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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453288/photothermal-transport-of-dna-in-entropy-landscape-plasmonic-waveguides
#1
Cameron L C Smith, Anil H Thilsted, Jonas N Pedersen, Tomas H Youngman, Julia C Dyrnum, Nicolai A Michaelsen, Rodolphe Marie, Anders Kristensen
The ability to handle single, free molecules in lab-on-a-chip systems is key to the development of advanced biotechnologies. Entropic confinement offers passive control of polymers in nanofluidic systems by locally asserting a molecule's number of available conformation states through structured landscapes. Separately, a range of plasmonic configurations have demonstrated active manipulation of nano-objects by harnessing concentrated electric fields. The integration of these two independent techniques promises a range of sophisticated and complementary functions to handle, for example, DNA, but numerous difficulties, in particular, conflicting requirements of channel size, have prevented progress...
April 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447691/enhanced-device-lifetime-of-double-heterojunction-nanorod-light-emitting-diodes
#2
Seong-Yong Cho, Nuri Oh, Sooji Nam, Yiran Jiang, Moonsub Shim
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as solution-processable, high-performance materials for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Understanding the failure mechanism(s) is of both fundamental and practical importance, yet little is known of how QD-LEDs fail. Here, we have carried out accelerated device lifetime measurements on double heterojunction nanorod- (DHNR) and QD-LEDs. A common dependence of device lifetime on the initial driving voltage is observed over more than two orders of magnitude range in the initial luminance...
April 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447450/band-bending-of-ga-polar-gan-interfaced-with-al2o3-through-ultraviolet-ozone-treatment
#3
Kwangeun Kim, Jae Ha Ryu, Jisoo Kim, Sang June Cho, Dong Liu, Jeongpil Park, In-Kyu Lee, Baxter Moody, Weidong Zhou, John Albrecht, Zhenqiang Ma
Understanding the band bending at the interface of GaN/dielectric under different surface treatment conditions is critically important for device design, device performance, and device reliability. The effects of ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3) treatment of the GaN surface on the energy band bending of atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) Al2O3 coated Ga-polar GaN were studied. The UV/O3 treatment and post-ALD anneal can be used to effectively vary the band bending, valence band offset, conduction band offset, and interface dipole at the Al2O3/GaN interfaces...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446754/phonon-mediated-repulsion-sharp-transitions-and-quasi-self-trapping-in-the-extended-peierls-hubbard-model
#4
J Sous, M Chakraborty, C P J Adolphs, R V Krems, M Berciu
We study two identical fermions, or two hard-core bosons, in an infinite chain and coupled to phonons by interactions that modulate their hopping as described by the Peierls/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that exchange of phonons generates effective nearest-neighbor repulsion between particles and also gives rise to interactions that move the pair as a whole. The two-polaron phase diagram exhibits two sharp transitions, leading to light dimers at strong coupling and the flattening of the dimer dispersion at some critical values of the parameters...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441969/molecular-identification-of-plasmodium-spp-and-blood-meal-sources-of-anophelines-in-environmental-reserves-on-s%C3%A3-o-lu%C3%A3-s-island-state-of-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil
#5
Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo, Silvia Maria Di Santi, Wilson Gómez Manrique, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
BACKGROUND: Considering the diversity of feeding habits that females of some species of anophelines present, it is important to understand which vertebrates are part of blood food sources and how important is the role of each in the ecoepidemiology of malaria. There are many vector species for Plasmodium spp. in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. In São Luís Island, Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector for human malaria; this species is abundant in areas with primates that are positive for Plasmodium...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441017/equilibration-of-micelle-polyelectrolyte-complexes-mechanistic-differences-between-static-and-annealed-charge-distributions
#6
Jennifer E Laaser, Michael McGovern, Yaming Jiang, Elise Lohmann, Theresa M Reineke, David C Morse, Kevin D Dorfman, Timothy P Lodge
The role of charge density and charge annealing in polyelectrolyte complexation was investigated through systematic comparison of two micelle-polyelectrolyte systems. First, poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(styrene) (PDMAEMA-b-PS) micelles were complexed with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) at pH values above and below the pKa of PDMAEMA to investigate the role of charge annealing in the complexation process. Second, complexes of poly(DMAEMA-stat-oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-block-poly(styrene) (P(DMAEMA-stat-OEGMA)-b-PS) micelles with the same PSS at low pH were used to investigate how the complexation process differs when the charged sites are in fixed positions along the polymer chains...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440617/anchoring-tailored-low-index-faceted-biobr-nanoplates-onto-tio2-nanorods-to-enhance-the-stability-and-visible-light-driven-catalytic-activity
#7
Chao Xue, Tianxi Zhang, Shujiang Ding, Jinjia Wei, Guidong Yang
In this work, a fantastic one-dimensional (1D) BiOBr/TiO2 nanorods (NRs) heterojunction composite was rationally proposed and designed from the perspective of molecular and interface engineering. The fabricated intimately connected interfacial heterojunction between two-dimensional (2D) BiOBr nanoplates and 1D TiO2 NRs acts as the interfacial nano-channel to promote efficient interfacial charge migration and the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. As a result, 1D BiOBr/TiO2 NRs heterojunctions exhibited outstanding visible-light photocatalytic activities and sustained cycling performance...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438004/autofocusing-airy-beams-generated-by-all-dielectric-metasurface-for-visible-light
#8
Qingbin Fan, Daopeng Wang, Pengcheng Huo, Zijie Zhang, Yuzhang Liang, Ting Xu
Conventional method to generate autofocusing Airy (AFA) beam involves the optical Fourier transform (FT) system, which has a fairly long working distance due to the focal length of FT lens, presence of spatial light modulator (SLM) and auxiliary total reflection mirrors. Here, we propose an extremely compact design to generate high-efficiency AFA beam at visible frequency by using metasurface which is composed of a single layer array of amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) elliptical nanofins sitting on the fused-silica substrate...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437984/light-bullets-in-coupled-nonlinear-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equations-with-variable-coefficients-and-a-trapping-potential
#9
Si-Liu Xu, Guo-Peng Zhao, Milivoj R Belić, Jun-Rong He, Li Xue
We analyze three-dimensional (3D) vector solitary waves in a system of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with spatially modulated diffraction and nonlinearity, under action of a composite self-consistent trapping potential. Exact vector solitary waves, or light bullets (LBs), are found using the self-similarity method. The stability of vortex 3D LB pairs is examined by direct numerical simulations; the results show that only low-order vortex soliton pairs with the mode parameter values n ≤ 1, l ≤ 1 and m = 0 can be supported by the spatially modulated interaction in the composite trap...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437907/back-focal-plane-displacement-detection-using-side-scattered-light-in-dual-beam-fiber-optic-traps
#10
Wei Xiong, Guangzong Xiao, Xiang Han, Jinhua Zhou, Xinlin Chen, Hui Luo
In optical traps the position of a trapped bead is usually determined by measuring the intensity distribution of the forward-scattered light and the back-scattered light. In this paper we demonstrate that this position can be determined using the side-scattered light. A quadrant photodiode is used to monitor the position of an optically trapped object in a dual-beam fiber-optic trap by measurement of intensity shifts in the back focal plane of the objective that is perpendicular to the propagating beam. An approximated model based on ray optics is presented with numerical results that describe the use of the side-scattered light for position detection...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437033/electrical-stress-influences-the-efficiency-of-ch3-nh3-pbi3-perovskite-light-emitting-devices
#11
Lianfeng Zhao, Jia Gao, YunHui L Lin, Yao-Wen Yeh, Kyung Min Lee, Nan Yao, Yueh-Lin Loo, Barry P Rand
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials are emerging as semiconductors with potential application in optoelectronic devices. In particular, perovskites are very promising for light-emitting devices (LEDs) due to their high color purity, low nonradiative recombination rates, and tunable bandgap. Here, using pure CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite LEDs with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.9% as a platform, it is shown that electrical stress can influence device performance significantly, increasing the EQE from an initial 5...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436573/mapping-energy-levels-for-organic-heterojunctions
#12
Yiying Li, Peicheng Li, Zheng-Hong Lu
An organic semiconductor thin film is a solid-state matter comprising one or more molecules. For applications in electronics and photonics, several distinct functional organic thin films are stacked together to create a variety of devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells. The energy levels at these thin-film junctions dictate various electronic processes such as the charge transport across these junctions, the exciton dissociation rates at donor-acceptor molecular interfaces, and the charge trapping during exciton formation in a host-dopant system...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431465/photovoltaic-properties-and-ultrafast-plasmon-relaxation-dynamics-of-diamond-like-carbon-nanocomposite-films-with-embedded-ag-nanoparticles
#13
Šarūnas Meškinis, Domantas Peckus, Andrius Vasiliauskas, Arvydas Čiegis, Rimantas Gudaitis, Tomas Tamulevičius, Iryna Yaremchuk, Sigitas Tamulevičius
Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) and photovoltaic properties of heterojunctions consisting of DLC:Ag and crystalline silicon (DLC:Ag/Si) were investigated by means of transient absorption (TAS) spectroscopy and photovoltaic measurements. The heterojunctions using both p type and n type silicon were studied. It was found that TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films were dependent on the used excitation wavelength. At wavelengths where Ag nanoparticles absorbed light most intensively, only DLC signal was registered...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430415/omnidirectional-harvesting-of-weak-light-using-a-graphene-quantum-dot-modified-organic-silicon-hybrid-device
#14
Meng-Lin Tsai, Dung-Sheng Tsai, Libin Tang, Lih-Juann Chen, Shu Ping Lau, Jr-Hau He
Despite great improvements in traditional inorganic photodetectors and photovoltaics, more progress is needed in the detection/collection of light at low-level conditions. Traditional photodetectors tend to suffer from high noise when operated at room temperature; therefore these devices require additional cooling systems to detect weak or dim light. Conventional solar cells also face the challenge of poor light-harvesting capabilities in hazy or cloudy weather. The real world features such varying levels of light, which makes it important to develop strategies that allow optical devices to function when conditions are less than optimal...
April 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429004/binding-site-opening-by-loop-c-shift-and-chloride-ion-pore-interaction-in-the-gabaa-receptor-model
#15
M A Michałowski, S Kraszewski, J W Mozrzymas
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are crucial in mediating inhibition in the adult mammalian brain. Although the kinetics of this receptor has been extensively studied, the molecular picture of interactions occurring at various channel conformations remains elusive. While electrophysiology combined with mutagenesis sheds light on the role of specific residues, ultrastructural studies reveal static structures which, in the case of GABAARs, are limited to the β3 homomer. To take advantage of the newest crystal structures of cys-loop receptors, a homology model of α1β2γ2 GABAAR in the unbound closed state was built using a template of the homomeric glycine receptor in the closed state...
April 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426679/control-of-zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-vector-phlebotomus-papatasi-using-attractive-toxic-sugar-baits-atsb
#16
Abedin Saghafipour, Hassan Vatandoost, Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Yavar Rassi, Moharram Karami Jooshin, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan
INTRODUCTION: Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) is a new vector control method that meets Integrated Vector Management (IVM) goals. In an experimental design, this study aimed to determine effects of ATSB on control of Phlebotomus papatasi, as a main vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL), in Qom Province, center of Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, boric acid was mixed with brown sugar solution and tested as toxic baits for P. papatasi. Two methods were utilized to use the baits: (a) spraying ATSB on vegetation, bushes, and shrubs; and (b) setting ATSB-treated barrier fences in front of colonies at 500 m distance from the houses in outskirts of villages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425488/an-analytic-approach-for-optimal-geometrical-design-of-gaas-nanowires-for-maximal-light-harvesting-in-photovoltaic-cells
#17
Dan Wu, Xiaohong Tang, Kai Wang, Xianqiang Li
Semiconductor nanowires(NWs) with subwavelength scale diameters have demonstrated superior light trapping features, which unravel a new pathway for low cost and high efficiency future generation solar cells. Unlike other published work, a fully analytic design is for the first time proposed for optimal geometrical parameters of vertically-aligned GaAs NW arrays for maximal energy harvesting. Using photocurrent density as the light absorbing evaluation standard, 2 μm length NW arrays whose multiple diameters and periodicity are quantitatively identified achieving the maximal value of 29...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425039/disaggregation-following-agonist-induced-platelet-activation-in-patients-on-dual-antiplatelet-therapy
#18
Patricia P Wadowski, Beate Eichelberger, Christoph W Kopp, Joseph Pultar, Daniela Seidinger, Renate Koppensteiner, Irene M Lang, Simon Panzer, Thomas Gremmel
Disaggregation as the difference between maximal and final platelet aggregation by light transmission aggregometry indicates the stability of platelet aggregates. We evaluated the extent of disaggregation after platelet stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, epinephrine, and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-6 in 323 patients on dual antiplatelet therapy with daily aspirin and clopidogrel (group 1), prasugrel (group 2), or ticagrelor (group 3) therapy. All patients in group 1 underwent elective angioplasty and stenting, whereas all patients included in groups 2 and 3 suffered from acute coronary syndromes (STEMI or NSTEMI) and underwent urgent PCI...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420407/understanding-phlebotomus-perniciosus-abundance-in-south-east-spain-assessing-the-role-of-environmental-and-anthropic-factors
#19
José Risueño, Clara Muñoz, Pedro Pérez-Cutillas, Elena Goyena, Moisés Gonzálvez, María Ortuño, Luis Jesús Bernal, Juana Ortiz, Bulent Alten, Eduardo Berriatua
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniosis is associated with Phlebotomus sand fly vector density, but our knowledge of the environmental framework that regulates highly overdispersed vector abundance distributions is limited. We used a standardized sampling procedure in the bioclimatically diverse Murcia Region in Spain and multilevel regression models for count data to estimate P. perniciosus abundance in relation to environmental and anthropic factors. METHODS: Twenty-five dog and sheep premises were sampled for sand flies using adhesive and light-attraction traps, from late May to early October 2015...
April 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418646/the-influence-of-nanostructure-on-the-exciton-dynamics-of-multichromophore-donor-acceptor-block-copolymers
#20
Jianlong Xia, Erik Busby, Samuel N Sanders, Clarion Tung, Angelo Cacciuto, Matthew Y Sfeir, Luis M Campos
We explore the synthesis and photophysics of nanostructured block copolymers that mimic light harvesting complexes. We find that the combination of a polar and electron rich block with a non-polar electron poor block yields a polymer which self-assembles into ordered "nanoworms". Numerical simulations are used to determine optimal compositions to achieve robust self-assembly. Photolumi-nescence spectroscopy is used to probe the rich exciton dynamics in these systems. Using controls, such as homopolymers and random copolymers we analyze the mechanisms of the photoluminescence from these polymers...
April 18, 2017: ACS Nano
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