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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631526/lifetime-experience-with-classic-psychedelics-predicts-pro-environmental-behavior-through-an-increase-in-nature-relatedness
#1
Matthias Forstmann, Christina Sagioglou
In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613454/changes-in-undergraduates-marijuana-heavy-alcohol-and-cigarette-use-following-legalization-of-recreational-marijuana-use-in-oregon
#2
David C R Kerr, Harold Bae, Sandi Phibbs, Adam C Kern
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recreational marijuana legalization (RML) went into effect in Oregon in July 2015. RML is expected to influence marijuana use by adolescents and young adults in particular, and by those with a propensity for substance use. We sought to quantify changes in rates of marijuana use among college students in Oregon from pre- to post-RML relative to college students in other states across the same time period. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional survey data from the 2012-2016 administrations of the Healthy Minds Study...
June 14, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603756/cognitive-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets-of-addiction
#3
Marc L Copersino
Fundamental to cognitive models of addiction is the gradual strengthening of automatic, urge-related responding that develops in tandem with the diminution of self-control-related processes aimed at inhibiting impulses. Recent conceptualizations of addiction also include a third set of cognitive processes related to self-awareness and superordinate regulation of self-control and other higher brain function. This review describes new human research evidence and theoretical developments related to the multicausal strengthening of urge-related responding and failure of self-control in addiction, and the etiology of disrupted self-awareness and rational decision-making associated with continued substance use...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601000/themes-and-trends-in-intentional-self-poisoning-perspectives-from-critical-care-toxicology
#4
J J Rasimas, Erica E Smolcic, Courtney M Sinclair
This research investigated the substances employed by and experiences of patients who come to acute treatment after self-poisoning. A retrospective search of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium Registry was performed to characterize a large cohort of patients. A detailed prospective study of one inpatient toxicology service was also conducted. Patients chose readily available agents for self-poisoning. Most cases involved at least one substance that affects the central nervous system (CNS). The majority were prescription psychotropics and narcotics...
June 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588463/looking-for-the-self-phenomenology-neurophysiology-and-philosophical-significance-of-drug-induced-ego-dissolution
#5
Raphaël Millière
There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582351/teenagers-awareness-of-peers-substance-and-drug-use-in-kuwait
#6
Florence E Omu, Al-Wadaany Bader, Delles Helen, Shukriya Slabeeb, Hanan Safar, Alexander E Omu
BACKGROUND: Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs...
April 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520660/childhood-trauma-and-lifetime-traumatic-brain-injury-among-individuals-who-are-homeless
#7
Michael Jae Song, Mohammadali Nikoo, Fiona Choi, Christian G Schütz, Kerry Jang, Reinhard Michael Krausz
OBJECTIVES: To study the association of childhood trauma and lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among individuals who are homeless. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Three cities in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred individuals who are homeless and 19 years of age or older in 2009. MEASUREMENTS: Traumatic brain injury was identified with National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) and childhood trauma using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513339/juggling-thoughts-and-feelings-how-do-female-patients-with-borderline-symptomology-and-substance-use-disorder-experience-change-in-mentalization-based-treatment
#8
Katharina T E Morken, Per Einar Binder, Nina Arefjord, Sigmund Karterud
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of central psychological change processes for female patients with borderline symptomology and substance use disorder in mentalization-based treatment. METHOD: Semi-structured qualitative interviews on experiences from mentalization-based treatment with 13 participants were conducted. The interview material was analysed within a hermeneutical-phenomenological epistemology, with emphasis on researcher reflexivity...
May 17, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513190/prevalence-and-correlates-of-bullying-victimisation-and-perpetration-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-australian-youth
#9
Hannah J Thomas, Jason P Connor, David M Lawrence, Jennifer M Hafekost, Stephen R Zubrick, James G Scott
OBJECTIVE: Bullying prevalence studies are limited by varied measurement methods and a lack of representative samples. This study estimated the national prevalence of bullying victimisation, perpetration and combined victim-perpetration experiences in a representative population-based sample of Australian youth. The relationships between the three types of bullying involvement with a range of mental health symptoms and diagnoses were also examined. METHODS: A randomly selected nationally representative sample aged 11-17 years ( N = 2967, Mage = 14...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497401/using-a-film-intervention-in-early-addiction-treatment-a-qualitative-analysis-of-process
#10
Ingerid Elgesem Bjelland, Ayna Johansen, Farnad Darnell, Håvar Brendryen
PURPOSE: There is a need for knowledge about how self-help materials can be made useful in treatment for Substance Abuse Disorders (SUD), as a supplement to ongoing treatment, or as independent tools for change. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored the use of self-help films in early addiction treatment, taking into account both patient and therapist perspectives, as well as dyadic functions. We explored how active mechanisms might be related to intervention format and implementation context...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488881/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-methadone-maintenance-a-feasibility-trial
#11
Sarah Bowen, Vanessa C Somohano, Rachel E Rutkie, Jacob A Manuel, Kristoffer L Rehder
OBJECTIVES: As rates of opiate misuse rise in the United States, so do significant associated health and financial consequences to afflicted individuals, their families, and society at large. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is one evidence-based approach to treating opiate addiction, yet supplemental psychosocial treatment to support this approach is lacking. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) has shown to be efficacious in various substance use populations, but has yet to be assessed with MMT clients...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471275/trait-mindfulness-and-progression-to-injection-use-in-youth-with-opioid-addiction
#12
J Deanna Wilson, Hoa Vo, Pamela Matson, Hoover Adger, Gabriela Barnett, Marc Fishman
BACKGROUND: Many youth initiate opioid misuse with prescription opioids and transition over time to more severe substance-using behaviors, including injection. Trait mindfulness is a potentially protective factor. OBJECTIVES: This is a cross-sectional study characterizing a sample of opioid-using youth by level of mindfulness and examines the potential effect modification of emotion regulation on the relationship between mindfulness and progression to injection opioid use...
May 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433964/ethical-management-of-substance-use-disorders-the-indian-scenario
#13
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar
Substance use disorders are among the most prevalent and emergent public health problems in India. The treatment of individuals with these disorders is associated with many ethical dilemmas. Due to the pervasiveness of substance use disorders, the majority of mental health professionals working in the area of addiction medicine face several ethical dilemmas. When discussing substance use disorders, it must be borne in mind that there are important differences between India and the western countries in terms of the social and cultural aspects, as well as the legislative framework and healthcare delivery system...
April 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430015/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-and-acceptance-group-therapy-for-residential-substance-use-patients
#14
Ryan C Shorey, Joanna Elmquist, Michael J Gawrysiak, Catherine Strauss, Ellen Haynes, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419150/disparities-in-dialysis-allocation-an-audit-from-the-new-south-africa
#15
Kajiru G Kilonzo, Erika S W Jones, Ikechi G Okpechi, Nicola Wearne, Zunaid Barday, Charles R Swanepoel, Karen Yeates, Brian L Rayner
End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) is a public health problem with an enormous economic burden. In resource limited settings management of ESKD is often rationed. Racial and socio-economic inequalities in selecting candidates have been previously documented in South Africa. New guidelines for dialysis developed in the Western Cape have focused on prioritizing treatment. With this in mind we aimed at exploring whether the new guidelines would improve inequalities previously documented. A retrospective study of patients presented to the selection committee was conducted at Groote Schuur Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401833/atypical-dimensions-of-caregiver-adolescent-interaction-in-an-economically-disadvantaged-sample
#16
Roger Kobak, Kristyn Zajac, Caroline Abbott, Abby Zisk, Nadia Bounoua
The Goal-Corrected Partnership Adolescent Coding System (GPACS) has shown promise in assessing a secure as well as three atypical patterns of parent-adolescent interaction during a conflict discussion. The current study of 186 economically disadvantaged families examines the degree to which four GPACS patterns: secure/collaborative, hostile/punitive, role confused, and disoriented, prospectively predict adolescents' social competence and maladaptive behavior (internalizing, externalizing, and risk behaviors) at age 15 years after controlling for these social behaviors at age 13 years and contemporaneous GPACS scores...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388283/does-trauma-exposure-predict-prescription-drug-problems-beyond-the-contribution-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-an-analysis-of-the-mind-your-heart-cohort-study
#17
Raj K Kalapatapu, Tatiana P Dannenbaum, John D Harbison, Beth E Cohen
It is not clear from prior studies whether trauma exposure predicts substance use problems independent of psychiatric comorbidities. Most prior studies were cross-sectional in nature, and none focused on prescription drug problems. To address this gap in the literature, the current article is a secondary analysis of veterans from the Mind Your Heart prospective cohort study. The primary research question is whether trauma exposure predicts prescription drug problems even after controlling for major psychiatric symptoms, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349897/3d-printing-scaffold-coupled-with-low-level-light-therapy-for-neural-tissue-regeneration
#18
Wei Zhu, Jonathan K George, Volker J Sorger, Lijie Grace Zhang
3D printing has shown promise for neural regeneration by providing customized nerve scaffolds to structurally support and bridge the defect gap as well as deliver cells or various bioactive substances. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) exhibits positive effects on rehabiliation of degenerative nerves and neural disorders. With this in mind, we postulate that 3D printed neural scaffold coupling with LLLT will generate a new strategy to repair neural degeneration. To achieve this goal, we applied red laser light to stimualte neural stem cells on 3D printed scaffolds and investigated the subsequent cell response with respect to cell proliferation and differentiation...
April 12, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302153/students-as-effective-harm-reductionists-and-needle-exchange-organizers
#19
EDITORIAL
Kyle Barbour, Miriam McQuade, Brandon Brown
BACKGROUND: Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. COMMENTARY: We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction...
March 17, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251663/emotion-dysregulation-and-autonomic-responses-to-film-rumination-and-body-awareness-extending-psychophysiological-research-to-a-naturalistic-clinical-setting-and-a-chemically-dependent-female-sample
#20
Sheila E Crowell, Cynthia J Price, Megan E Puzia, Mona Yaptangco, Sunny Chieh Cheng
Substance use is a complex clinical problem characterized by emotion dysregulation and daily challenges that can interfere with laboratory research. Thus, few psychophysiological studies examine autonomic and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation with multidiagnostic, chemically dependent samples or extend this work into naturalistic settings. In this study, we used a within-subject design to examine changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), electrodermal activity (EDA), and self-reported affect across three tasks designed to elicit distinct psychophysiological and emotional response patterns...
May 2017: Psychophysiology
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