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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903036/cannabis-use-and-its-associated-disorders-clinical-care
#1
Jan Copeland
BACKGROUND: Globally, cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated illicit drug. The rates of use appeared to be stable in Australia at the time of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, but levels of cannabis use disorder are rising and treatment seeking is increasing internationally. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the prevalence of cannabis use, associated disorders (eg harms with early and frequent use), and information on assessment and management...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#2
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888680/symptomatic-and-functional-outcomes-of-substance-use-disorder-persistence-2-years-after-admission-to-a-first-episode-psychosis-program
#3
Amal Abdel-Baki, Clairélaine Ouellet-Plamondon, Émilie Salvat, Kawthar Grar, Stéphane Potvin
Substance use disorders (SUD) in first-episode psychosis (FEP) are highly prevalent and linked with poor outcomes. However, most longitudinal studies investigating their impacts in FEP have not reported proportions of patients who ceased SUD. Our aim was to examine the influence of SUD course on functional and symptomatic outcomes as well as service use in FEP. We performed a 2-year longitudinal study of 212 FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to 2 early psychosis services in Montréal, Québec, Canada...
November 10, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886010/discriminative-properties-of-hippocampal-hypoperfusion-in-marijuana-users-compared-to-healthy-controls-implications%C3%A2-for-marijuana-administration%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-dementia
#4
Daniel G Amen, Borhan Darmal, Cyrus A Raji, Weining Bao, Lantie Jorandby, Somayeh Meysami, Cauligi S Raghavendra
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the impact of marijuana use on regional cerebral blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perfusion in specific brain regions on functional neuroimaging, including those affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology, are abnormal in marijuana users compared to controls. METHOD: Persons with a diagnosis of cannabis use disorder by DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria (n = 982) were compared to controls (n = 92) with perfusion neuroimaging with SPECT at rest and at a concentration task...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883947/social-cognitive-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-in-cannabis-dependence
#5
Matthew J Gullo, Marya Matveeva, Gerald F X Feeney, Ross McD Young, Jason P Connor
BACKGROUND: Drug-related outcomes expectancies and refusal self-efficacy are core components of Social Cognitive Theory. Both predict treatment outcome in alcohol use disorders. Few studies have reported expectancies and refusal self-efficacy in cannabis dependence. None have examined both, although both constructs are key targets in Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT). This study tests the predictive role of expectancies and refusal self-efficacy in treatment outcome for cannabis dependence...
November 4, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883946/pattern-and-risk-of-developing-alcohol-use-disorders-illegal-substance-use-and-psychiatric-disorders-after-early-onset-of-alcohol-use-results-of-the-thai-national-mental-health-survey-2013
#6
Athip Tanaree, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon
INTRODUCTION: Although underage drinking is a global concern, little is known about the relationship between age at first drink and development of various psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was done among 2928 lifetime drinkers from the Thai National Mental Health Survey 2013. Age at first drink, and onset of related psychiatric outcomes were inquired. Survival analysis using Cox regression was performed to estimate the risk over time for psychiatric problems across age ranges at first drink...
November 10, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876440/cannabis-alcohol-use-psychological-distress-and-decision-making-style
#7
James G Phillips, Rowan P Ogeil
INTRODUCTION: There have been suggestions of hypofrontality in cannabis users. To understand cannabis-related differences in decisional processes, Janis and Mann's conflict model of decision making was applied to recreational cannabis smokers who varied in their alcohol use and level of psychological distress. METHOD: An online sample of recreational substance users (114 male, 119 female) completed the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10), and the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for cannabis...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870392/brain-circuitry-associated-with-the-development-of-substance-use-in-bipolar-disorder-and-preliminary-evidence-for-sexual-dimorphism-in-adolescents
#8
Elizabeth T C Lippard, Carolyn M Mazure, Jennifer A Y Johnston, Linda Spencer, Judah Weathers, Brian Pittman, Fei Wang, Hilary P Blumberg
Substance use disorders and mood disorders are highly comorbid and confer a high risk for adverse outcomes. However, data are limited on the neurodevelopmental basis of this comorbidity. Substance use initiation typically occurs during adolescence, and sex-specific developmental mechanisms are implicated. In this preliminary study, we review the literature and investigate regional gray matter volume (GMV) associated with subsequent substance use problems in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and explore these associations for females and males...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865015/cannabis-use-during-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders-predicts-alcohol-treatment-outcomes
#9
Meenakshi Sabina Subbaraman, Jane Metrik, Deidre Patterson, Robert Swift
AIMS: (1) Compare post-treatment alcohol use between those who use cannabis and those who abstain during treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD). (2) Examine potential cannabis use thresholds by comparing post-treatment alcohol use between four frequency groups of cannabis users relative to abstainers. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of the COMBINE Study, a randomized control trial of AUD treatments. The current study compares longitudinal drinking data between those who used cannabis vs...
November 19, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859664/are-deficits-in-cognition-associated-with-psychotic-like-experiences-after-cannabis
#10
Emma Barkus, Paul Morrison, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray
: Not all individuals who smoke cannabis report psychotic-like experiences. Given that risk factors for psychotic disorders are multifaceted, precipitating factors to psychotic-like experiences after cannabis are likely to be equally complex. Reduced neurocognitive performance is associated with both psychosis risk and cannabis use. Therefore, it is possible cognitive performance may differentiate those who report psychotic-like experiences after cannabis from those who do not. We determined whether those reporting psychotic/dysphoric experiences after cannabis had reduced neurocognitive performance compared to those reporting primarily euphoric experiences...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834103/interventions-to-improve-lifestyle-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-concurrent-mental-illness-and-substance-use
#11
Anette Juel, Christina Blanner Kristiansen, Nikolaj Juul Madsen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen, Peter Hjorth
BACKGROUND: Patients with co-existence of psychiatric disorders and substance use have an increased risk of premature death. This is attributable to a higher prevalence of physical comorbidities and a lifestyle related to substance use. Furthermore, they experience low quality-of-life (QoL). Studies addressing lifestyle interventions for these patients are warranted. AIMS: To investigate the physical health and QoL in patients with co-existence of psychiatric disorders and substance use, and to analyse for changes in their (a) health, (b) substance use, and (c) QoL after a 24-month health-promotion programme...
November 11, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821204/cannabis-induced-attenuated-psychotic-symptoms-implications-for-prognosis-in-young-people-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#12
M J McHugh, P D McGorry, A R Yung, A Lin, S J Wood, J A Hartmann, B Nelson
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use shows a robust dose-dependent relationship with psychosis risk among the general population. Despite this, it has been difficult to link cannabis use with risk for transitioning to a psychotic disorder among individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. The present study examined UHR transition risk as a function of cannabis use characteristics which vary substantially between individuals including age of first use, cannabis abuse severity and a history of cannabis-induced attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS)...
November 8, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816801/medical-cannabis-and-mental-health-a-guided-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Zach Walsh, Raul Gonzalez, Kim Crosby, Michelle S Thiessen, Chris Carroll, Marcel O Bonn-Miller
This review considers the potential influences of the use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP) on areas of interest to mental health professionals, with foci on adult psychopathology and assessment. We identified 31 articles relating to the use of CTP and mental health, and 29 review articles on cannabis use and mental health that did not focus on use for therapeutic purposes. Results reflect the prominence of mental health conditions among the reasons for CTP use, and the relative dearth of high-quality evidence related to CTP in this context, thereby highlighting the need for further research into the harms and benefits of medical cannabis relative to other therapeutic options...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814886/duration-of-untreated-illness-in-first-treatment-bipolar-i-disorder-in-relation-to-clinical-outcome-and-cannabis-use
#14
Levi Røstad Kvitland, Petter Andreas Ringen, Sofie Ragnhild Aminoff, Christine Demmo, Tone Hellvin, Trine Vik Lagerberg, Ole Andreas Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
There is little knowledge about the role of the duration of untreated bipolar (DUB) illness in first-treatment bipolar disorder I (BD I), its association with symptoms at start of first treatment, and development over the first year, and limited knowledge about factors that influence the length of DUB. Substance use has shown to delay identification of primary psychiatric disorders, and while cannabis use is common in BD the role of cannabis in relationship to DUB is unclear. The aim of the present study is to examine the associations between DUB and key clinical outcomes at baseline in BD I, and at one year follow-up, and to evaluate the influence of cannabis use...
October 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810713/alcohol-use-disorders-are-associated-with-increased-affective-lability-in-bipolar-disorder
#15
Trine Vik Lagerberg, Sofie Ragnhild Aminoff, Monica Aas, Thomas Bjella, Chantal Henry, Marion Leboyer, Geir Pedersen, Frank Bellivier, Romain Icick, Ole A Andreassen, Bruno Etain, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: Affective dysregulation is a core feature of bipolar disorder (BD), and inter-episodic affect lability is associated with more severe outcomes including comorbidity. Rates of daily tobacco smoking and substance use disorders in BD are high. Knowledge regarding relationships between affective lability and abuse of the most commonly used substances such as tobacco, alcohol and cannabis in BD is limited. METHODS: We investigated whether dimensions of inter-episodic affective lability as measured with the Affective Lability Scale - short form (ALS-SF) were associated with lifetime daily tobacco use or alcohol (AUD) or cannabis use disorders (CUD) in a sample of 372 French and Norwegian patients with BD I and II...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809671/a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-psychological-disorders-or-substance-use-and-self-reported-cognitive-failures
#16
Nicole Carrigan, Emma Barkus
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive failures are errors in normal everyday functioning. Individuals with psychological disorders may possess heightened vulnerability. We sought to review the literature on cognitive failures in psychological disorders to determine the nature of this association, and whether failures relate to neuropsychological performance. We also examine the relationship between cognitive failures and substance use since it is relevant to everyday cognition and co-occurs in many psychological disorders...
November 3, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808542/chronic-cannabis-use-is-associated-with-impaired-fear-extinction-in-humans
#17
Santiago Papini, Lesia M Ruglass, Teresa Lopez-Castro, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Denise A Hien
The use of fear conditioning and extinction paradigms to examine intermediate phenotypes of anxiety and stress-related disorders has facilitated the identification of neurobiological mechanisms that underlie specific components of abnormal psychological functioning. Across species, acute pharmacologic manipulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system has provided evidence of its critical role in fear extinction, but the effects of chronic cannabis on extinction are relatively understudied. In rats, chronic cannabinoid administration impairs fear extinction in a drug-free state...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804883/pros-and-cons-of-medical-cannabis-use-by-people-with-chronic-brain-disorders
#18
Uma Suryadevara, Dawn M Bruijnzeel, Meena Nuthi, Darin A Jagnarine, Rajiv Tandon, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world and there is growing concern about the mental health effects of cannabis use. These concerns are at least partly due to the strong increase in recreational and medical cannabis use and the rise in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels. Cannabis is widely used to self-medicate by older people and people with brain disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia...
October 31, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797690/anxiety-sensitivity-and-distress-intolerance-as-predictors-of-cannabis-dependence-symptoms-problems-and-craving-the-mediating-role-of-coping-motives
#19
Samantha G Farris, Jane Metrik, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Christopher W Kahler, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVE: The tendency to react with fear to anxiety-related sensations (anxiety sensitivity) and the inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states (distress intolerance) are implicated in the comorbidity between affective psychopathology and cannabis use disorders. Emotionally vulnerable cannabis users may be particularly apt to use cannabis to cope with distress, which may both lead to and maintain its problematic use (e.g., dependence, craving). The current study tested a comprehensive model of anxiety sensitivity and distress intolerance as predictors of the number of cannabis dependence symptoms and problems, and severity of cannabis craving following deprivation from cannabis, and the mediating role of cannabis coping motives...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792038/role-of-cannabis-in-digestive-disorders
#20
Hemant Goyal, Umesh Singla, Urvashi Gupta, Elizabeth May
Cannabis sativa, a subspecies of the Cannabis plant, contains aromatic hydrocarbon compounds called cannabinoids. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most abundant cannabinoid and is the main psychotropic constituent. Cannabinoids activate two types of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors: cannabinoid type 1 receptor and cannabinoid type 2 receptor. There has been ongoing interest and development in research to explore the therapeutic potential of cannabis. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts biological functions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
October 27, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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