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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772772/multiplicative-effects-of-social-and-psychological-risk-factors-on-college-students-suicidal-behaviors
#1
Shervin Assari
Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity) and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use) and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016⁻2017), is a national online survey of college students in the United States...
May 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768653/n-ethyl-pentylone-related-deaths-in-alabama
#2
Daniel Atherton, Daniel Dye, C Andrew Robinson, Rachel Beck
n-Ethyl pentylone (NEP) is a chemical substance derived from cathinone. Synthetic cathinones are an evolving group of drugs with stimulating, mind-altering effects sometimes referred to as novel or new psychoactive substances (NPS). There is scarce information in the medical literature regarding forensic cases in which NEP is detected in toxicological testing. We present four fatalities involving NEP from Alabama in 2017. Deaths were attributed to NEP toxicity in two cases (peripheral blood concentrations of 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768635/symptom-similarity-versus-disease-similarity-revisiting-the-application-of-the-law-of-similars-and-challenging-the-symptom-centric-approach-in-homeopathy
#3
Rajesh Shah
The system of homeopathic medicine is based on the Law of Similars. It is often implied by students and practitioners of homeopathy that the fundamental principle suggests that if the substance is capable of producing certain 'symptoms', it can also remove, treat, or 'annihilate' similar symptoms if the same substance is administered in a small dose. Hahnemann clearly highlights the importance of pathogenesis or 'disease-producing power', and not just the symptoms-producing power, as a part of the 'totality of the disease'...
May 16, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740365/the-use-of-virtual-reality-to-facilitate-mindfulness-skills-training-in-dialectical-behavioral-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-study
#4
Araceli Flores, Marsha M Linehan, S Rob Todd, Hunter G Hoffman
Introduction: Paralysis from a spinal cord injury (SCI) increases risk of psychological problems including suicide attempts, substance use disorder, negative emotions (e.g., anger), depression, anxiety, ASD/PTSD. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) has been shown to be effective for treating similar psychological symptoms in non-SCI patient populations. The current study explored for the first time, the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® Mindfulness skills training to help reduce psychological symptoms (negative emotions and anxiety, ASD/PTSD) of two patients with SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727887/-food-supplements-considerations-in-medical-practice
#5
Nadiya Bakhiya, Klaus Richter, Rainer Ziegenhagen, Karen I Hirsch-Ernst, Alfonso Lampen
Food supplements in Europe are subject to food safety legislation. They should not be confused with pharmaceuticals. Rather, they are foods, whose purpose is to supplement the normal diet, and represent concentrated sources of nutrients (i. e. vitamins and minerals, including trace elements) or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. Nevertheless, it should be kept in mind that consumers may in some cases use food supplements for the purpose of self-medication. In the context of anamnesis, physicians should specifically question their patients about the use of food supplements...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710097/effectiveness-of-universal-self-regulation-based-interventions-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Anuja Pandey, Daniel Hale, Shikta Das, Anne-Lise Goddings, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Russell M Viner
Importance: Childhood and adolescence self-regulation (SR) is gaining importance as a target of intervention because of mounting evidence of its positive associations with health, social and educational outcomes. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of rigorously evaluated interventions to improve self-regulation in children and adolescents. Data Sources: Keyword searches of the PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, ERIC, British Education Index, Child Development and Adolescent Studies, and CENTRAL were used to identify all studies published through July 2016...
April 16, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679670/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-combined-with-virtual-reality-cue-exposure-for-methamphetamine-addiction-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
XiJing Chen, Dongmei Wang, Lidan Zhou, Markus Winkler, Paul Pauli, Nan Sui, Yonghui Li
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues...
April 18, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669599/mindfulness-based-treatment-of-addiction-current-state-of-the-field-and-envisioning-the-next-wave-of-research
#8
REVIEW
Eric L Garland, Matthew O Howard
Contemporary advances in addiction neuroscience have paralleled increasing interest in the ancient mental training practice of mindfulness meditation as a potential therapy for addiction. In the past decade, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied as a treatment for an array addictive behaviors, including drinking, smoking, opioid misuse, and use of illicit substances like cocaine and heroin. This article reviews current research evaluating MBIs as a treatment for addiction, with a focus on findings pertaining to clinical outcomes and biobehavioral mechanisms...
April 18, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657562/mental-health-disorder-therapeutic-modalities-modified-for-the-gms
#9
REVIEW
Tipsuda Sumneangsanor, Sararud Vuthiarpa, Chomchueun Somprasert
Background: Mental health disorders can affect physical and psychological behaviors. The people of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have a high risk of mental health disorders, such as depression, stress, and substance abuse be-cause the people in this region are trafficked for forced sex work and various forms of forced labor. In these situations, vic-tims often endure violence and abuse from trafficking recruiters, employers, and other individuals. The purposes of this study were to identify the elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and sub-stance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS...
December 2017: Current Psychiatry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655859/rescuing-cognitive-and-emotional-regulatory-skills-to-aid-smoking-prevention-in-at-risk-youth-a-randomized-trial
#10
Michael W Otto, Eugenia I Gorlin, David Rosenfield, Elijah A Patten, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Zvolensky, Stacey N Doan
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for smoking initiation, with disadvantaged teens particularly at risk. In addition, emotional and cognitive dysregulation is associated with an increased risk of smoking and makes it particularly challenging to benefit from standard substance use prevention interventions. The goal of the current study is to investigate the extent to which interventions designed to improve cognitive (working memory) and emotional (distress tolerance) regulatory processes enhance the effectiveness of a standard smoking prevention informational intervention...
April 12, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653433/mindfulness-as-a-mediator-of-the-association-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-alcohol-use-and-consequences
#11
Emma I Brett, Hannah C Espeleta, Susanna V Lopez, Eleanor L S Leavens, Thad R Leffingwell
One-third of college students report past-year heavy episodic drinking, making college student alcohol use an important area for continued research. Research has consistently linked early experiences of adversity to problematic substance use in adolescence and adulthood. Given the negative health consequences associated with heavy episodic drinking, it is imperative to identify mechanisms that contribute to this relation. Low levels of mindfulness have been linked to early adversity as well as impulsivity and alcohol use, therefore, the current study aims to examine the mediating role of mindfulness in the relation between early adversity and current alcohol use and consequences...
April 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651257/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-substance-and-behavioral-addictions-a-systematic-review
#12
Marta Sancho, Marta De Gracia, Rita C Rodríguez, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Jéssica Sánchez-González, Joan Trujols, Isabel Sánchez, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Jose M Menchón
Background: Emotion (dys)regulation as well as the interventions for improving these difficulties are receiving a growing attention in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in both substance and behavioral addictions (BAs). Method: A literature search was conducted using Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science. Fifty-four randomized controlled trials published in English since 2009 to April 2017 were included into a narrative synthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606059/a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-experiences-of-veterans-who-are-serving-sentences-in-custody
#13
Michele Unwin, Belinda Winder
The focus on veterans in research is not a novel topic; however, the majority of studies are related to trauma, employment, mental health, suicide, and substance misuse. The criminal justice system involvement with veterans is a topic that has yet to be examined to a great extent. This study, conducted with adult male prisoners, elicited information from six veterans regarding their experiences of being in the armed forces, leaving the armed forces, and becoming involved in the criminal justice system. Responses were evaluated using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and three main themes were identified: "you're baptized into the army," "them and us," and "operational mind-set"; each of which comprised a number of superordinate themes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596726/case-series-salvia-divinorum-as-a-potential-addictive-hallucinogen
#14
Joseph El-Khoury, Evelyne Baroud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recreational use of salvia divinorum (salvia), a potent, naturally occurring hallucinogen, is on the rise internationally. Despite the paucity of information about its long-term health effects, salvia is readily available and generally portrayed as a safe non-addictive substance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on two patients who presented with an enduring and pervasive pattern of salvia use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating patients for salvia use during clinical assessment is strongly encouraged, especially among young polysubstance users...
April 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574214/mechanistic-insights-into-functional-characteristics-of-native-crotamine
#15
Daniel Batista da Cunha, Ana Vitória Pupo Silvestrini, Ana Carolina Gomes da Silva, Deborah Maria de Paula Estevam, Flávia Lino Pollettini, Juliana de Oliveira Navarro, Armindo Antônio Alves, Ana Laura Remédio Zeni Beretta, Joyce M Annichino Bizzacchi, Lilian Cristina Pereira, Maurício Ventura Mazzi
The chemical composition of snake venoms is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides that can be pharmacologically active. Crotamine, a cell-penetrating peptide, has been described to have antimicrobial properties and it exerts its effects by interacting selectively with different structures, inducing changes in the ion flow pattern and cellular responses. However, its real therapeutic potential is not yet fully known. Bearing in mind that crotamine is a promising molecule in therapeutics, this study investigated the action of purified molecule in three aspects: I) antibacterial action on different species of clinical interest, II) the effect of two different concentrations of the molecule on platelet aggregation, and III) its effects on isolated mitochondria...
March 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573890/corrigendum-to-mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-substance-craving-addictive-behaviors-38-2013-1563-1571
#16
Katie Witkiewitz, Sarah Bowen, Haley Douglas, Sharon H Hsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565776/therapeutic-mechanisms-of-mindfulness-oriented-recovery-enhancement-for-internet-gaming-disorder-reducing-craving-and-addictive-behavior-by-targeting-cognitive-processes
#17
Wen Li, Eric L Garland, Matthew O Howard
BACKGROUND: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by signs and symptoms similar to substance use and gambling disorders, and associated with psychosocial impairments. Research suggests that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions and coping may be implicated in IGD; therefore, interventions for IGD need to target these underlying mechanisms. Mindfulness-based treatment is effective in changing maladaptive cognitive processes and increasing adaptive coping among people with addictions...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562165/mind-reading-abilities-in-opiate-dependent-patients-an-exploratory-study
#18
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Bérénice Lecluyse, Claire Triquet, Emmanuel Brunelle, Jean-Paul Duparcq, Jean-Louis Nandrino
OBJECTIVES: Impairments in social cognition have been described as playing a major role in the maintenance of addictive behavior in substance abusers. This study aimed to investigate the Theory of Mind (ToM) ability of opiate-dependent (OD) patients and to explore whether TOM ability was correlated with length of substance abuse, age at onset of substance abuse and length of abstinence. METHODS: OD patients (N = 29) and non-dependent individuals (NDI) (N = 29) were submitted to the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th...
May 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547622/dispositional-mindfulness-anticipation-and-abstinence-symptoms-related-to-hypnotic-dependence-among-insomniac-women-who-seek-treatment-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Víviam Vargas Barros, Emérita Sátiro Opaleye, Marcelo Demarzo, Sarah Bowen, Daniela Fernández Curado, Helena Hachul, Ana Regina Noto
INTRODUCTION: Dispositional mindfulness can be described as the mental ability to pay attention to the present moment, non-judgmentally. There is evidence of inverse relation between dispositional mindfulness and insomnia and substance use, but as of yet, no studies evaluating the specific association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of hypnotic use disorder. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of dependence among female chronic hypnotic users...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540925/a-transdiagnostic-approach-to-interventions-in-addictive-disorders-third-wave-therapies-and-other-current-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Gitanjali Narayanan, Shaima Naaz
Recent research points to a shift from categorical diagnoses to a dimensional understanding of psychopathology and mental health disorders. In parallel, there has been a rise in newer psychosocial treatment modalities, which are inherently transdiagnostic. Transdiagnostic approaches are those that identify core vulnerabilities and apply universal principles to therapeutic treatment. As treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) must invariably accommodate such vulnerabilities, clinicians are finding such interventions useful...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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