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Racial Disparity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917141/the-impact-of-black-cancer-patients-race-related-beliefs-and-attitudes-on-racially-discordant-oncology-interactions-a-field-study
#1
Louis A Penner, Felicity W K Harper, John F Dovidio, Terrance L Albrecht, Lauren M Hamel, Nicole Senft, Susan Eggly
OBJECTIVE: Both physician and patient race-related beliefs and attitudes are contributors to racial healthcare disparities, but only the former have received substantial research attention. Using data from a study conducted in the Midwestern US from 2012 to 2014, we investigated whether 114 Black cancer patients' existing race-related beliefs and attitudes would predict how they and 18 non-Black physicians (medical oncologists) would respond in subsequent clinical interactions. METHOD: At least two days before interacting with an oncologist for initial discussions of treatment options, patients completed measures of perceived past discrimination, general mistrust of physicians, and suspicion of healthcare systems; interactions were video-recorded...
August 30, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915817/cultural-adaptation-of-a-pediatric-functional-assessment-for-rehabilitation-outcomes-research
#2
Kristen E Arestad, David MacPhee, Chun Y Lim, Mary A Khetani
BACKGROUND: Significant racial and ethnic health care disparities experienced by Hispanic children with special health care needs (CSHCN) create barriers to enacting culturally competent rehabilitation services. One way to minimize the impact of disparities in rehabilitation is to equip practitioners with culturally relevant functional assessments to accurately determine service needs. Current approaches to culturally adapting assessments have three major limitations: use of inconsistent translation processes; current processes assess for some, but not all, elements of cultural equivalence; and limited evidence to guide decision making about whether to undertake cultural adaptation with and without language translation...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912752/disparities-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-factors-in-blacks-and-whites-dissecting-racial-paradox-of-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Kwame Osei, Trudy Gaillard
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911961/sociocultural-considerations-in-juvenile-arthritis-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Kimberly A Lewis, Sharon A Brown, Stefano Tiziani, Ruy Carrasco
PROBLEM: Juvenile Arthritis (JA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in children. A variety of sociocultural factors that influence health outcomes in children with JA have been examined in previous research. However, clinical guidelines to guide the care of these children lack support because this research has not been systematically examined and synthesized. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary research articles from five internet databases were included if they were peer-reviewed articles in English of studies conducted in the U...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910122/race-and-recession-effects-of-economic-scarcity-on-racial-discrimination
#5
Amy R Krosch, Tom R Tyler, David M Amodio
When the economy declines, existing racial disparities typically expand, suggesting that economic scarcity may promote racial discrimination. To understand this pattern, we examined the effect of perceived scarcity on resource allocations to Black and White American recipients, and tested whether this effect depends on a decision maker's motivation to respond without prejudice. We proposed that scarcity would lead to increased discrimination among those with relatively low internal motivation but not those high in internal motivation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906415/teaching-culturally-competent-veteran-nursing-care-in-prelicensure-programs
#6
Cynthia L Kautzmann, Rachelle J Lancaster
With the publication of Healthy People 2020, health disparities have been redefined to expand concepts beyond traditional racial and ethnic minorities and include a broader range of populations. Veterans, with their unique experiences and values, comprise a distinct culture with health risks and potential disparities. Although accrediting agencies require programs of nursing to teach culturally competent care, it is unknown whether nurse faculty recognize veterans as having a culture distinct from the rest of the population...
September 12, 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906287/racial-disparities-in-sepsis-related-in-hospital-mortality-using-a-broad-case-capture-method-and-multivariate-controls-for-clinical-and-hospital-variables-2004-2013
#7
Jenna M Jones, Kathryn R Fingar, Melissa A Miller, Rosanna Coffey, Marguerite Barrett, Thomas Flottemesch, Kevin C Heslin, Darryl T Gray, Ernest Moy
OBJECTIVES: As sepsis hospitalizations have increased, in-hospital sepsis deaths have declined. However, reported rates may remain higher among racial/ethnic minorities. Most previous studies have adjusted primarily for age and sex. The effect of other patient and hospital characteristics on disparities in sepsis mortality is not yet well-known. Furthermore, coding practices in claims data may influence findings. The objective of this study was to use a broad method of capturing sepsis cases to estimate 2004-2013 trends in risk-adjusted in-hospital sepsis mortality rates by race/ethnicity to inform efforts to reduce disparities in sepsis deaths...
September 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905046/residents-attitude-knowledge-and-perceived-preparedness-toward-caring-for-patients-from-diverse-sociocultural-backgrounds
#8
Jessie Kimbrough Marshall, Lisa A Cooper, Alexander R Green, Amanda Bertram, Letitia Wright, Niki Matusko, Wayne McCullough, Stephen D Sisson
Purpose: Training residents to deliver care to increasingly diverse patients in the United States is an important strategy to help alleviate racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. Cross-cultural care training of residents continues to present challenges. This study sought to explore the associations among residents' cross-cultural attitudes, preparedness, and knowledge about disparities to better elucidate possible training needs. Methods: This cross-sectional study used web-based questionnaires from 2013 to 2014...
2017: Health Equity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901325/associations-between-socio-demographic-characteristics-and-chemical-concentrations-contributing-to-cumulative-exposures-in-the-united-states
#9
Hongtai Huang, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, Timothy M Barzyk
Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quantify associations between environmental and social stressors. Socio-demographic variables were generated based on U.S. Census tract-level income, race/ethnicity population percentage, education level, and age information from the 2010-2014, 5-Year Summary files in the American Community Survey (ACS) database, and chemical variables were generated by utilizing the 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) census tract-level air pollutant exposure concentration data...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900779/mental-health-disparities-treatment-engagement-and-attrition-among-racial-ethnic-minorities-with-severe-mental-illness-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Jessica Maura, Amy Weisman de Mamani
Mounting evidence indicates that there are mental health disparities in the United States that disadvantage racial/ethnic minorities in medical and mental health settings. Less is known, however, about how these findings apply to a particularly vulnerable population, individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this paper is to (1) provide a critical review of the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care among individuals with SMI; (2) identify factors which may contribute to the observed disparities; and (3) generate recommendations on how best to address these disparities...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28896001/-barriers-impeding-access-to-epilepsy-surgery-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
L D Ladino, V Benjumea-Cuartas, J Vargas-Osorio, L V Villamil-Osorio, L Hernandez-Vanegas, I E Martinez-Juarez, J F Tellez-Zenteno
Drug-resistant epilepsy, a chronic condition with long-term consequences can be treated with surgery. The efficacy and safety of surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy have been established through a large number of retrospective and prospective cohort studies and two randomized controlled clinical trials. Despite the excellent outcomes reported after surgery, the literature suggests that this procedure is an underutilized treatment. While evidence is lacking as to why epilepsy surgery is underused, cited reasons include: failure of primary care physicians and neurologists to provide information and identify patients who could be referred for surgery; different levels of technology at various centers, resulting in different candidate selection strategies; the belief that epilepsy surgery is a risky procedure and that it should be only viewed as the last option; patient preference to avoid surgery; parents wanting to wait until their child is old enough to participate in the decision-making process regarding surgery; unwillingness of insurers to cover the expenses associated with presurgical evaluations or lack of insurance; racial and social disparities, among others...
September 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894467/racial-and-socioeconomic-disparities-are-more-pronounced-in-inflammatory-breast-cancer-than-other-breast-cancers
#12
Ryan A Denu, John M Hampton, Adam Currey, Roger T Anderson, Rosemary D Cress, Steven T Fleming, Joseph Lipscomb, Xiao-Cheng Wu, J Frank Wilson, Amy Trentham-Dietz
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare yet aggressive form of breast cancer. We examined differences in patient demographics and outcomes in IBC compared to locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and all other breast cancer patients from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care Study (POC-BP), containing information from cancer registries in seven states. Out of 7,624 cases of invasive carcinoma, IBC and LABC accounted for 2.2% (N = 170) and 4.9% (N = 375), respectively. IBC patients were more likely to have a higher number (P = 0...
2017: Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893813/uninsured-primary-care-visit-disparities-under-the-affordable-care-act
#13
Heather Angier, Megan Hoopes, Miguel Marino, Nathalie Huguet, Elizabeth A Jacobs, John Heintzman, Heather Holderness, Carlyn M Hood, Jennifer E DeVoe
PURPOSE: Health insurance coverage affects a patient's ability to access optimal care, the percentage of insured patients on a clinic's panel has an impact on the clinic's ability to provide needed health care services, and there are racial and ethnic disparities in coverage in the United States. Thus, we aimed to assess changes in insurance coverage at community health center (CHC) visits after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion by race and ethnicity...
September 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893676/rationale-and-design-of-the-staying-positive-with-arthritis-spa-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-testing-the-impact-of-a-positive-psychology-intervention-on-racial-disparities-in-pain
#14
Leslie R M Hausmann, Said A Ibrahim, C Kent Kwoh, Ada Youk, D Scott Obrosky, Debra K Weiner, Ernest Vina, Rollin M Gallagher, Genna T Mauro, Acacia Parks
Knee osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition that disproportionately affects African Americans. Existing arthritis treatments yield small to moderate improvements in pain and have not been effective at reducing racial disparities in the management of pain. The biopsychosocial model of pain and evidence from the positive psychology literature, suggest that increasing positive psychological skills (e.g., gratitude, kindness) could improve pain and functioning and reduce disparities in osteoarthritis pain management...
September 8, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892185/prevalence-comorbidities-and-mortality-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-united-states-children-and-adults
#15
Mark A Strom, Derek Y Hsu, Jonathan I Silverberg
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is a superantigen-mediated illness characterized by rash, hypotension and multi-organ dysfunction. The predictors of TSS and related morbidity and mortality are poorly defined. We analyzed data on 61,959,084 hospitalizations from the 2003-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a 20% stratified sample of US hospitalizations. ICD-9-CM coding was used to identify 4,491 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of TSS. Incidence, in-hospital mortality rate, comorbidities, length of stay and costs of care due to TSS were determined...
September 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891237/the-incidence-and-prevalence-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-san-francisco-county-california-the-california-lupus-surveillance-project
#16
Maria Dall'Era, Miriam G Cisternas, Kurt Snipes, Lisa J Herrinton, Caroline Gordon, Charles G Helmick
OBJECTIVE: Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the US have varied widely. The purpose of this study was to conduct the California Lupus Surveillance Project (CLSP) to determine credible estimates of SLE incidence and prevalence, with a special focus on Hispanics and Asians. METHODS: The CLSP, which is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a population-based registry of individuals with SLE residing in San Francisco County, CA, from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009...
September 10, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888835/disparities-in-gestational-age-specific-fetal-mortality-rates-in-the-united-states-2009-2013
#17
Martha S Wingate, Ruben A Smith, Joann R Petrini, Wanda D Barfield
PURPOSE: Although studies have examined overall temporal changes in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates, there is little information on the current status of racial/ethnic differences. We hypothesize that differences exist between racial/ethnic groups across gestational age and that these differences are not equally distributed. METHODS: Using the 2009-2013 data from US fetal death and live birth files for non-Hispanic white (NHW); non-Hispanic black (NHB); Hispanic; and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) women, we conducted analyses to examine fetal mortality rates and estimate adjusted prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888263/epidemiology-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-severe-maternal-morbidity-and-mortality
#18
Sarah J Holdt Somer, Rachel G Sinkey, Allison S Bryant
The literature abounds with examples of racial/ethnic disparities in both obstetric outcomes and care. Disparities in maternal mortality are well documented with non-Hispanic blacks carrying the burden of the highest maternal mortality rates. Maternal deaths likely represent only the "tip of the iceberg" with respect to pregnancy complications, leading many to explore risk factors and disparities in severe maternal morbidity, a more common precursor to maternal mortality. This review article explores commonly cited indicators of severe maternal morbidity and includes a review of the epidemiological literature supporting or refuting disparities among each indicator...
August 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888127/environmental-injustice-and-sexual-minority-health-disparities-a%C3%A2-national-study-of-inequitable-health-risks-from-air-pollution-among-same-sex-partners
#19
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Danielle X Morales
Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data...
September 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887835/prenatal-attitudes-toward-vaginal-delivery-and-actual-delivery-mode-variation-by-race-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-status
#20
Laura B Attanasio, Rachel R Hardeman, Katy B Kozhimannil, Kristen H Kjerulff
OBJECTIVES: Researchers documenting persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status disparities in chances of cesarean delivery have speculated that women's birth attitudes and preferences may partially explain these differences, but no studies have directly tested this hypothesis. We examined whether women's prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery differed by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, and whether attitudes were differently related to delivery mode depending on race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status...
September 9, 2017: Birth
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