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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231480/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-post-hospitalization-ecological-momentary-assessment-in-patients-with-psychotic-spectrum-disorders
#1
Ethan Moitra, Brandon A Gaudiano, Carter H Davis, Dror Ben-Zeev
BACKGROUND: Up to 50% of patients with psychotic-spectrum disorders are medication nonadherent. The use of real-time assessment via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on mobile devices might offer important insights into adherence behaviors that cannot be measured in the clinic. However, existing EMA studies have only studied acutely ill patients during hospitalization or more stable patients in the community. METHODS: Feasibility and acceptability of EMA in 65 patients with psychotic-spectrum disorders who were recently discharged from the hospital were assessed...
February 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230072/improved-social-interaction-recognition-and-working-memory-with-cannabidiol-treatment-in-a-prenatal-infection-poly-i-c-rat-model
#2
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Ilijana Babic, Xu-Feng Huang, Katrina Weston-Green
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216068/stages-of-dysfunctional-decision-making-in-addiction
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Trevor T-J Chong, Julie C Stout, Murat Yücel, Edythe D London
Drug use is a choice with immediate positive outcomes, but long-term negative consequences. Thus, the repeated use of drugs in the face of negative consequences suggests dysfunction in the cognitive mechanisms underpinning decision-making. This cognitive dysfunction can be mapped into three stages: the formation of preferences involving valuation of decision options; choice implementation including motivation, self-regulation and inhibitory processes; and feedback processing implicating reinforcement learning...
February 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214781/cannabis-use-and-the-course-and-outcome-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#4
Daniel Feingold, Jürgen Rehm, Shaul Lev-Ran
Cannabis use has been reported to affect the course of various psychiatric disorders, however its effect on the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not yet clear. We used data from Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Individuals with baseline MDD (N=2,348) were included in the study. Cannabis users without a Cannabis Use Disorder (CUDs) and individuals with a CUD were compared to nonusers using linear and logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders at baseline...
February 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214433/anxiety-and-cannabis-related-problem-severity-among-dually-diagnosed-outpatients-the-impact-of-false-safety-behaviors
#5
Julia D Buckner, Michael J Zvolensky, Anthony H Ecker, Emily R Jeffries, Austin W Lemke, Kimberlye E Dean, Michael S Businelle, Matthew W Gallagher
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with anxiety disorders at high rates. Little is known about the mechanisms linking CUD and anxiety disorders. One theoretically-driven perspective is that individuals with anxiety disorders may be more apt to use FSBs (i.e., behaviors that may be effective in decreasing anxiety in the short-term, but can maintain and even exacerbate anxiety in the long-term), which can perpetuate cannabis use despite cannabis-related problems. The present study tested whether FSB use explained the relation of anxiety symptom severity with cannabis quantity and related problems among 77 adults with CUD and comorbid anxiety disorders seeking outpatient CUD treatment...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213124/reciprocal-relationships-between-substance-use-and-disorders-and-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-collaborative-study-of-the-genetics-of-alcoholism
#6
Arpana Agrawal, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Elliot C Nelson, Vivia V McCutcheon, Lauren Few, Kenneth R Conner, Michael T Lynskey, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Marc A Schuckit, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209284/recognizing-and-regulating-cannabis-as-a-temptation-good
#7
Jonathan P Caulkins
The U.S. appears to be on a path toward legalizing cannabis on the alcohol model, which is to say allowing for-profit corporations to produce, sell, and promote its use. Even after national legalization, it will take decades to observe the full effects on industry structure and behavior, or on use and misuse. However, we should not be surprised if after markets have matured and consumption patterns stabilized, legalization increases acute cannabis intoxication in the U.S. by 40 billion hours per year. This increase in use will be the most important cannabis-specific effect of legalization...
February 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202406/cannabis-cultivation-methodological-issues-for-obtaining-medical-grade-product
#8
REVIEW
Suman Chandra, Hemant Lata, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Larry A Walker, David Potter
As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods...
February 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195831/psychometric-properties-of-the-turkish-versions-of-the-cannabis-use-problems-identi%C3%AF-cation-test-cupit-and-the-adult-cannabis-problems-questionnaire-cpq
#9
Cuneyt Evren, Hanife Yilmaz Cengel, Muge Bozkurt, Bilge Evren, Gokhan Umut, Ruken Agachanli
Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids are widely used illicit substances in Turkey. The Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test (CUPIT) is a brief self-report screening instrument for detection of problematic cannabis use, whereas the Cannabis Problems Questionnaire (CPQ) is a measure for cannabis treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CUPIT and CPQ among Turkish male outpatients with cannabis (n = 52) and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 45) use disorder. Participants were evaluated with the CUPIT, the CPQ, and the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS)...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192643/associations-between-substance-use-disorders-and-suicide-or-suicide-attempts-in-people-with-mental-illness-a-danish-nationwide-prospective-register-based-study-of-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-unipolar-depression-or-personality-disorder
#10
Marie L D Østergaard, Merete Nordentoft, Carsten Hjorthøj
AIM: To estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: People born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35,625), bipolar disorder (n = 9,279), depression (n = 72,530), or personality disorder (n = 63,958)...
February 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191917/newborn-birth-weight-of-pregnant-women-on-methadone-or-buprenorphine-maintenance-treatment-a-national-contingency-management-approach-trial
#11
Einat Peles, Anat Sason, Shaul Schreiber, Miriam Adelson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the gold standard for pregnant women with opioid use disorders. Still, low birth-weights were reported, in particular of mothers who became pregnant before admission to MMT. We studied whether an escalating incentive contingency-management approach may contribute to better newborn birth-weights. METHODS: A nationwide controlled randomized trial among all Israeli methadone/buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MBMT), newly or already in treatment pregnant women was performed...
February 13, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191338/accelerated-burn-wound-closure-in-mice-with-a-new-formula-based-on-traditional-medicine
#12
Mehrnaz Mehrabani, Seyyed Mohsen Seyyedkazemi, Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi, Elham Jafari, Mitra Mehrabani, Mohammad Mehdipour, Zahra Sheikhshoaee, Ali Mandegary
BACKGROUND: A combination of the oils of sesame, hemp, wild pistachio, and walnut has been used for treatment of skin disorders, including wound burns, in some parts of Kerman, Iran. Evaluation of this remedy in the form of a pharmaceutical formulation in animal models can pave the way for its future application in wound burn healing in humans. OBJECTIVES: This experimental study investigated the healing potential of a new formula (NF) based on folk medicine from Iran for the treatment of third degree burns in mice...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190698/therapeutic-effects-of-cannabinoids-in-animal-models-of-seizures-epilepsy-epileptogenesis-and-epilepsy-related-neuroprotection
#13
REVIEW
Evan C Rosenberg, Pabitra H Patra, Benjamin J Whalley
The isolation and identification of the discrete plant cannabinoids in marijuana revived interest in analyzing historical therapeutic claims made for cannabis in clinical case studies and anecdotes. In particular, sources as old as the 11th and 15th centuries claimed efficacy for crude marijuana extracts in the treatment of convulsive disorders, prompting a particularly active area of preclinical research into the therapeutic potential of plant cannabinoids in epilepsy. Since that time, a large body of literature has accumulated describing the effects of several of the >100 individual plant cannabinoids in preclinical models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188220/cannabinoids-activate-monoaminergic-signaling-to-modulate-key-c-elegans-behaviors
#14
Mitchell Oakes, Wen Jing Law, Tobias Clark, Bruce Bamber, Richard Komuniecki
Cannabis or marijuana, a popular recreational drug, alters sensory perception and exerts a range of potential medicinal benefits. The present study demonstrates that the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) activate a canonical cannabinoid receptor in C. elegans and also modulate monoaminergic signaling at multiple levels. 2-AG or AEA inhibit nociception and feeding through a pathway requiring the cannabinoid-like receptor, NPR-19. 2-AG or AEA activate NPR-19 directly and cannabinoid-dependent inhibition can be rescued in npr-19 null animals by the expression of a human cannabinoid receptor, CB1, highlighting the orthology of the receptors...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178207/impact-of-cannabis-use-on-treatment-outcomes-among-adults-receiving-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders
#15
Lesia M Ruglass, Alina Shevorykin, Vanja Radoncic, Kathryn M Z Smith, Philip H Smith, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Santiago Papini, Denise A Hien
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated a strong link between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD and substance use disorders (SUDs) in general and cannabis use disorders in particular. Yet, few studies have examined the impact of cannabis use on treatment outcomes for individuals with co-occurring PTSD and SUDs. METHODS: Participants were 136 individuals who received cognitive-behavioral therapies for co-occurring PTSD and SUD. Multivariate regressions were utilized to examine the associations between baseline cannabis use and end-of-treatment outcomes...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169460/alterations-of-the-hematologic-cells-in-synthetic-cannabinoid-users
#16
Derya Guzel, Ahmet Bulent Yazici, Esra Yazici, Atila Erol
BACKGROUND: Functions, morphology, distributions, and index of the circulating cells are the most useful parameters that indicate various inflammatory and toxic conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of these parameters in patients diagnosed with (synthetic) cannabis use disorder. METHODS: This study included a total of 40 patients in the study group (SG) with synthetic cannabis use; and 40 healthy individuals as the control group (CG)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168698/cannabis-use-and-symptom-severity-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#17
R Carney, J Cotter, J Firth, T Bradshaw, A R Yung
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis have higher rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) than non-UHR individuals and determine whether UHR cannabis users have more severe psychotic experiences than non-users. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting cannabis use in the UHR group and/or positive or negative symptoms among UHR cannabis users and non-users. Logit event rates were calculated for cannabis use, in addition to odds ratios to assess the difference between UHR and controls...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161344/trends-of-cannabis-use-disorder-in-the-inpatient-2002-2011
#18
Paris Charilaou, Kanishk Agnihotri, Pablo Garcia, Apurva Badheka, Douglas Frenia, Balaji Yegneswaran
RATIONALE: Nationwide prevalence of cannabis use/abuse has more than doubled from 2002 to 2011. Whether the outpatient trend is reflected in the inpatient setting, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined the prevalence and incidence of cannabis abuse/dependence as determined by discharge coding in a 10-year (2002-2011) National Inpatient Sample, as well as various trends among demographics, comorbidities and hospitalization outcomes. METHODS: Cannabis abuse/dependence was identified based on ICD-9-CM codes 304...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152465/effect-of-oxytocin-pretreatment-on-cannabis-outcomes-in-a-brief-motivational-intervention
#19
Brian J Sherman, Nathaniel L Baker, Aimee L McRae-Clark
Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) is efficacious in reducing cannabis use, yet benefits are generally short-lived. Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that promotes prosocial behaviors and plays a role in drug-related neuroadaptations; as such, oxytocin may enhance the effect of MET on cannabis outcomes. Cannabis dependent adults were randomized to receive MET plus oxytocin (n =8) or placebo (n =8). Participants receiving oxytocin showed reductions in amount of cannabis used daily and number of sessions per day...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152236/gender-differences-among-treatment-seeking-adults-with-cannabis-use-disorder-clinical-profiles-of-women-and-men-enrolled-in-the-achieving-cannabis-cessation-evaluating-n-acetylcysteine-treatment-accent-study
#20
Brian J Sherman, Aimee L McRae-Clark, Nathaniel L Baker, Susan C Sonne, Therese K Killeen, Kasie Cloud, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence suggests that women may fare worse than men in cannabis trials with pharmacologic interventions. Identifying baseline clinical profiles of treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults could inform gender-specific treatment planning and development. METHODS: The current study compared baseline demographic, cannabis use, and psychiatric factors between women (n = 86) and men (n = 216) entering the Achieving Cannabis Cessation-Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT) study, a multi-site, randomized controlled trial conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
March 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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