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Racial Disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108348/epigenetic-basis-of-cancer-health-disparities-looking-beyond-genetic-differences
#1
REVIEW
Aamir Ahmad, Shafquat Azim, Haseeb Zubair, Mohammad Aslam Khan, Seema Singh, James E Carter, Rodney Rocconi, Ajay P Singh
Despite efforts at various levels, racial health disparities still exist in cancer patients. These inequalities in incidence and/or clinical outcome can only be explained by a multitude of factors, with genetic basis being one of them. Several investigations have provided convincing evidence to support epigenetic regulation of cancer-associated genes, which results in the differential transcriptome and proteome, and may be linked to a pre-disposition of individuals of certain race/ethnicity to early or more aggressive cancers...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105638/socioeconomic-disparities-financial-toxicity-and-opportunities-for-enhanced-system-efficiencies-for-patients-with-cancer
#2
Daniel E Abbott, Corrine L Voils, Deborah A Fisher, Caprice C Greenberg, Nasia Safdar
Cancer care continues to stress the US healthcare system with increases in life expectancy, cancer prevalence, and survivors' complex needs. These challenges are compounded by socioeconomic, racial, and cultural disparities that are associated with poor clinical outcomes. One innovative and resource-wise strategy to address this demand on the system is expanded use of telehealth. This paradigm has the potential to decrease healthcare and patient out-of-pocket costs and improve patient adherence to recommended treatment and/or surveillance...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105334/chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-and-the-role-of-epigenetics-future-therapeutic-trajectories
#3
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Henrietta U Okafor, Vivian N Muoneke, Odutola I Odetunde, Chioma L Odimegwu
Global differences in the observed causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children are well documented and are attributed to dissimilarities in clime, race, hereditary, and ancestry. Thus, familial clustering and disparities in CKD prevalence rates across ethnic and racial groups indicate that the progression of renal disease has a strong genetic component. Mammalian studies have demonstrated a feasible nexus between nutrition and non-genetic exposure (around the time of conception and in epigenetic changes) in the expression of major genes identified in renal organogenesis...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104834/disparities-in-the-use-of-seizure-medications-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#4
Andrew M Naidech, Paloma Toledo, Shyam Prabhakaran, Jane L Holl
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated potential disparities in the use of prophylactic seizure medications in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: Review of multicenter electronic health record (EHR) data with simultaneous prospective data recording. EHR data were retrieved from HealthLNK, a multicenter EHR repository in Chicago, Illinois, from 2006 to 2012 (multicenter cohort). Additional data were prospectively coded (single-center cohort) from 2007 through 2015...
January 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100067/race-based-experiences-of-ethnic-minority-health-professionals-arab-physicians-and-nurses-in-israeli-public-healthcare-organizations
#5
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
: Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096206/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-antihypertensive-medication-use-and-blood-pressure-control-among-us-adults-with-hypertension-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2003-to-2012
#6
Anna Gu, Yu Yue, Raj P Desai, Edgar Argulian
BACKGROUND: A key to reduce and eradicate racial disparities in hypertension outcomes is to understand their causes. We aimed at evaluating racial differences in antihypertensive drug utilization patterns and blood pressure control by insurance status, age, sex, and presence of comorbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 8796 hypertensive individuals ≥18 years of age were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2012) in a repeated cross-sectional study...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095862/different-survival-analysis-methods-for-measuring-long-term-outcomes-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-australian-cancer-patients-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-competing-risks
#7
Vincent Y F He, John R Condon, Peter D Baade, Xiaohua Zhang, Yuejen Zhao
BACKGROUND: Net survival is the most common measure of cancer prognosis and has been used to study differentials in cancer survival between ethnic or racial population subgroups. However, net survival ignores competing risks of deaths and so provides incomplete prognostic information for cancer patients, and when comparing survival between populations with different all-cause mortality. Another prognosis measure, "crude probability of death", which takes competing risk of death into account, overcomes this limitation...
January 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095722/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-the-relationship-between-antenatal-stressful-life-events-and-postpartum-depression-among-women-in-the-united-states-does-provider-communication-on-perinatal-depression-minimize-the-risk
#8
Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Kristopher Fennie, Stefany Coxe, Purnima Madhivanan, Mary Jo Trepka
OBJECTIVE: Multi-state population-based studies exploring the racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression (PPD), which affects 10-20% of women in the US, are rare. The aim of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic disparities in the relationship between antenatal stressful life events and PPD among US women and to explore whether antenatal health care provider communication on perinatal depression was associated with a lower risk. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used...
January 17, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093687/maternal-birthplace-is-associated-with-low-birth-weight-within-racial-ethnic-groups
#9
Paige D Wartko, Eva Y Wong, Daniel A Enquobahrie
Introduction While disparities in low birth weight (LBW) incidence by racial/ethnic group are well known, differences in LBW incidence by maternal birthplace within racial/ethnic groups, and particularly, differences after adjustment for pregnancy complications, are less clear. Methods We conducted a population-based study of LBW using 113,760 singleton, live birth records from King County, Washington (2008-2012), a region in the Pacific Northwest with a large immigrant population. Study participants were Asian, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and non-Hispanic white women...
January 16, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092650/sociodemographic-disparities-in-chronic-pain-based-on-12-year-longitudinal-data
#10
Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk
Existing estimates of sociodemographic disparities in chronic pain in the United States are based on cross-sectional data, often treat pain as a binary construct, and rarely test for nonresponse or other types of bias. This study uses 7 biennial waves of national data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2010; n = 19,776) to describe long-term pain disparities among older (age 51+) American adults. It also investigates whether pain severity, reporting heterogeneity, survey nonresponse, and/or mortality selection might bias estimates of social disparities in pain...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092059/the-effects-of-race-and-ethnicity-on-the-risk-of-large-for-gestational-age-newborns-in-women-without-gestational-diabetes-by-prepregnancy-body-mass-index-categories
#11
Nhial T Tutlam, Yun Liu, Erik J Nelson, Louise H Flick, Jen Jen Chang
Objectives Children born large for gestational age (LGA) are at risk of numerous adverse outcomes. While the racial/ethnic disparity in LGA risk has been studied among women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), the independent effect of race on LGA risk by maternal prepregnancy BMI is still unclear among women without GDM. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the association between maternal race/ethnicity and LGA among women without GDM. Methods This was a population-based cohort study of 2,842,278 singleton births using 2012 U...
January 13, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090398/life-expectancies-in-hawai-i-a-multi-ethnic-analysis-of-2010-life-tables
#12
Yanyan Wu, Kathryn Braun, Alvin T Onaka, Brian Y Horiuchi, Caryn J Tottori, Lynne Wilkens
The objective of this study is to examine longevity disparities in Hawai'i by race/ethnicity and gender based on age-specific death rates in 2010. Abridged life tables for Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawai'i are presented for the age groups: <1, 1-4, every 5-year interval from 5-84, and 85+ years for the year of 2010. Death data were provided by the Hawai'i Department of Health Office of Health Status Monitoring, and population data were based on 2010 Census modified based on ethnicity estimates from the Hawai'i Health Survey...
January 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087793/race-ethnicity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-lgbt-older-adults
#13
Hyun-Jun Kim, Sarah Jen, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. DESIGN AND METHODS: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086853/taking-action-to-reduce-pain-action-study-rationale-design-and-protocol-of-a-randomized-trial-of-a-proactive-telephone-based-coaching-intervention-for-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-among-african-americans
#14
Rozina H Bhimani, Lee J S Cross, Brent C Taylor, Laura A Meis, Steven S Fu, Kelli D Allen, Sarah L Krein, Tam Do, Robert D Kerns, Diana J Burgess
BACKGROUND: Rates of chronic pain are rising sharply in the United States and worldwide. Presently, there is evidence of racial disparities in pain treatment and treatment outcomes in the United States but few interventions designed to address these disparities. There is growing consensus that chronic musculoskeletal pain is best addressed by a biopsychosocial approach that acknowledges the role of psychological and environmental factors, some of which differ by race. METHODS/DESIGN: The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological, self-regulatory intervention, administered proactively by telephone, at improving pain outcomes and increasing walking among African American patients with hip, back and knee pain...
January 13, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081234/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-influenza-vaccination-among-adults-with-chronic-medical-conditions-vary-by-age-in-the-united-states
#15
Degan Lu, Yanru Qiao, Natalie E Brown, Junling Wang
BACKGROUND: People living with chronic health conditions exhibit higher risk for developing severe complications from influenza according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Although racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been documented, it has not been comprehensively determined whether similar disparities are present among the adult population with at least one such condition. OBJECTIVE: To study if racial and ethnic disparities in relation to influenza vaccination are present in adults suffering from at least one chronic condition and if such inequalities differ between age groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081062/prevalence-of-perceived-food-and-housing-security-15-states-2013
#16
Rashid Njai, Paul Siegel, Shaoman Yin, Youlian Liao
Recent global (1) and national (2,3) health equity initiatives conclude that the elimination of health disparities requires improved understanding of social context (4,5) and ability to measure social determinants of health, including food and housing security (3). Food and housing security reflect the availability of and access to essential resources needed to lead a healthy life. The 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included two questions to assess perceived food and housing security in 15 states...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081061/vital-signs-decrease-in-incidence-of-diabetes-related-end-stage-renal-disease-among-american-indians-alaska-natives-united-states-1996-2013
#17
Ann Bullock, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Andrew S Narva, Karen Sheff, Israel Hora, Akaki Lekiachvili, Hannah Cain, David Espey
BACKGROUND: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest diabetes prevalence among any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Among AI/AN, diabetes accounts for 69% of new cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), defined as kidney failure treated with dialysis or transplantation. During 1982-1996, diabetes-related ESRD (ESRD-D) in AI/AN increased substantially and disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: Data from the U...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080107/feasibility-and-adherence-paradigm-to-ecological-momentary-assessments-in-urban-minority-youth
#18
Mariya P Shiyko, Seth Perkins, Linda Caldwell
All adolescents in general, including ethnic and racial minorities, report high levels of cell phone use, making mobile technology a useful tool for assessment and intervention. Known health and education disparities based on minority status motivated us to conduct an in-depth investigation regarding feasibility of and adherence to the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research protocol, studying daily life of urban minority youth. In addition, this paper presents a methodological approach to conceptualizing and reporting adherence in EMA studies...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079869/racial-and-social-predictors-of-longitudinal-cervical-measures-the-cervical-ultrasound-study
#19
E W Harville, K S Miller, L R Knoepp
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the racial and socioeconomic disparities are present in adverse cervical parameters, and, if so, when such disparities develop. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted. 175 women with a prior preterm birth had up to four endovaginal ultrasounds between gestational weeks 16 and 24 (Cervical Ultrasound Trial of the MFMU). Each sociodemographic factor (race/ethnicity, marital status, insurance funding and education) was examined as a predictor of short cervix or U/funnel shape, using multiple logistic and linear regression...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079775/association-of-hospital-volume-with-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-treatment
#20
Shitanshu Uppal, Christina Chapman, Ryan J Spencer, Shruti Jolly, Kate Maturen, J Alejandro Rauh-Hain, Marcela G delCarmen, Laurel W Rice
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial-ethnic disparities in guideline-based care in locally advanced cervical cancer and their relationship to hospital case volume. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, we performed a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 with locally advanced squamous or adenocarcinoma of the cervix undergoing definitive primary radiation therapy. The primary outcome was the race-ethnicity-based rates of adherence to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline-based care...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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