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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520660/childhood-trauma-and-lifetime-traumatic-brain-injury-among-individuals-who-are-homeless
#1
Michael Jae Song, Mohammadali Nikoo, Fiona Choi, Christian G Schütz, Kerry Jang, Reinhard Michael Krausz
OBJECTIVES: To study the association of childhood trauma and lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among individuals who are homeless. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Three cities in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred individuals who are homeless and 19 years of age or older in 2009. MEASUREMENTS: Traumatic brain injury was identified with National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) and childhood trauma using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513339/juggling-thoughts-and-feelings-how-do-female-patients-with-borderline-symptomology-and-substance-use-disorder-experience-change-in-mentalization-based-treatment
#2
Katharina T E Morken, Per Einar Binder, Nina Arefjord, Sigmund Karterud
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of central psychological change processes for female patients with borderline symptomology and substance use disorder in mentalization-based treatment. METHOD: Semi-structured qualitative interviews on experiences from mentalization-based treatment with 13 participants were conducted. The interview material was analysed within a hermeneutical-phenomenological epistemology, with emphasis on researcher reflexivity...
May 17, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513190/prevalence-and-correlates-of-bullying-victimisation-and-perpetration-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-australian-youth
#3
Hannah J Thomas, Jason P Connor, David M Lawrence, Jennifer M Hafekost, Stephen R Zubrick, James G Scott
OBJECTIVE: Bullying prevalence studies are limited by varied measurement methods and a lack of representative samples. This study estimated the national prevalence of bullying victimisation, perpetration and combined victim-perpetration experiences in a representative population-based sample of Australian youth. The relationships between the three types of bullying involvement with a range of mental health symptoms and diagnoses were also examined. METHODS: A randomly selected nationally representative sample aged 11-17 years ( N = 2967, Mage = 14...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497401/using-a-film-intervention-in-early-addiction-treatment-a-qualitative-analysis-of-process
#4
Ingerid Elgesem Bjelland, Ayna Johansen, Farnad Darnell, Håvar Brendryen
PURPOSE: There is a need for knowledge about how self-help materials can be made useful in treatment for Substance Abuse Disorders (SUD), as a supplement to ongoing treatment, or as independent tools for change. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored the use of self-help films in early addiction treatment, taking into account both patient and therapist perspectives, as well as dyadic functions. We explored how active mechanisms might be related to intervention format and implementation context...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488881/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-methadone-maintenance-a-feasibility-trial
#5
Sarah Bowen, Vanessa C Somohano, Rachel E Rutkie, Jacob A Manuel, Kristoffer L Rehder
OBJECTIVES: As rates of opiate misuse rise in the United States, so do significant associated health and financial consequences to afflicted individuals, their families, and society at large. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is one evidence-based approach to treating opiate addiction, yet supplemental psychosocial treatment to support this approach is lacking. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) has shown to be efficacious in various substance use populations, but has yet to be assessed with MMT clients...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471275/trait-mindfulness-and-progression-to-injection-use-in-youth-with-opioid-addiction
#6
J Deanna Wilson, Hoa Vo, Pamela Matson, Hoover Adger, Gabriela Barnett, Marc Fishman
BACKGROUND: Many youth initiate opioid misuse with prescription opioids and transition over time to more severe substance-using behaviors, including injection. Trait mindfulness is a potentially protective factor. OBJECTIVES: This is a cross-sectional study characterizing a sample of opioid-using youth by level of mindfulness and examines the potential effect modification of emotion regulation on the relationship between mindfulness and progression to injection opioid use...
May 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433964/ethical-management-of-substance-use-disorders-the-indian-scenario
#7
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar
Substance use disorders are among the most prevalent and emergent public health problems in India. The treatment of individuals with these disorders is associated with many ethical dilemmas. Due to the pervasiveness of substance use disorders, the majority of mental health professionals working in the area of addiction medicine face several ethical dilemmas. When discussing substance use disorders, it must be borne in mind that there are important differences between India and the western countries in terms of the social and cultural aspects, as well as the legislative framework and healthcare delivery system...
April 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430015/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-and-acceptance-group-therapy-for-residential-substance-use-patients
#8
Ryan C Shorey, Joanna Elmquist, Michael J Gawrysiak, Catherine Strauss, Ellen Haynes, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419150/disparities-in-dialysis-allocation-an-audit-from-the-new-south-africa
#9
Kajiru G Kilonzo, Erika S W Jones, Ikechi G Okpechi, Nicola Wearne, Zunaid Barday, Charles R Swanepoel, Karen Yeates, Brian L Rayner
End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) is a public health problem with an enormous economic burden. In resource limited settings management of ESKD is often rationed. Racial and socio-economic inequalities in selecting candidates have been previously documented in South Africa. New guidelines for dialysis developed in the Western Cape have focused on prioritizing treatment. With this in mind we aimed at exploring whether the new guidelines would improve inequalities previously documented. A retrospective study of patients presented to the selection committee was conducted at Groote Schuur Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401833/atypical-dimensions-of-caregiver-adolescent-interaction-in-an-economically-disadvantaged-sample
#10
Roger Kobak, Kristyn Zajac, Caroline Abbott, Abby Zisk, Nadia Bounoua
The Goal-Corrected Partnership Adolescent Coding System (GPACS) has shown promise in assessing a secure as well as three atypical patterns of parent-adolescent interaction during a conflict discussion. The current study of 186 economically disadvantaged families examines the degree to which four GPACS patterns: secure/collaborative, hostile/punitive, role confused, and disoriented, prospectively predict adolescents' social competence and maladaptive behavior (internalizing, externalizing, and risk behaviors) at age 15 years after controlling for these social behaviors at age 13 years and contemporaneous GPACS scores...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388283/does-trauma-exposure-predict-prescription-drug-problems-beyond-the-contribution-of-ptsd-depression-an-analysis-of-the-mind-your-heart-cohort-study
#11
Raj K Kalapatapu, Tatiana P Dannenbaum, John D Harbison, Beth E Cohen
BACKGROUND: It is not clear from prior studies whether trauma exposure predicts substance use problems independent of psychiatric comorbidities. Most prior studies were cross-sectional in nature, and none focused on prescription drug problems. AIMS: To address this gap in the literature, this paper is a secondary analysis of veterans from the Mind Your Heart prospective cohort study. The primary research question is whether trauma exposure predicts prescription drug problems even after controlling for major psychiatric symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349897/3d-printing-scaffold-coupled-with-low-level-light-therapy-for-neural-tissue-regeneration
#12
Wei Zhu, Jonathan K George, Volker J Sorger, Lijie Grace Zhang
3D printing has shown promise for neural regeneration by providing customized nerve scaffolds to structurally support and bridge the defect gap as well as deliver cells or various bioactive substances. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) exhibits positive effects on rehabiliation of degenerative nerves and neural disorders. With this in mind, we postulate that 3D printed neural scaffold coupling with LLLT will generate a new strategy to repair neural degeneration. To achieve this goal, we applied red laser light to stimualte neural stem cells on 3D printed scaffolds and investigated the subsequent cell response with respect to cell proliferation and differentiation...
April 12, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302153/students-as-effective-harm-reductionists-and-needle-exchange-organizers
#13
EDITORIAL
Kyle Barbour, Miriam McQuade, Brandon Brown
BACKGROUND: Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. COMMENTARY: We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction...
March 17, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251663/emotion-dysregulation-and-autonomic-responses-to-film-rumination-and-body-awareness-extending-psychophysiological-research-to-a-naturalistic-clinical-setting-and-a-chemically-dependent-female-sample
#14
Sheila E Crowell, Cynthia J Price, Megan E Puzia, Mona Yaptangco, Sunny Chieh Cheng
Substance use is a complex clinical problem characterized by emotion dysregulation and daily challenges that can interfere with laboratory research. Thus, few psychophysiological studies examine autonomic and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation with multidiagnostic, chemically dependent samples or extend this work into naturalistic settings. In this study, we used a within-subject design to examine changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), electrodermal activity (EDA), and self-reported affect across three tasks designed to elicit distinct psychophysiological and emotional response patterns...
May 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241775/rigorous-evaluation-of-a-pregnancy-prevention-program-for-american-indian-youth-and-adolescents-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Lauren Tingey, Rachel Chambers, Novalene Goklish, Francene Larzelere, Angelita Lee, Rosemarie Suttle, Summer Rosenstock, Kristin Lake, Allison Barlow
BACKGROUND: American Indian adolescents have one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy and repeat teen births in the US. Substance use is a significant risk factor for unprotected sex, and American Indian adolescents have the highest substance use-related morbidity and mortality of any US racial group. Despite these disparities, there are no existing, evidence-based programs for pregnancy prevention that have been rigorously evaluated among American Indian teens. METHODS: The proposed study is a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health program developed in partnership with an American Indian community...
February 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165442/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-probiotic-containing-toothpastes-an-in-vitro-evaluation
#16
Miro Klarić, Vjekoslav Mandić, Sanjin Lovrić, Martina Krešić Ćorić, Nikolina Zovko
Most people have heard of the placebo effect, while relatively few have heard of nocebo, even within the circles of medical staff. Placebo effect means positive results by treatment via pharmacological inert substances. In contrast to placebo, by nocebo effect, due to negative beliefs and expectations, opposite results are achieved. Said in a more formal manner, what a sick person expects, unfortunately, he/she most often gets. It is a fact that a high number of medical staff is still uninterested in placebo and nocebo effects, although they would benefit from them...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153483/mindfulness-treatment-for-substance-misuse-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Wen Li, Matthew O Howard, Eric L Garland, Patricia McGovern, Michael Lazar
High rates of relapse following substance misuse treatment highlight an urgent need for effective therapies. Although the number of empirical studies investigating effects of mindfulness treatment for substance misuse has increased dramatically in recent years, few reviews have examined findings of mindfulness studies. Thus, this systematic review examined methodological characteristics and substantive findings of studies evaluating mindfulness treatments for substance misuse published by 2015. The review also includes the first meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of mindfulness treatments for substance misuse...
April 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152399/the-positive-link-between-executive-function-and-lifetime-cannabis-use-in-schizophrenia-is-not-explained-by-current-levels-of-superior-social-cognition
#18
Siri Helle, Else-Marie Løberg, Rolf Gjestad, Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Paul H Lysaker
There has been a growing link between a history of cannabis use and neurocognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. Fewer neurocognitive deficits may be a marker of the superior social cognition needed to obtain illicit substances, or cannabis use may indicate a distinct path to schizophrenia with less neurocognitive vulnerability. This study sought to determine whether the relationship of cannabis use and executive function exists independently of social cognition. Eighty-seven patients with schizophrenia were administered measures of social cognition and executive function...
January 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149979/a-look-at-the-burden-of-opioid-management-in-primary-care
#19
Morteza Khodaee, Brandy Deffenbacher
PURPOSE: Pain management with opioids in primary care is challenging. The objective of this study was to identify the number of opioid-related tasks in our clinics and determine whether opioid-related tasks occur more often in a residency setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational review of an electronic health record (EHR) system to evaluate tasks related to the use of opioids and other controlled substances. Tasks are created in the EHR when patients call the clinic; the task-box system is a means of communication within the EHR...
December 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130152/is-it-time-to-consider-the-food-use-disorder
#20
Laurence J Nolan
In the contemporary milieu, the term "addiction" brings to mind issues of physical dependence, uncontrolled behavior, psychoactive substances, and disease. Thus, the use of the term "food addiction" which has become common in research on binge eating and obesity, suggests a disease state characterized by craving, compulsive eating and, possibly, the presence of food constituents with drug-like properties which weaken the will power to abstain from consumption. In this commentary, the case is made that, following the trends in substance use disorder terminology, adoption of "food use disorder" as a term for compulsive eating associated with subjective loss of control may foster continued research in this area without the connotations suggested by "food addiction...
January 24, 2017: Appetite
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