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Racial Disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647952/children-with-short-stature-and-growth-failure-heightism-gender-and-racial-disparities
#1
Terri H Lipman, Ian J McCurry
Growth is the single most important indication of the health of a child. Identification of growth disorders in all children is crucial as growth failure can be the first sign of a number of acute and chronic conditions. However, gender and racial biases have resulted in inequities in the identification, referral and treatment of children with growth disorders. In addition, short children have been impacted by a number of psychosocial issues. Heightism is prejudice or discrimination against individuals based on height, and refers to discrimination against individuals whose height is not within the normal acceptable range...
June 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647544/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-among-state-medicaid-programs-for-breast-cancer-screening
#2
Florence K Tangka, Sujha Subramanian, Lee Rivers Mobley, Sonja Hoover, Jiantong Wang, Ingrid J Hall, Simple D Singh
Breast cancer screening by mammography has been shown to reduce breast cancer morbidity and mortality. The use of mammography screening though varies by race, ethnicity, and, sociodemographic characteristics. Medicaid is an important source of insurance in the US for low-income beneficiaries, who are disproportionately members of racial or ethnic minorities, and who are less likely to be screened than women with higher socioeconomic statuses. We used 2006-2008 data from Medicaid claims and enrollment files to assess racial or ethnic and geographic disparities in the use of breast cancer screening among Medicaid-insured women at the state level...
June 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647200/racial-disparities-after-infrainguinal-bypass-surgery-in-hemodialysis-patients
#3
Isibor Arhuidese, Sophie Wang, Satinderjit Locham, Muhammad Faateh, Besma Nejim, Mahmoud Malas
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease poses a significant burden in the hemodialysis (HD)-dependent population. Race is a known modifier of outcomes after surgical treatment of peripheral arterial disease. A comprehensive evaluation of the effect of race on infrainguinal bypass surgery (IBS) outcomes in HD patients is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the effects of race on long-term IBS outcomes in a large, nationally representative cohort of HD patients. METHODS: We studied all HD patients who underwent IBS between January 2007 and December 2011 in the United States Renal Disease System-Medicare matched database...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647164/liver-transplantation-in-new-orleans-parity-in-a-world-of-disparity
#4
Alison A Smith, Michael Darden, Zaid Al-Qurayshi, Anil S Paramesh, Mary Killackey, Emad Kandil, Geoffrey Parker, Luis Balart, Paul Friedlander, Joseph F Buell
BACKGROUND: Racial disparity in access to liver transplantation among African Americans (AA) compared to Caucasians (CA) has been well described. The aim of this investigation was to examine the presentation of AA liver transplant recipients in a socioeconomically challenged region. METHODS: 680 adult liver transplant candidates and 233 resultant recipients between 2007 and 2015 were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate factors significant for transplantation...
June 21, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646355/racial-disparities-in-menu-labeling-usage-analysis-of-the-2012-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-brfss-sugar-sweetened-beverage-and-menu-labeling-module
#5
Sufana Shikdar, Sumihiro Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: Race/ethnic disparities in obesity are widely reported and are often attributed to diet-related factors, such as menu-labeling usage. We aimed to determine whether racial difference exists in menu-labeling usage. METHODS: Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used. Menu labeling was measured from the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Menu Labeling module administered in 18 states. We stratified the population into four race/ethnic categories: non-Hispanic whites (reference, n = 66,019, 63%), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 13,623, 13%), Hispanics (n = 14,671, 14%), and others (n = 7336, 7%)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645647/racial-disparity-in-mycosis-fungoides-an-analysis-of-4495-cases-from-the-us-national-cancer-database
#6
Chang Su, Kevin A Nguyen, Harrison X Bai, Ya Cao, Yongguang Tao, Rong Xiao, Giorgos Karakousis, Paul J Zhang, Guiying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown contradictory results regarding the survival outcomes among white, African American, and Asian patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival outcomes among white, African American, and Asian patients with MF and to determine other prognostic factors of the disease. METHODS: The US National Cancer Database was used to identify patients with histologically confirmed MF from 2004 to 2014...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644780/avoiding-racial-essentialism-in-medical-science-curricula
#7
Lundy Braun, Barry Saunders
A wave of medical student activism is shining a spotlight on medical educators' sometimes maladroit handling of racial categories in teaching about health disparities. Coinciding with recent critiques, primarily by social scientists, regarding the imprecise and inappropriate use of race as a biological or epidemiological risk factor in genetics research, medical student activism has triggered new collaborations among students, faculty, and administrators to rethink how race is addressed in the medical curriculum...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643109/racial-differences-in-the-effects-of-comorbidity-on-breast-cancer-specific-survival
#8
Melissa L Santorelli, Kim M Hirshfield, Michael B Steinberg, Yong Lin, George G Rhoads, Elisa V Bandera, Kitaw Demissie
PURPOSE: In an effort to explain racial disparities in breast cancer survival, this study aimed to investigate how comorbidity affects breast cancer-specific mortality by race. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked data including 68,090 women 66+ years, who were diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in the United States from 1994 to 2004. Hospital and outpatient claims from the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis were used to identify comorbid conditions and patients were followed for survival through 2010...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641390/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-the-incidence-of-esophageal-cancer-in-the-united-states-1992-2013
#9
Shao-Hua Xie, Sirus Rabbani, Jessica Petrick, Michael B Cook, Jesper Lagergren
Racial and ethnic disparities in the incidence of esophageal cancer have not been thoroughly characterized with quantitative health disparity measures. Using data from 13 cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we assessed such disparities by histological type during 1992-2013 in the United States based on a variety of disparity metrics. The age-standardized incidence rate of squamous cell carcinoma was highest among blacks, while adenocarcinoma mainly affected white men...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641130/sexual-orientation-minority-stress-social-norms-and-substance-use-among-racially-diverse-adolescents
#10
Ethan H Mereish, Jeremy T Goldbach, Claire Burgess, Angelo M DiBello
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual peers to use substances. This study tested factors that contribute to sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents. Specifically, we examined how both minority stress (i.e., homophobic bullying) and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) may account for sexual orientation disparities in recent and lifetime use of four substances: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639311/increasing-the-pipeline-and-diversity-of-doctorally-prepared-nurses-description-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-a-health-disparities-summer-research-program
#11
John P Salerno, Rosa Gonzalez-Guarda, Mary Hooshmand
Despite calls to increase the number and diversity of doctorally prepared nurses, recent data indicate a severe shortage of PhD-prepared nurses, especially those of racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. This is concerning, given that evidence indicates that racial/ethnic minority PhD-prepared nurses are well-positioned to address health disparities, by attending to the needs/concerns of medically underrepresented groups. The purpose of this article is to describe and provide a preliminary evaluation of a summer research program for minority nursing students...
June 22, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637771/medicare-advantage-associated-with-more-racial-disparity-than-traditional-medicare-for-hospital-readmissions
#12
Yue Li, Xi Cen, Xueya Cai, Caroline P Thirukumaran, Jie Zhou, Laurent G Glance
We compared racial disparities in thirty-day readmissions between traditional Medicare and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries who underwent one of six major surgeries in New York State in 2013. We found that Medicare Advantage was associated with greater racial disparity, compared to traditional Medicare. After controlling for patient, hospital, and geographic characteristics in a propensity score based approach, we found that in traditional Medicare, black patients were 33 percent more likely than white patients to be readmitted, whereas in Medicare Advantage, black patients were 64 percent more likely than white patients to be readmitted...
June 21, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637568/disparities-in-the-age-related-rates-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-united-states
#13
Emmanuel Gabriel, Katherine Ostapoff, Kristopher Attwood, Eisar Al-Sukhni, Patrick Boland, Steven Nurkin
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among Americans under the age of 50 years is increasing. The purpose of this study was to identify racial and socioeconomic disparities associated with this trend. The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients with CRC from 1998 to 2011. Patients were stratified by age (<50 versus >60 years), with ages 50 to 60 years omitted from the analysis to minimize overlapping trends between the two age groups. Relative frequencies (RFs) by year were plotted against demographic variables...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634877/socioeconomic-status-financial-strain-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-a-sample-of-african-american-midlife-men
#14
Joshua M Schrock, Nancy E Adler, Elissa S Epel, Amani M Nuru-Jeter, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Robert Joseph Taylor, David H Chae
BACKGROUND: African American men in the USA experience poorer aging-related health outcomes compared to their White counterparts, partially due to socioeconomic disparities along racial lines. Greater exposure to socioeconomic strains among African American men may adversely impact health and aging at the cellular level, as indexed by shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This study examined associations between socioeconomic factors and LTL among African American men in midlife, a life course stage when heterogeneity in both health and socioeconomic status are particularly pronounced...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632802/diversity-in-dermatology-a-society-devoted-to-skin-of-color
#15
Jacob Subash, Rechelle Tull, Amy McMichael
The US Census Bureau predicts that more than half of the country's population will identify as a race other than non-Hispanic white by the year 2044. Racial disparities also exist in the physician population where black individuals and Latinos are underrepresented. The Skin of Color Society (SOCS) was established to address the need for parity among dermatology patients with skin of color. The society provides educational support on dermatologic health related to skin of color and functions through committees that represent the multifaceted aspects of the organization...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632096/racial-ethnic-differences-in-life-course-heavy-drinking-from-adolescence-to-midlife
#16
Nina Mulia, Tammy W Tam, Jason Bond, Sarah E Zemore, Libo Li
Information on heavy drinking over the life course might help to explain racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems, morbidity, and mortality. Using data from the 2009-2010 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (n = 3,026), we analyzed retrospective decades-based measures of heavy drinking during respondents' teens, 20s, 30s, and 40s. Results indicate that Latino men and African American women have greater risk for persistent-high (vs. declining) heavy-drinking trajectories than Caucasian men and women, and that socioeconomic disadvantage partly accounts for this disparity in women...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631085/racial-disparities-in-clinical-presentation-and-survival-times-among-young-onset-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel Arshad, Christopher Kabir, Eula Tetangco, Natahsa Shah, Hareth Raddawi
BACKGROUND: Recently published data indicate increasing incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) in young-onset (<50 years) patients. AIMS: This study examines racial disparities in presentation and survival times among non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study was conducted from 2004 through 2014 using 96 patient medical charts with a diagnosis of young-onset CRC...
June 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630374/classifying-the-body-in-marlene-dumas-the-image-as-burden
#18
Anthea Gordon
Medical photography, and in particular dermatological imagery, is often assumed to provide an objective, and functional, representation of disease and that it can act as a diagnostic aid. By contrast, artistic conceptions of the images of the body tend to focus on interpretative heterogeneity and ambiguity, aiming to create or explore meaning rather than enact a particular function. In her 2015 retrospective exhibition at the Tate Modern, South African artist Marlene Dumas questions these disciplinary divides by using medical imagery (among other photographic sources) as the basis for her portraits...
June 19, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626361/molecular-biomarkers-of-colorectal-cancer-and-cancer-disparities-current-status-and-perspective
#19
Upender Manne, Trafina Jadhav, Balananda-Dhurjati Kumar Putcha, Temesgen Samuel, Shivani Soni, Chandrakumar Shanmugam, Esther A Suswam
This review provides updates on the efforts for the development of prognostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer based on the race/ethnicity of patients. Since the clinical consequences of genetic and molecular alterations differ with patient race and ethnicity, the usefulness of these molecular alterations as biomarkers needs to be evaluated in different racial/ethnic groups. To accomplish personalized patient care, a combined analysis of multiple molecular alterations in DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), metabolites, and proteins in a single test is required to assess disease status in a precise way...
December 2016: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625585/access-disparities-to-magnet-hospitals-for-ischemic-stroke-patients
#20
REVIEW
Kimon Bekelis, Symeon Missios, Todd A MacKenzie
Access disparities to centers of excellence can have detrimental consequences for population health. We investigated the presence of racial disparities in the access of stroke patients to hospitals recognized by the Magnet Recognition Program of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). We performed a cohort study of all ischemic stroke patients who were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database from 2009 to 2013. We examined the association of African-American race with Magnet status hospitalization after ischemic stroke...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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