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Racial Disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157778/reflecting-on-racial-disparities-in-pediatric-care-can-perianesthesia-care-nurses-make-a-difference
#1
Terri Voepel-Lewis, Olubukola O Nafiu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157686/unequal-interactions-examining-the-role-of-patient-centered-care-in-the-inequitable-diffusion-of-a-medical-innovation-the-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccine
#2
Anny T Fenton, Marc N Elliott, David C Schwebel, Zahava Berkowitz, Nicole C Liddon, Susan R Tortolero, Paula M Cuccaro, Suzy L Davies, Mark A Schuster
RATIONALE: Studies of inequities in diffusion of medical innovations rarely consider the role of patient-centered care. OBJECTIVE: We used uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine shortly after its licensing to explore the role of patient-centered care. METHODS: Using a longitudinal multi-site survey of US parents and adolescents, we assessed whether patient-centered care ratings might shape racial/ethnic and socioeconomic gaps at two decision points in the HPV vaccination process: (1) Whether a medical provider recommends the vaccine and (2) whether a parent decides to vaccinate...
October 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154974/prostate-cancer-health-disparities-an-immuno-biological-perspective
#3
Sanjay Kumar, Rajesh Singh, Shalie Malik, Upender Manne, Manoj Mishra
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in males, and, in the United States, is the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men older than 40 years. There is a higher incidence of PCa for African Americans (AAs) than for European-Americans (EAs). Investigations related to the incidence of PCa-related health disparities for AAs suggest that there are differences in the genetic makeup of these populations. Other differences are environmentally induced (e.g., diet and lifestyle), and the exposures are different...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152751/healthcare-disparities-in-pediatric-otolaryngology-a-systematic-review
#4
Jad Jabbour, Thomas Robey, Michael J Cunningham
OBJECTIVES: Multiple studies have reported healthcare disparities in particular settings and conditions within pediatric otolaryngology, but a systematic examination of the breadth of the problem within the field is lacking. This study's objectives are to synthesize the available evidence regarding healthcare disparities in pediatric otolaryngology, highlight recurrent themes with respect to etiologies and manifestations, and demonstrate potential impacts from patient and provider standpoints...
November 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150730/racial-differences-in-symptom-management-experiences-during-breast-cancer-treatment
#5
Cleo A Samuel, Jennifer Schaal, Linda Robertson, Jemeia Kollie, Stephanie Baker, Kristin Black, Olive Mbah, Crystal Dixon, Katrina Ellis, Eugenia Eng, Fatima Guerrab, Nora Jones, Amanda Kotey, Claire Morse, Jessica Taylor, Vickie Whitt, Samuel Cykert
PURPOSE: Racial disparities in cancer treatment-related symptom burden are well documented and linked to worse treatment outcomes. Yet, little is known about racial differences in patients' treatment-related symptom management experiences. Such understanding can help identify modifiable drivers of symptom burden inequities. As part of the Cancer Health Accountability for Managing Pain and Symptoms (CHAMPS) study, we examined racial differences in symptom management experiences among Black and White breast cancer survivors (BCS)...
November 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148341/the-affordable-care-act-appears-to-have-narrowed-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-insurance-coverage-and-access-to-care-among-young-adults
#6
Brandy J Lipton, Sandra L Decker, Benjamin D Sommers
Prior to the Affordable Care Act, one in three young adults aged 19 to 25 years were uninsured, with substantial racial/ethnic disparities in coverage. We analyzed the separate and cumulative changes in racial/ethnic disparities in coverage and access to care among young adults after implementation of the Affordable Care Act's 2010 dependent coverage provision and 2014 Medicaid and Marketplace expansions. We find that the dependent coverage provision was associated with similar gains across racial/ethnic groups, but the 2014 expansion was associated with larger gains in coverage among Hispanics and Blacks relative to Whites...
April 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147063/nativity-race-ethnicity-and-dual-diagnosis-among-us-adults
#7
Magdalena Szaflarski, Shawn Bauldry, Lisa A Cubbins, Karthikeyan Meganathan
Purpose: This study investigated disparities in dual diagnosis (comorbid substance-use and depressive/anxiety disorders) among US adults by nativity and racial-ethnic origin and socioeconomic, cultural, and psychosocial factors that may account for the observed disparities. Design/methodology: The study drew on data from two waves of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Racial-ethnic categories included African, Asian/Pacific Islander, European, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and other Hispanic/Latino...
2017: Research in the Sociology of Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146613/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-trajectories-of-hospitalization-in-us-men-and-women-with-heart-failure
#8
Matthew E Dupre, Danan Gu, Hanzhang Xu, Janese Willis, Lesley H Curtis, Eric D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have documented racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization among patients with heart failure (HF). However, racial/ethnic differences in trajectories of hospitalization following the diagnosis of HF have not been well characterized. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in individual-level trajectories of hospitalization in older adults with diagnosed HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a nationally representative prospective cohort of US men and women aged 45 years and older were used to examine the number of hospitalizations reported every 24 months...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145767/addressing-geographic-confounding-through-spatial-propensity-scores-a-study-of-racial-disparities-in-diabetes
#9
Melanie L Davis, Brian Neelon, Paul J Nietert, Kelly J Hunt, Lane F Burgette, Andrew B Lawson, Leonard E Egede
Motivated by a study exploring differences in glycemic control between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white veterans with type 2 diabetes, we aim to address a type of confounding that arises in spatially referenced observational studies. Specifically, we develop a spatial doubly robust propensity score estimator to reduce bias associated with geographic confounding, which occurs when measured or unmeasured confounding factors vary by geographic location, leading to imbalanced group comparisons. We augment the doubly robust estimator with spatial random effects, which are assigned conditionally autoregressive priors to improve inferences by borrowing information across neighboring geographic regions...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145745/recruitment-of-underrepresented-minority-researchers-into-hiv-prevention-research-the-hiv-prevention-trials-network-hptn-scholars-program
#10
Sten H Vermund, Erica L Hamilton, Sam Griffith, Larissa Jennings, Typhanye V Dyer, Kenneth H Mayer, Darrell P Wheeler
Most US investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the US epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12-18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145359/racial-ethnic-health-disparities-among-rural-adults-united-states-2012-2015
#11
Cara V James, Ramal Moonesinghe, Shondelle M Wilson-Frederick, Jeffrey E Hall, Ana Penman-Aguilar, Karen Bouye
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Rural communities often have worse health outcomes, have less access to care, and are less diverse than urban communities. Much of the research on rural health disparities examines disparities between rural and urban communities, with fewer studies on disparities within rural communities. This report provides an overview of racial/ethnic health disparities for selected indicators in rural areas of the United States. REPORTING PERIOD: 2012-2015...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142225/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-between-asian-and-caucasian-patient-populations
#12
Jiaying Deng, Hu Chen, Daizhan Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Yun Chen, Qi Liu, Dashan Ai, Hanting Zhu, Li Chu, Wenjia Ren, Xiaofei Zhang, Yi Xia, Menghong Sun, Huiwen Zhang, Jun Li, Xinxin Peng, Liang Li, Leng Han, Hui Lin, Xiujun Cai, Jiaqing Xiang, Shufeng Chen, Yihua Sun, Yawei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Haiquan Chen, Shijian Zhang, Yi Zhao, Yun Liu, Han Liang, Kuaile Zhao
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a major histological type of esophageal cancer, with distinct incidence and survival patterns among races. Although previous studies have characterized somatic mutations in this disease, a rigorous comparison between different patient populations has not been conducted. Here we sequence the samples of 316 Chinese patients, combine them with those from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and perform a comparative analysis between Asian and Caucasian patients. We find that mutated CSMD3 is associated with better prognosis in Asian patients...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142003/disparities-in-environmental-exposures-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-diabetes-risk-in-vulnerable-populations
#13
Daniel Ruiz, Marisol Becerra, Jyotsna S Jagai, Kerry Ard, Robert M Sargis
Burgeoning epidemiological, animal, and cellular data link environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to metabolic dysfunction. Disproportionate exposure to diabetes-associated EDCs may be an underappreciated contributor to disparities in metabolic disease risk. The burden of diabetes is not uniformly borne by American society; rather, this disease disproportionately affects certain populations, including African Americans, Latinos, and low-income individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence linking unequal exposures to EDCs with racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diabetes disparities in the U...
November 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141994/type-ii-diabetes-and-incidence-of-estrogen-receptor-negative-breast-cancer-in-african-american-women
#14
Julie R Palmer, Nelsy Castro-Webb, Kimberly Bertrand, Traci N Bethea, Gerald V Denis
White women with type II diabetes (T2D) have an estimated 20% increased risk of developing breast cancer. Little is known about associations by breast cancer subtype or among African American (AA) women, who are disproportionately affected by T2D and estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer. We assessed the relation of T2D to incidence of ER- and ER+ breast cancer in data from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort of AA women enrolled in 1995 and followed biennially. During 847,934 person-years of follow-up, there were 1,851 incident invasive breast cancers, including 914 ER+ and 468 ER- cases...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138060/racial-disparities-and-insurance-status-an-epidemiologic-analysis-of-ohio-melanoma-patients
#15
Laura Kooistra, Katherine Chiang, Sean Dawes, Haley Gittleman, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Jeremy Bordeaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138041/attendance-at-prescribed-pelvic-floor-physical-therapy-in-a-diverse-urban-urogynecology-population
#16
M B Shannon, M Genereux, C Brincat, W Adams, L Brubaker, E R Mueller, C M Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) is a common and effective treatment for several pelvic floor disorders, but there is limited knowledge about adherence to the therapy or what factors influence attendance. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of PFPT attendance (initiation and completion) as well as correlates of PFPT attendance. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Urban outpatient clinics at a tertiary medical center treating women with pelvic floor disorders...
November 11, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137951/triple-negative-breast-cancer-stem-cells-and-african-ancestry
#17
REVIEW
Evelyn Jiagge, Dhananjay Chitale, Lisa A Newman
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are more common among African ancestry populations, such as African Americans and western, sub-Saharan Africans, compared to European ancestry populations. This phenotype prevalence contributes to breast cancer outcome disparities between African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Breast cancer stem cells represent the tumor subpopulation responsible for metastatic virulence and ongoing research seeks to characterize the extent to which TNBC versus non-TNBC stem cells may differ...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135791/an-ecological-approach-to-understanding-preventive-service-utilization-among-the-underserved
#18
Bettie Coplan
Preventive services have the potential to reduce health disparities; however, these services are underutilized, particularly among the underserved. Patients with low socioeconomic status and racial and ethnic minorities experience significant health disparities related to cancer and infectious and chronic diseases but face multilevel challenges accessing preventive care. The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of preventive service utilization among underserved patients by providing an ecological framework that addresses factors at multiple levels that influence patient care...
January 2018: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135782/examining-race-and-ethnicity-information-in-medicare-administrative-data
#19
Clara E Filice, Karen E Joynt
Racial and ethnic disparities are observed in the health status and health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries. Reducing these disparities is a national priority, and having high-quality data on individuals' race and ethnicity is critical for researchers working to do so. However, using Medicare data to identify race and ethnicity is not straightforward. Currently, Medicare largely relies on Social Security Administration data for information about Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. Directly self-reported race and ethnicity information is collected for subsets of Medicare beneficiaries but is not explicitly collected for the purpose of populating race/ethnicity information in the Medicare administrative record...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132798/the-impact-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-on-survival-for-children-and-adolescents-with-extremity-sarcomas-a-population-based-study
#20
Michael Joseph, Emma C Hamilton, Andrea Hayes-Jordan, Winston W Huh, Mary T Austin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities exist in disease presentation, treatment, and survival among children and adolescents with extremity sarcoma. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data were analyzed for patients <20years old with soft-tissue extremity sarcomas from 1973 to 2013. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the association between race/ethnicity and disease stage at presentation and likelihood of surgical resection...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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