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Racial Disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215050/racial-disparities-in-preventable-risk-factors-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#1
Sunshine Dwojak, Neil Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To demonstrate racial differences in preventable risk behaviors/practices that contribute to head and neck cancer (HNCA). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of large national risk factor survey. METHODS: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2013 was analyzed. Demographic data were extracted, including age, sex, and race. Social habits considered risk factors for HNCA were also extracted, including alcohol consumption, smoking, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination status...
February 19, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214449/-they-treated-me-like-crap-and-i-know-it-was-because-i-was-native-the-healthcare-experiences-of-aboriginal-peoples-living-in-vancouver-s-inner-city
#2
Ashley Goodman, Kim Fleming, Nicole Markwick, Tracey Morrison, Louise Lagimodiere, Thomas Kerr
There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver's inner city...
January 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210536/race-and-place-differences-in-patients-hospitalized-with-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-is-there-double-jeopardy-findings-from-trace-core
#3
Robert J Goldberg, Joel M Gore, David D McManus, Richard McManus, Mayra Tisminetzky, Darleen Lessard, Jerry H Gurwitz, David C Parish, Jeroan Allison, Connie Ng Hess, Tracy Wang, Catarina Kiefe
The objectives of this longitudinal study were to examine differences between whites and blacks, and across two geographical regions, in the socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics, hospital treatment practices, and post-discharge mortality for hospital survivors of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this prospective cohort study, we performed in-person interviews and medical record abstractions for patients discharged from the hospital after an ACS at participating sites in Central Massachusetts and Central Georgia during 2011-2013...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205152/explaining-racial-disparities-in-amputation-rates-for-the-treatment-of-peripheral-artery-disease-pad-using-decomposition-methods
#4
J A Mustapha, Bryan T Fisher, John A Rizzo, Jie Chen, Brad J Martinsen, Harry Kotlarz, Michael Ryan, Candace Gunnarsson
INTRODUCTION: While studies have documented racial and ethnic disparities in amputation rates for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), the importance of specific factors has not been quantified. This research seeks to provide such evidence and to quantify how much of the difference reflects observable versus unexplained factors. METHODS: This study used the nationally representative HCUP inpatient database from 2006 to 2013 for patients with a primary diagnosis of PAD who were either Caucasian, African-American, or Hispanic...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199202/racial-disparity-in-metabolic-regulation-of-cancer
#5
Kuldeep S Attri, Divya Murthy, Pankaj K Singh
Genetic mutations and metabolic reprogramming are two key hallmarks of cancer, required for proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of the disease. While genetic mutations, whether inherited or acquired, are critical for the initiation of tumor development, metabolic reprogramming is an effector mechanism imperative for adaptational transition during the progression of cancer. Recent findings in the literature emphasize the significance of molecular cross-talk between these two cellular processes in regulating signaling and differentiation of cancer cells...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199006/symptom-incidence-distress-cancer-related-distress-and-adherence-to-chemotherapy-among-african-american-women-with-breast-cancer
#6
Melissa K Yee, Susan M Sereika, Catherine M Bender, Adam M Brufsky, Mary C Connolly, Margaret Q Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: There is a persistent racial survival disparity between African American (AA) and white women with breast cancer. There is evidence that symptom incidence, associated distress, and overall cancer-related distress may be unexplored, important contributing factors. The purpose of the current study was to: 1) describe and compare the number of chemotherapy-related symptoms and associated distress among AA women with breast cancer over the course of chemotherapy at 3 time points (at baseline before initiating chemotherapy, midpoint, and at the completion of chemotherapy); and 2) to describe the relationship between the number of chemotherapy-related symptoms and overall cancer distress compared with the ability to receive at least 85% of the prescribed chemotherapy within the prescribed timeframe...
February 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197819/disparities-in-infant-mortality-by-race-among-hispanic-and-non-hispanic-infants
#7
Whitney S Rice, Samantha S Goldfarb, Anne E Brisendine, Stevie Burrows, Martha S Wingate
OBJECTIVES: U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858)...
February 14, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196847/housing-discrimination-residential-racial-segregation-and-colorectal-cancer-survival-in-southeastern-wisconsin
#8
Yuhong Zhou, Amin Bemanian, Kirsten M M Beyer
BACKGROUND: Residential racial segregation is still neglected in contemporary examinations of racial health disparities, including studies of cancer. Even fewer studies examine the processes by which segregation occurs, such as through housing discrimination. This study aims to examine relationships among housing discrimination, segregation, and colorectal cancer survival in southeastern Wisconsin. METHODS: Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Wisconsin Cancer Reporting System for two southeastern Wisconsin metropolitan areas...
February 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196846/racial-ethnic-differences-in-the-impact-of-neighborhood-social-and-built-environment-on-breast-cancer-risk-the-neighborhoods-and-breast-cancer-study
#9
Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Jocelyn Koo, Juan Yang, Theresa H M Keegan, Meera Sangaramoorthy, Andrew Hertz, David O Nelson, Myles Cockburn, William A Satariano, Irene H Yen, Ninez Ponce, Esther M John, Scarlett Lin Gomez
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) has been found to be associated with breast cancer risk. It remains unclear whether this association applies across racial/ethnic groups independent of individual-level factors, and is attributable to other neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: We examined the independent and joint associations of education and nSES with odds of breast cancer. Residential addresses were geocoded for 2,838 cases and 3,117 controls and linked to nSES and social and built environment characteristics...
February 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196814/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-acute-stroke-care-in-the-florida-puerto-rico-collaboration-to-reduce-stroke-disparities-study
#10
Ralph L Sacco, Hannah Gardener, Kefeng Wang, Chuanhui Dong, Maria A Ciliberti-Vargas, Carolina M Gutierrez, Negar Asdaghi, W Scott Burgin, Olveen Carrasquillo, Enid J Garcia-Rivera, Ulises Nobo, Sofia Oluwole, David Z Rose, Michael F Waters, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Mary Robichaux, Salina P Waddy, Jose G Romano, Tatjana Rundek
BACKGROUND: Racial-ethnic disparities in acute stroke care can contribute to inequality in stroke outcomes. We examined race-ethnic disparities in acute stroke performance metrics in a voluntary stroke registry among Florida and Puerto Rico Get With the Guidelines-Stroke hospitals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five sites in the Florida Puerto Rico Stroke Registry (66 Florida and 9 Puerto Rico) recorded 58 864 ischemic stroke cases (2010-2014). Logistic regression models examined racial-ethnic differences in acute stroke performance measures and defect-free care (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment, in-hospital antithrombotic therapy, deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, discharge antithrombotic therapy, appropriate anticoagulation therapy, statin use, smoking cessation counseling) and temporal trends...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190954/prevalence-of-pre-pregnancy-obesity-2011-2014
#11
Laura Gregor, Patrick L Remington, Sara Lindberg, Deborah Ehrenthal
IMPORTANCE: Obesity before and during pregnancy increases risk among mothers for poor health outcomes, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in pre-pregnancy obesity rates among women in Wisconsin. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from Wisconsin birth certificates were analyzed. Prevalence of pre-pregnancy obesity (defined as body mass index = 30) among Wisconsin women who gave birth from 2011 through 2014 was compared across demographic and geographic dimensions...
November 2016: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190913/closing-the-racial-discipline-gap-in-classrooms-by-changing-teacher-practice
#12
Anne Gregory, Christopher A Hafen, Erik Ruzek, Amori Yee Mikami, Joseph P Allen, Robert C Pianta
Black students are issued school discipline sanctions at rates higher than members of other racial and ethnic groups, underscoring the need for professional development that addresses this gap. In 86 secondary classrooms, a randomized controlled trial examined the effects of a 2-year teacher coaching program, My Teaching Partner Secondary (MTP-S). Results from the second year of coaching and the year after coaching was discontinued replicated previous findings from the first year of coaching-intervention teachers had no significant disparities in discipline referral between Black students and their classmates, compared to teachers in the control condition, for whom racial discipline gaps remained...
June 2016: School Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190691/lack-of-lipid-screening-disparities-in-obese-latino-adults-at-health-centers
#13
John D Heintzman, Steffani R Bailey, John Muench, Marie Killerby, Stuart Cowburn, Miguel Marino
INTRODUCTION: In cross-sectional survey studies, obese Latinos are less likely to be screened for elevated serum cholesterol, despite their higher risk for hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease. This study evaluated insurance and racial/ethnic disparities in lipid screening receipt between obese Latino and non-Hispanic white patients in Oregon community health centers (CHCs) over 5 years, using electronic health record data. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated obese (BMI ≥30), low-income, adult patients (aged 21-79 years) with at least one visit at an Oregon CHC during 2009-2013 (n=11,095)...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187864/relation-of-household-income-to-incidence-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-wake-county-north-carolina
#14
Louisa A Mounsey, Feng-Chang Lin, Irion Pursell, Golsa Joodi, Mary Elizabeth Lewis, Anthony Nwosu, Chani Hodonsky, Ross J Simpson, J Paul Mounsey
The incidence of out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death (OHSUD) in a racially and socioeconomically diverse population has been inadequately studied. We collated all OHSUDs over a 24-month period among 18- to 64-year olds in Wake County, North Carolina, to investigate geographic and socioeconomic disparity in incidence of OHSUD. An electronic query of Wake County Emergency Medical Services (EMS) identified all EMS attended out-of-hospital deaths. After excluding trauma, expected deaths, and deaths occurring in non-free-living subjects, medical records and medical examiner's reports were reviewed by a committee of cardiologists to make the determination of OHSUD...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183825/insurance-status-and-racial-disparities-in-cancer-specific-mortality-in-the-united-states-a-population-based-analysis
#15
Hubert Y Pan, Gary V Walker, Stephen R Grant, Pamela K Allen, Jing Jiang, B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Benjamin D Smith, Matthew Koshy, Chad G Rusthoven, Usama Mahmood
BACKGROUND: Cancer-specific mortality (CSM) is known to be higher among blacks and lower among Hispanics compared to whites. Private insurance confers CSM benefit, but few studies have examined the relationship between insurance status and racial disparities. We sought to determine differences in CSM between races within insurance subgroups. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 577,716 patients age 18-64 years diagnosed with one of the 10 solid malignancies causing the greatest mortality over 2007-2012 were obtained from SEER...
February 9, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182268/racial-disparities-in-brca-testing-and-cancer-risk-management-across-a-population-based-sample-of-young-breast-cancer-survivors
#16
Deborah Cragun, Anne Weidner, Courtney Lewis, Devon Bonner, Jongphil Kim, Susan T Vadaparampil, Tuya Pal
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) disparities may widen with genomic advances. The authors compared non-Hispanic white (NHW), black, and Hispanic BC survivors for 1) cancer risk-management practices among BRCA carriers and 2) provider discussion and receipt of genetic testing. METHODS: A population-based sample of NHW, black, and Hispanic women who had been diagnosed with invasive BC at age 50 years or younger from 2009 to 2012 were recruited through the state cancer registry...
February 9, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181157/comprehensive-neighborhood-portraits-and-child-asthma-disparities
#17
Ashley W Kranjac, Rachel T Kimbro, Justin T Denney, Kristin M Osiecki, Brady S Moffett, Keila N Lopez
Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators...
February 8, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180060/gprc6a-jack-of-all-metabolism-or-master-of-none
#18
REVIEW
Min Pi, Satoru Kenneth Nishimoto, L Darryl Quarles
BACKGROUND: GPRC6A, a widely expressed G-protein coupled receptor, is proposed to be a master regulator of complex endocrine networks and metabolic processes. GPRC6A is activated by multiple ligands, including osteocalcin (Ocn), testosterone (T), basic amino acids, and various cations. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We review the controversy surrounding GPRC6A functions. In mice, GPRC6A is proposed to integrate metabolic functions through the coordinated secretion of hormones, including insulin, GLP-1, T, and IL-6, and direct effects of this receptor to control glucose and fat metabolism in the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179339/racial-disparities-in-oropharyngeal-cancer-stage-at-diagnosis
#19
Uchechukwu C Megwalu, Yifei Ma
AIM: To evaluate the impact of race on disease stage at diagnosis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cohort included 18,791 adult patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012, from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 Database. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, marital status, tumor site, and year of diagnosis, black race was associated with increased risk of presenting with Stage III or IV disease (OR 1...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177978/the-relationship-between-geographic-access-to-plastic-surgeons-and-breast-reconstruction-rates-among-women-undergoing-mastectomy-for-cancer
#20
Andrew R Bauder, Cary P Gross, Brigid K Killelea, Paris D Butler, Stephen J Kovach, Justin P Fox
INTRODUCTION: Despite a national health care policy requiring payers to cover breast reconstruction, rates of postmastectomy reconstruction are low, particularly among minority populations. We conducted this study to determine if geographic access to a plastic surgeon impacts breast reconstruction rates. METHODS: Using 2010 inpatient and ambulatory surgery data from 10 states, we identified adult women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer. Data were aggregated to the health service area (HSA) level and hierarchical generalized linear models were used to risk-standardize breast reconstruction rates (RSRR) across HSAs...
March 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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