and analysis by the cotrapping of single upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and bacteria together...
January 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092427/layer-dependence-and-light-tuning-surface-potential-of-2d-mos2-on-various-substrates
#5
Feng Li, Junjie Qi, Minxuan Xu, Jiankun Xiao, Yuliang Xu, Xiankun Zhang, Shuo Liu, Yue Zhang
Here surface potential of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 2D MoS2 with various layers is reported, and the effect of adherent substrate and light illumination on surface potential of monolayer MoS2 are investigated. The surface potential of MoS2 on Si/SiO2 substrate decreases from 4.93 to 4.84 eV with the increase in the number of layer from 1 to 4 or more. Especially, the surface potentials of monolayer MoS2 are strongly dependent on its adherent substrate, which are determined to be 4.55, 4.88, 4.93, 5...
January 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091642/robust-double-shelled-znga2o4-hollow-spheres-for-photocatalytic-reduction-of-co2-to-methane
#6
Yuan Zhang, Ping Li, Lan-Qin Tang, Yong-Qiang Li, Yong Zhou, Jun-Ming Liu, Zhi-Gang Zou
Robust, double-shelled ZnGa2O4 hollow spheres were successfully fabricated by hydrothermally treating an aqueous solution containing Zn(ii), Ga(iii), and citric acid, followed by annealing at 600 °C, 700 °C, or 800 °C in air to remove the carbon species. The hollow structure is expected to trap incident photons to enhance the light absorbance. The sample annealed at 700 °C exhibited the optimized photocatalytic performance in the reduction of CO2 in the presence of water vapor to methane. This property is ascribed to the improved crystallinity of the sample, which has fewer defect centers for the recombination of electron-hole pairs compared with that annealed at 600 °C...
January 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089066/evaluation-and-prevention-of-the-negative-matrix-effect-of-terpenoids-on-pesticides-in-apples-quantification-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Géraldine Giacinti, Christine Raynaud, Sophie Capblancq, Valérie Simon
The sample matrix can enhance the gas chromatography signal of pesticide residues relative to that obtained with the same concentration of pesticide in solvent. This paper is related to negative matrix effects observed in coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ion trap (GC/MS(2)) quantification of pesticides in concentrated extracts of apple peel prepared by the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. It is focused on the pesticides most frequently used on the apple varieties studied, throughout the crop cycle, right up to harvest, to combat pests and diseases and to improve fruit storage properties...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088115/in-situ-synthesis-of-novel-z-scheme-sns2-biobr-photocatalysts-with-superior-photocatalytic-efficiency-under-visible-light
#8
Fazheng Qiu, Wenjun Li, Fangzhi Wang, Hongda Li, Xintong Liu, Jiayi Sun
In this study, a novel SnS2/BiOBr heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized via a facile in-situ growth strategy. The heterojunction interface was formed by loading BiOBr nanosheets on the surface of ultrathin hexagonal SnS2 nanoplates. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) indicated that SnS2/BiOBr composites possessed stronger visible-light absorption. The as-fabricated SnS2/BiOBr heterojunction nanoplates exhibited considerable improvement in terms of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation as compared with BiOBr and SnS2...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086776/comparison-of-two-adult-mosquito-sampling-methods-with-human-landing-catches-in-south-central-ethiopia
#9
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn, Hans J Overgaard
BACKGROUND: The human landing catch (HLC) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. However, HLC is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. These necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. This study was undertaken to determine the relative sampling efficiency (RSE) of light traps with or without yeast-produced carbon dioxide bait vs. HLC in south-central Ethiopia...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079064/lasing-action-from-photonic-bound-states-in-continuum
#10
Ashok Kodigala, Thomas Lepetit, Qing Gu, Babak Bahari, Yeshaiahu Fainman, Boubacar Kanté
In 1929, only three years after the advent of quantum mechanics, von Neumann and Wigner showed that Schrödinger's equation can have bound states above the continuum threshold. These peculiar states, called bound states in the continuum (BICs), manifest themselves as resonances that do not decay. For several decades afterwards the idea lay dormant, regarded primarily as a mathematical curiosity. In 1977, Herrick and Stillinger revived interest in BICs when they suggested that BICs could be observed in semiconductor superlattices...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078884/construction-of-three-dimensional-hemin-functionalized-graphene-hydrogel-with-high-mechanical-stability-and-adsorption-capacity-for-enhancing-photodegradation-of-methylene-blue
#11
Yuewu Zhao, Yuanjian Zhang, Anran Liu, Zhenzhen Wei, Songqin Liu
A three-dimensional hemin-functionalized graphene hydrogel (Hem/GH) was prepared by a facile self-assembly approach. The as-prepared Hem/GH showed good mechanical strength with a storage modulus of 609-642 kPa and a high adsorption capacity to organic dye contaminants (341 mg g-1 for rhodamine B). Moreover, Hem/GH could be used as photosensitizer for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes, and showed superior photodegradation activity of methylene blue (MB) with respect to the counterparts such as graphene hydrogel (GH) and commercial catalyst P25...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076951/a-multiscale-study-of-plasmonic-scattering-and-light-trapping-effect-in-silicon-nanowire-array-solar-cells
#12
Lingyi Meng, Yu Zhang, ChiYung Yam
Nanometallic structures that support surface plasmons provide new ways to confine light at deep-subwavelength scales. In this paper, the effect of light scattering in nanowire array solar cells is studied by a multiscale approach combining classical electromagnetics (EM) and quantum mechanical (QM) simulations. A photovoltaic device is constructed by integrating a silicon nanowire array with a plasmonic silver nanosphere. The light scatterings by plasmonic element and nanowire array are obtained via classical EM simulations while current-voltage characteristics and optical properties of the nanowire cells are evaluated quantum mechanically...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075560/multilayer-grown-ultrathin-nanostructured-gaas-solar-cells-as-a-cost-competitive-materials-platform-for-iii-v-photovoltaics
#13
Boju Gai, Yukun Sun, Haneol Lim, Huandong Chen, Joseph Faucher, Minjoo L Lee, Jongseung Yoon
Large-scale deployment of GaAs solar cells in terrestrial photovoltaics demands significant cost reduction for preparing device-quality epitaxial materials. Although multilayer epitaxial growth in conjunction with printing-based materials assemblies has been proposed as a promising route to achieve this goal, their practical implementation remains challenging owing to the degradation of materials properties and resulting nonuniform device performance between solar cells grown in different sequences. Here we report an alternative approach to circumvent these limitations and enable multilayer-grown GaAs solar cells with uniform photovoltaic performance...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069763/photokinetic-analysis-of-the-forces-and-torques-exerted-by-optical-tweezers-carrying-angular-momentum
#14
Aaron Yevick, Daniel J Evans, David G Grier
The theory of photokinetic effects expresses the forces and torques exerted by a beam of light in terms of experimentally accessible amplitude and phase profiles. We use this formalism to develop an intuitive explanation for the performance of optical tweezers operating in the Rayleigh regime, including effects arising from the influence of light's angular momentum. First-order dipole contributions reveal how a focused beam can trap small objects, and what features limit the trap's stability. The first-order force separates naturally into a conservative intensity-gradient term that forms a trap and a non-conservative solenoidal term that drives the system out of thermodynamic equilibrium...
February 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069166/evaluation-and-prevention-of-the-negative-matrix-effect-of-terpenoids-on-pesticides-in-apples-quantification-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Géraldine Giacinti, Christine Raynaud, Sophie Capblancq, Valérie Simon
The sample matrix can enhance the gas chromatography signal of pesticide residues relative to that obtained with the same concentration of pesticide in solvent. This paper is related to negative matrix effects observed in coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ion trap (GC/MS(2)) quantification of pesticides in concentrated extracts of apple peel prepared by the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. It is focused on the pesticides most frequently used on the apple varieties studied, throughout the crop cycle, right up to harvest, to combat pests and diseases and to improve fruit storage properties...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069065/exploring-the-potential-of-using-cattle-for-malaria-vector-surveillance-and-control-a-pilot-study-in-western-kenya
#16
Margaret M Njoroge, Inaki Tirados, Steven W Lindsay, Glyn A Vale, Stephen J Torr, Ulrike Fillinger
BACKGROUND: Malaria vector mosquitoes with exophilic and zoophilic tendencies, or with a high acceptance of alternative blood meal sources when preferred human blood-hosts are unavailable, may help maintain low but constant malaria transmission in areas where indoor vector control has been scaled up. This residual transmission might be addressed by targeting vectors outside the house. Here we investigated the potential of insecticide-treated cattle, as routinely used for control of tsetse and ticks in East Africa, for mosquito control...
January 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068541/double-regulation-of-bismuth-and-halogen-source-for-the-preparation-of-bismuth-oxybromide-nanosquares-with-enhanced-photocatalytic-activity
#17
Yiling Liu, Jun Di, Mengxia Ji, Kaizhi Gu, Sheng Yin, Weibin Li, Jiexiang Xia, Huaming Li
In this paper, bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) nanosquares photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method with the double regulation of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and ammonium bismuth citrate (BCA). To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the BiOBr material with simultaneous bismuth and halogen bidirectional source regulation. The structures, components, morphologies, optical properties and photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared samples were specifically explored...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065870/characterization-of-water-in-hydrated-bombyx-mori-silk-fibroin-fiber-and-films-by-2-h-nmr-relaxation-and-13-c-solid-state-nmr
#18
Tetsuo Asakura, Kotaro Isobe, Shunsuke Kametani, Obehi T Ukpebor, Moshe C Silverstein, Gregory S Boutis
: The mechanical properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF), such as elasticity and tensile strength, change remarkably upon hydration. However, the microscopic interaction with water is not currently well understood on a molecular level. In this work, the dynamics of water molecules interacting with SF was studied by (2)H solution NMR relaxation and exchange measurements. Additionally, the conformations of hydrated [3-(13)C]Ala-, [3-(13)C]Ser-, and [3-(13)C]Tyr-SF fibers and films were investigated by (13)C DD/MAS NMR...
January 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061905/epidemiology-of-mansonella-perstans-in-the-middle-belt-of-ghana
#19
Linda Batsa Debrah, Norman Nausch, Vera Serwaa Opoku, Wellington Owusu, Yusif Mubarik, Daniel Antwi Berko, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf, Marc Jacobsen, Alexander Yaw Debrah, Richard O Phillips
BACKGROUND: Mansonellosis was first reported in Ghana by Awadzi in the 1990s. Co-infections of Mansonella perstans have also been reported in a small cohort of patients with Buruli ulcer and their contacts. However, no study has assessed the exact prevalence of the disease in a larger study population. This study therefore aimed to find out the prevalence of M. perstans infection in some districts in Ghana and to determine the diversity of Culicoides that could be potential vectors for transmission...
January 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060506/controlled-generation-of-tm-2-ions-in-nanocrystalline-bafcl-tm-3-by-x-ray-irradiation
#20
Jun Zhang, Hans Riesen
An investigation of the photoluminescence properties of divalent thulium generated by X-irradiation (=X-ray irradiation) of nanocrystalline BaFCl:Tm3+ (250 ± 50 ppm) is reported. The X-irradiated sample shows typical Tm2+ f-f luminescence with an excited state lifetime τ = 0.98 ± 0.05 ms in the near infrared (~1140 nm) but no d-f luminescence is observed for the BaFCl host material within the visible range. The Tm2+ ions are relatively stable under dim room light but are photoionized rapidly by sunlight or by fluorescent tube lighting...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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