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Racial Disparity

Chandra L Jackson, Symielle A Gaston, Rui Liu, Kenneth Mukamal, Eric B Rimm
In the United States, racial minorities generally experience poorer cardiovascular health compared to whites, and differences in alcohol consumption and sleep could contribute to these disparities. With a nationally representative sample of 187,950 adults in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004 to 2015, we examined the relationship between alcohol-drinking patterns and sleep duration/quality by race and sex. Using Poisson regression models with robust variance, we estimated sex-specific prevalence ratios for each sleep duration/quality category among blacks compared to whites within categories of alcohol-drinking pattern, adjusting for socioeconomic status and other potential confounders...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hala Abdelaal, Mohamed A Mohamed, Hany Aly
Objectives To examine the risk of premature delivery (PD) and small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant teens with depressive disorders (DD), and the impact of race/ethnicity on these birth outcomes. Design/Methods We examined the hospital discharge records of pregnant mothers between the age of 13-18 year old who gave birth in the years 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012 in the National Inpatient Sample database. We calculated the risk for PD and SGA among pregnant teens with and without DD in the overall population and within each race/ethnicity...
March 20, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Daisy Sanchez, Derek Dubay, Baliga Prabhakar, David J Taber
INTRODUCTION: To improve kidney transplant allocation equitability, a new Kidney Allocation System (KAS) was implemented December 4, 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine if the impact of KAS on peri-operative outcomes differed by recipient race/ethnicity. METHODS: This was a time series analysis using data aggregated in monthly intervals from October 2012 through September 2015 using the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC). This includes national data aggregated at the center level of all US kidney transplant centers that participate in the UHC (416 centers)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shearwood McClelland, Jennifer Leberknight, B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, C Norman Coleman, Daniel G Petereit
Introduction: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer disproportionally present with more advanced stages of disease and have the worst cancer-specific survival rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. The presence of disparities in radiation therapy (RT) access for AI/AN patients has rarely been examined. Methods and materials: National Cancer Institute (NCI) initiatives toward addressing AI/AN disparities were examined. Additionally, an extensive PubMed literature search for studies investigating RT access disparities in AI/AN patients was performed...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Julie A Lynch, Brygida Berse, Merry Rabb, Paul Mosquin, Rob Chew, Suzanne L West, Nicole Coomer, Daniel Becker, John Kautter
BACKGROUND: Tumor testing for mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is indicated for all newly diagnosed, metastatic lung cancer patients, who may be candidates for first-line treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Few studies have analyzed population-level testing. METHODS: We identified clinical, demographic, and regional predictors of EGFR & KRAS testing among Medicare beneficiaries with a new diagnosis of lung cancer in 2011-2013 claims...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
Todd R Vogel, Robin L Kruse, Ryan J Kim, Viktor Y Dombrovskiy
BACKGROUND: Race has been associated with inferior outcomes after multiple procedures, but the association of socioeconomic status with procedures for cerebrovascular disease is not well established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Elective carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) procedures were identified in the National Inpatient Sample, 2012 to 2014. Median household income was estimated from patient ZIP codes. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analysis evaluated outcomes, accounting for age, race, gender, comorbidities, procedure, income, insurance, and hospital characteristics...
January 1, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Arleen F Brown, Li-Jung Liang, Stefanie D Vassar, Jose J Escarce, Sharon Stein Merkin, Eric Cheng, Adam Richards, Teresa Seeman, W T Longstreth
Background: Trends in cardiovascular disparities are poorly understood, even as diversity increases in the United States. Objective: To examine U.S. trends in racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in cardiovascular health. Design: Repeated cross-sectional study. Setting: NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 1988 to 2014. Participants: Adults aged 25 years or older who did not report cardiovascular disease...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
David Matthew Doyle, Pam Factor-Litvak, Bruce G Link
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test a life course model in which racial disparities in physical health between Caucasian and African Americans are driven by disparities in close relationship functioning. This model also examined relative evidence for intergenerational transmission of relationship functioning and ongoing exposure to prejudice and discrimination as two pathways that might shape adult relationship functioning. METHOD: A sample of 523 Caucasian and African American men and women were prospectively tracked from a birth cohort initiated in the 1960s...
February 3, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Eshan U Patel, Charlotte A Gaydos, Zoe R Packman, Thomas C Quinn, Aaron A R Tobian
Background: The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined. Methods: Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sarah E Gollust, Brooke A Cunningham, Barbara G Bokhour, Howard S Gordon, Charlene Pope, Somnath S Saha, Dina M Jones, Tam Do, Diana J Burgess
Progress to address health care equity requires health care providers' commitment, but their engagement may depend on their perceptions of the factors contributing to inequity. To understand providers' perceptions of causes of racial health care disparities, a short survey was delivered to health care providers who work at 3 Veterans Health Administration sites, followed by qualitative interviews (N = 53). Survey data indicated that providers attributed the causes of disparities to social and economic conditions more than to patients' or providers' behaviors...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
Benjamin W Fisher, Thomas J Mowen, John H Boman
Although school security measures have become a common fixture in public schools across the United States, research on the relationship between security and adolescent victimization is mixed, with very few studies examining trends in adolescent victimization across time. Using two waves of data from the Educational Longitudinal Study 2002 (N = 7659; 50.6% female; 56.7% White, 13.3% Black, 13.5% Hispanic, 11.3% Asian American, 5.4% other race), results from a series of multi-level models demonstrate that adolescents in schools with more security measures report higher odds of being threatened with harm, and no difference in odds of being in a physical altercation or having something stolen over time...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Lisa Carter-Harris, James E Slaven, Patrick O Monahan, Rivienne Shedd-Steele, Nasser Hanna, Susan M Rawl
Lung cancer screening is a relatively new screening option. Inequalities related to screening behavior have been documented in other types of cancer screening. Because stage at presentation drives mortality in lung cancer, it is critical to understand factors that influence screening behavior in lung cancer screening in order to intervene. However, we must first understand where disparities exist in lung cancer screening participation in order to effectively guide intervention efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association of sociodemographic (including key disparity-related variables) and knowledge with lung cancer screening behavior...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Emma L Frazier, Madeline Y Sutton, John T Brooks, R Luke Shouse, John Weiser
Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16...
March 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Whitney E Zahnd, Amanda J Fogleman, Wiley D Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: Despite having lower overall incidence rates, rural populations tend to have higher cancer mortality rates. Rural populations often have higher rates of cancers with primary and secondary prevention modalities. However, there is limited research on rural-urban differences in incidence by stage. Therefore, the objective was to assess rural-urban differences in cancer rates by stage. METHODS: The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries public use data set (2009-2013) was used to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates and rate ratios (rural versus urban) for all stageable cancers, tobacco-associated cancers, human papillomavirus-associated cancers, and individual cancers with screening modalities...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Shana Harris, Rebecca A Weiss
In the United States, competency to stand trial (CST) evaluations ensure that criminal defendants are capable of participating in their defenses, thus ensuring an important legal right. However, some research has suggested that the CST process may be impacted by legally irrelevant factors such as a defendant's race and cultural background. However, the majority of researchers examined factors that are predictive of CST recommendations and decisions. Few studies have focused on potential racial discrepancies in attorney referrals for CST evaluations and whether they are exacerbated by professional experience...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Stephane M Shepherd, Cynthia Willis-Esqueda, Yin Paradies, Diane Sivasubramaniam, Juanita Sherwood, Teresa Brockie
BACKGROUND: Disparities across a number of health indicators between the general population and particular racial and cultural minority groups including African Americans, Native Americans and Latino/a Americans have been well documented. Some evidence suggests that particular groups may receive poorer standards of care due to biased beliefs or attitudes held by health professionals. Less research has been conducted in specifically non-urban areas with smaller minority populations. METHODS: This study explored the self-reported health care experiences for 117 racial and cultural minority Americans residing in a Mid-Western jurisdiction...
March 16, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Krystin A Engelhardt, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Gregory H Gorman, Nicole R Dobson
Background: The Military Health System (MHS) provides universal access to medical care to active duty service members, retirees, and their dependents. Observational data from small studies suggest lower preterm birth rates in the MHS compared with U.S. national averages. The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of preterm birth in the MHS from 2006 to 2012 compared with national rates and to analyze the impact of demographic factors on preterm birth in a universal access health care system...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Bríd M Ryan
Compared with all other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., African Americans are disproportionally affected by lung cancer, both in terms of incidence and survival. It is likely that smoking, as the main etiological factor associated with lung cancer, contributes to these disparities, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. This paper seeks to explore the history of lung cancer disparities and review to the literature regarding the various factors that contribute to them.
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Camillia K Lui, Nina Mulia
Aims: Alcohol problems are most prevalent in young adulthood and decrease thereafter, but some studies find that racial/ethnic minorities have elevated alcohol risk beyond the 20s. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in the transitions into and out of alcohol problems, and whether these are explained by heavy drinking (HD), socioeconomic disadvantages and adult role transitions from the 20s to 30s. Short summary: Racial/ethnic groups had similar risks for earlier onset and recurrence/persistence of alcohol problems, but Blacks were at significantly greater risk than Whites for later onset in the 30s...
March 13, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Elizabeth A McConnell, Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Roky Truong, Michelle Birkett
Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i...
March 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
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