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Racial Disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323476/state-level-progress-in-reducing-the-black-white-infant-mortality-gap-united-states-1999-2013
#1
Joedrecka S Brown Speights, Samantha Sittig Goldfarb, Brittny A Wells, Leslie Beitsch, Robert S Levine, George Rust
OBJECTIVES: To assess state-level progress on eliminating racial disparities in infant mortality. METHODS: Using linked infant birth-death files from 1999 to 2013, we calculated state-level 3-year rolling average infant mortality rates (IMRs) and Black-White IMR ratios. We also calculated percentage improvement and a projected year for achieving equality if current trend lines are sustained. RESULTS: We found substantial state-level variation in Black IMRs (range = 6...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314574/apol1-a-case-in-point-for-replacing-race-with-genetics
#2
Girish N Nadkarni, Christina M Wyatt, Barbara Murphy, Michael J Ross
Ethnicity-specific differences in apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) polymorphisms are associated with racial disparities in kidney transplantation outcomes. APOL1 genotyping may better help define graft outcome risk pre-transplantation; however, more research is needed.
April 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314047/the-role-of-risk-perception-in-flu-vaccine-behavior-among-african-american-and-white-adults-in-the-united-states
#3
Vicki S Freimuth, Amelia Jamison, Gregory Hancock, Donald Musa, Karen Hilyard, Sandra Crouse Quinn
Seasonal flu vaccination rates are low for U.S. adults, with significant disparities between African and white Americans. Risk perception is a significant predictor of vaccine behavior but the research on this construct has been flawed. This study addressed critical research questions to understand the differences between African and white Americans in the role of risk perception in flu vaccine behavior: (1) What is the dimensionality of risk perception and does it differ between the two races?  (2) Were risk perceptions of white and African-American populations different and how were sociodemographic characteristics related to risk for each group? (3) What is the relation between risk perception and flu vaccine behaviors for African Americans and whites? The sample, drawn from GfK's Knowledge Panel, consisted of 838 whites and 819 African Americans...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302531/resistin-potentiates-chemoresistance-and-stemness-of-breast-cancer-cells-implications-for-racially-disparate-therapeutic-outcomes
#4
Sachin K Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Haseeb Zubair, Arun Bhardwaj, Nikhil Tyagi, Ahmed Al-Ghadhban, Ajay P Singh, Donna L Dyess, James E Carter, Seema Singh
Breast cancer (BC) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed cancer in American women, which disproportionately affects women of African-American (AA) descent. Previously, we reported greater serum levels of resistin in AA BC patients relative to Caucasian-American (CA) patients, and established its role in growth and aggressiveness of breast tumor cells. Here we have investigated the role of resistin in BC-chemoresistance. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 BC cells of CA and AA origin, respectively, were incubated with resistin prior to doxorubicin treatment...
March 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302274/pipeline-program-recruits-and-retains-women-and-underrepresented-minorities-in-procedure-based-specialties-a-brief-report
#5
Bonnie S Mason, William Ross, Monique C Chambers, Richard Grant, Michael Parks
As the US population continues to grow in racial and ethnic diversity, we also continue to see healthcare disparities across racial lines. Considerable attention has been given to creating a physician workforce that better reflects the population served by healthcare professionals. To address the low numbers of women and underrepresented minorities in procedural based specialties, Nth Dimensions has sought to address and eliminate healthcare disparities through strategic pipeline initiatives. This is a retrospective observational cohort study of 118 medical students from 29 accredited US medical schools, who were awarded a position in the Nth Dimensions Summer Internship program between 2005 and 2012...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296752/racial-ethnic-differences-in-obesity-and-comorbidities-between-safety-net-and-non-safety-net-integrated-health-systems
#6
Bijal A Balasubramanian, Michael P Garcia, Douglas A Corley, Chyke A Doubeni, Jennifer S Haas, Aruna Kamineni, Virginia P Quinn, Karen Wernli, Yingye Zheng, Celette Sugg Skinner
Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems.We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level incomeThe study included 1...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295584/rural-urban-differences-in-access-to-preventive-health-care-among-publicly-insured-minnesotans
#7
John Loftus, Elizabeth M Allen, Kathleen Thiede Call, Susan A Everson-Rose
PURPOSE: Reduced access to care and barriers have been shown in rural populations and in publicly insured populations. Barriers limiting health care access in publicly insured populations living in rural areas are not understood. This study investigates rural-urban differences in system-, provider-, and individual-level barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children enrolled in a public insurance program in Minnesota. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a 2008 statewide, cross-sectional survey of publicly insured adults and children (n = 4,388) investigating barriers associated with low utilization of preventive care...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294040/racial-disparities-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-have-we-bridged-the-gap
#8
Syed A Shah, Mohamed Abdelgadir Adam, Samantha Thomas, Randall P Scheri, Michael Stang, Julie Ann Sosa, Sanziana Roman
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) exist in the U.S.; there is a paucity of data examining their temporal trends. We hypothesized that racial disparities in care provided to patients with differentiated thyroid cancer have improved over the past 15 years. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing surgery for DTC were included from the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012). Temporal trends in appropriate extent of thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy (RAI) were described for different racial groups...
March 15, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293777/engaging-parents-in-preventive-interventions-for-young-children-working-with-cultural-diversity-within-low-income-urban-neighborhoods
#9
Spring Dawson-McClure, Esther J Calzada, Laurie M Brotman
A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers...
March 14, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290092/evaluation-of-mammogram-parties-as-an-effective-community-navigation-method
#10
Kristi L Allgood, Bijou Hunt, Jacqueline M Kanoon, Melissa A Simon
Women of color do not have the same level of access to mammography services as their White counterparts, and this inequity may be one of the contributing factors to the documented racial disparity in breast cancer mortality in the US. The present study sought to assess the effectiveness of the mammogram party, a promising, but under-studied approach to increasing mammography uptake, particularly among under-served populations. The program targeted mammogram-eligible women in community settings on the west and southwest sides of Chicago, gathering basic demographic information, mammography history, and interest in assistance obtaining a mammogram...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290007/impact-of-urban-neighborhood-disadvantage-on-late-stage-breast-cancer-diagnosis-in-virginia
#11
Pam Baker DeGuzman, Wendy F Cohn, Fabian Camacho, Brandy L Edwards, Vanessa N Sturz, Anneke T Schroen
Research suggests that residents of inner-city urban neighborhoods have higher rates of late stage cancer diagnosis. Identifying urban neighborhoods with high rates of both concentrated disadvantage and late stage cancer diagnosis may assist health care providers to target screening interventions to reduce disparities. The purposes of this study were to (1) create an index to evaluate concentrated disadvantage (CD) using non-racial measures of poverty, (2) determine the impact of neighborhood CD on late stage breast cancer diagnosis in US cities, and (3) to understand the role of obesity on this relationship...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288792/disparities-in-the-management-of-ectopic-pregnancy
#12
Jennifer Y Hsu, Ling Chen, Arielle R Gumer, Ana I Tergas, June Y Hou, William M Burke, Cande V Ananth, Dawn L Hershman, Jason D Wright
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy is common among young women. Treatment can consist of either surgery with salpingectomy or salpingostomy or medical management with methotrexate. In addition to acute complications, treatment of ectopic pregnancy can result in long term sequelae including decreased fertility. Little is known about the patterns of care and predictors of treatment in women with ectopic pregnancy. Similarly, data on outcomes for various treatments are limited. OBJECTIVE: We examined the patterns of care and outcomes for women with ectopic pregnancy...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288074/racial-differences-and-disparities-in-osteoporosis-related-bone-health-results-from-the-paadrn-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Peter Cram, Kenneth G Saag, Yiyue Lou, Stephanie W Edmonds, Sylvie F Hall, Douglas W Roblin, Nicole C Wright, Michael P Jones, Fredric D Wolinsky
BACKGROUND: Determining whether observed differences in health care can be called disparities requires persistence of differences after adjustment for relevant patient, provider, and health system factors. We examined whether providing dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test results directly to patients might reduce or eliminate racial differences in osteoporosis-related health care. DESIGN, SUBJECTS, AND MEASURES: We analyzed data from 3484 white and 1041 black women who underwent DXA testing at 2 health systems participating in the Patient Activation after DXA Result Notification (PAADRN) pragmatic clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
March 10, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287782/socioeconomic-health-and-psychosocial-mediators-of-racial-disparities-in-cognition-in-early-middle-and-late-adulthood
#14
Laura B Zahodne, Jennifer J Manly, Jacqui Smith, Teresa Seeman, Margie E Lachman
Racial disparities in cognitive performance exist across the life course, but it is not known whether mediators of disparities differ by age. Understanding sources of cognitive disparities at different ages can inform policies and interventions. Data were obtained for non-Hispanic Black and White respondents to The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States from 3 age groups: 28-44 (N = 1210; 20% Black); 45-64 (N = 2693; 15% Black); and 65-85 (N = 1298; 11% Black). Moderated mediation models characterized direct and indirect effects of race on episodic memory and executive function composite scores through economic, health, and psychosocial variables as a function of age group...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285580/intraindividual-variability-in-late-life-functional-limitations-among-white-black-and-hispanic-older-adults
#15
Jielu Lin, Jessica Kelley-Moore
Consistent with the weathering hypothesis, many studies have captured racial/ethnic disparities in average functional health trajectories. The same mechanisms of social inequality that contribute to worse average health among minority adults may also contribute to greater fluctuations in their physical function at upper ages. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine patterns of intraindividual variability over time in trajectories of functional limitations for White, Black, and Hispanic older adults...
April 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282947/disparity-in-retention-in-care-and-viral-suppression-for-black-caribbean-born-immigrants-living-with-hiv-in-florida
#16
Elena Cyrus, Christyl Dawson, Kristopher P Fennie, Diana M Sheehan, Daniel E Mauck, Mariana Sanchez, Lorene M Maddox, Mary Jo Trepka
(1) The study aim was to assess disparities in non-retention in HIV care and non-viral suppression among non-Hispanic Black Caribbean immigrants living with HIV in Florida. (2) We analyzed cases involving individuals, aged ≥13, who met CDC HIV case definition during 2000-2014. Chi square test was used to evaluate differences in non-retention and non-viral suppression by country of origin/race/ethnicity. Multilevel logistic regressions with three referent groups [US-born Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs)] were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282649/emerging-regional-and-racial-disparities-in-the-lifetime-risk-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-comparative-life-table-analysis-in-king-county-wa-and-mississippi
#17
Galant A Chan, Kendra L Johnson, Nicholas G Mosca, Thomas E Dobbs, Julia C Dombrowski, Amy B Bennett, Susan E Buskin, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the lifetime risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis among US men who have sex with men (MSM), trends in risk and how risk varies between populations. METHODS: We used census and HIV surveillance data to construct life tables to estimate the cumulative risk of HIV diagnosis among cohorts of MSM born 1940 to 1994 in King County, Washington (KC) and Mississippi (MS). RESULTS: The cumulative risk of HIV diagnosis progressed in 3 phases...
April 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282529/evidence-of-socio-economic-stress-and-female-foeticide-in-racial-disparities-in-the-gender-ratio-at-birth-in-the-united-states-1995-2014
#18
Victor Grech
BACKGROUND: Males are born in excess of females, expressed as M/T (male/total births), which is expected to approximate 0.515. Racial M/T disparities have been long known. This study was carried out in order to identify such disparities in different races in the United States. DESIGN: Monthly male and female live births by race for the entire US were obtained from the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 1995-2014 for the four racial groups: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American and White...
March 1, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282337/practice-level-costs-of-office-based-hypertension-performance-improvement-the-heart-healthy-lenoir-study
#19
(no author information available yet)
Primary care practice leaders who consider engaging in quality improvement (QI) need to understand the practice level costs incurred when asking staff to take on new tasks. The Heart Healthy Lenoir study is a prospective cohort trial in which QI methods were used to enhance hypertension (HTN) care and reduce racial disparities in blood pressure control in small rural primary care practices in North Carolina. As part of this effort, we performed an activity-based costing analysis to describe the costs incurred to develop, implement, and maintain key tasks...
March 2017: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282246/sex-race-and-hiv-risk-disparities-in-discontinuity-of-hiv-care-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#20
Peter F Rebeiro, Alison G Abraham, Michael A Horberg, Keri N Althoff, Baligh R Yehia, Kate Buchacz, Bryan M Lau, Timothy R Sterling, Stephen J Gange
Disruption of continuous retention in care (discontinuity) is associated with HIV disease progression. We examined sex, race, and HIV risk disparities in discontinuity after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among patients in North America. Adults (≥18 years of age) initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Discontinuity was defined as first disruption of continuous retention (≥2 visits separated by >90 days in the calendar year). Relative hazard ratio (HR) and times from ART initiation until discontinuity by race, sex, and HIV risk were assessed by modeling of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) in the presence of the competing risk of death...
March 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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