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Culture-negative sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820494/immune-response-patterns-and-next-generation-sequencing-diagnostics-for-the-detection-of-mycoses-in-patients-with-septic-shock-results-of-a-combined-clinical-and-experimental-investigation
#1
Sebastian O Decker, Annette Sigl, Christian Grumaz, Philip Stevens, Yevhen Vainshtein, Stefan Zimmermann, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer, Kai Sohn, Thorsten Brenner
Fungi are of increasing importance in sepsis. However, culture-based diagnostic procedures are associated with relevant weaknesses. Therefore, culture- and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based fungal findings as well as corresponding plasma levels of β-d-glucan, interferon gamma (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, -4, -6, -10, -17A, and mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were evaluated in 50 septic patients at six consecutive time points within 28 days after sepsis onset...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818544/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bloodstream-infection-isolates-at-a-large-urban-hospital-in-malawi-1998-2016-a-surveillance-study
#2
Patrick Musicha, Jennifer E Cornick, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil French, Clemens Masesa, Brigitte Denis, Neil Kennedy, Jane Mallewa, Melita A Gordon, Chisomo L Msefula, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas A Feasey
BACKGROUND: Bacterial bloodstream infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few facilities are able to maintain long-term surveillance. The Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme has done sentinel surveillance of bacteraemia since 1998. We report long-term trends in bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance from this surveillance. METHODS: In this surveillance study, we analysed blood cultures that were routinely taken from adult and paediatric patients with fever or suspicion of sepsis admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 1998 to 2016...
August 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813414/a-randomized-synbiotic-trial-to-prevent-sepsis-among-infants-in-rural-india
#3
Pinaki Panigrahi, Sailajanandan Parida, Nimai C Nanda, Radhanath Satpathy, Lingaraj Pradhan, Dinesh S Chandel, Lorena Baccaglini, Arjit Mohapatra, Subhranshu S Mohapatra, Pravas R Misra, Rama Chaudhry, Hegang H Chen, Judith A Johnson, J Glenn Morris, Nigel Paneth, Ira H Gewolb
Sepsis in early infancy results in one million annual deaths worldwide, most of them in developing countries. No efficient means of prevention is currently available. Here we report on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an oral synbiotic preparation (Lactobacillus plantarum plus fructooligosaccharide) in rural Indian newborns. We enrolled 4,556 infants that were at least 2,000 g at birth, at least 35 weeks of gestation, and with no signs of sepsis or other morbidity, and monitored them for 60 days...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807644/predictors-of-infectious-complications-after-targeted-prophylaxis-for-prostate-needle-biopsy
#4
Dimitri Papagiannopoulos, Michael Abern, Nathaniel Wilson, Nicholas O'Block, Lester Raff, Christopher Coogan, Kalyan C Latchamsetty
PURPOSE: The incidence of infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy is rising. We sought to identify the incidence and predictors of infection in a large cohort of men undergoing biopsy who receive targeted prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 5,214 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy within Uropartners, a large urology group comprised of 28 clinics within Metropolitan Chicago from January 2013 to December 2014...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806998/first-report-of-sneathia-sanguinegens-together-with-mycoplasma-hominis-in-postpartum-prosthetic-valve-infective-endocarditis-a-case-report
#5
Iva Kotaskova, Petr Nemec, Martina Vanerkova, Barbora Malisova, Renata Tejkalova, Marek Orban, Vita Zampachova, Tomas Freiberger
BACKGROUND: The presence of more than one bacterial agent is relatively rare in infective endocarditis, although more common in prosthetic cases. Molecular diagnosis from a removed heart tissue is considered a quick and effective way to diagnose fastidious or intracellular agents. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe the case of postpartum polymicrobial prosthetic valve endocarditis in a young woman. Sneathia sanguinegens and Mycoplasma hominis were simultaneously detected from the heart valve sample using broad range 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing while culture remained negative...
August 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803860/intestinal-permeability-changes-systemic-endotoxemia-inflammatory-serum-markers-and-sepsis-after-whipple-s-operation-for-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-head
#6
Mario Schietroma, Beatrice Pessia, Francesco Carlei, Gianfranco Amicucci
POURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between failure of gut barrier function, inflammatory markers and septic complications after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY: 44 patients were enrolled in this prospective observational clinical study and underwent curative open pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas. All patients underwent assessment of intestinal permeability using the lactulose/manitol excretions ratios (L/M ratio), endotoxemia, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, and elastase levels before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7...
July 29, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797204/immunologic-biomarkers-for-diagnostic-of-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#7
Mohammad Yousef Memar, Naser Alizadeh, Mojtaba Varshochi, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Accurate identification of early onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) is challenging. Blood culture has been considered as a gold standard method but the identification of EOS is intricate by a high false-negative results. This review provides an overview of biomarkers as indicators for the diagnosis of EOS. There is an affluence of studies appraising diagnostic indicators in the identification of EOS. Acute-phase reactants, cytokines and cell surface antigens have been investigated as indicators for EOS, but none of them are presently in routine clinical setting...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777909/cave-canem-hbo%C3%A2-therapy-efficacy-on-capnocytophaga-canimorsus-infections-a-case-series
#8
Mariano Marmo, Romolo Villani, Raffaele Maria Di Minno, Giuseppe Noschese, Matteo Paganini, Silvia Quartesan, Alex Rizzato, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: Dog bites are a frequent injury, but the incidence and type of lesions vary across countries. Although only few patients develop complications, the treatment of advanced injuries has a considerable medical, social and economic impact. A frequently isolated pathogen in dog bite wounds is Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a bacterium that can cause sepsis or meningitis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy has been shown to be useful in treating anaerobic infections, most likely because it creates an inhospitable environment for the bacterium and enhances the patient's immune response...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777420/procalcitonin-level-as-a-surrogate-for-catheter-related-blood-stream-infection-among-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Mahmoud Hamada Imam, Eman Gamal
INTRODUCTION: Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a frequent complication among hemodialysis patients who usually are presented with nonspecific signs such as fever, rigors, and hypotension. Blood culture will take up to 5 days and antimicrobials will be started. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a valid marker in sepsis. Our goal in this study is to evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic marker in detecting CRBSI among hemodialysis patients who present with suspected CRBSI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one hemodialysis patients with suspected CRBSI were enrolled in this study...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759393/chorioamnionitis-and-management-of-asymptomatic-infants-%C3%A2-35-weeks-without-empiric-antibiotics
#10
Amanda I Jan, Rangasamy Ramanathan, Rowena G Cayabyab
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Management of asymptomatic infants ≥35 weeks' gestation born to mothers with chorioamnionitis remains controversial, with many clinicians considering the need for changes to the current guidelines. The study objective was to evaluate the outcomes of asymptomatic chorioamnionitis-exposed neonates without the use of immediate empirical antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective data review was conducted from May 2008 to December 2014, including asymptomatic infants ≥35 weeks' gestation with a maternal diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751223/intra-abdominal-infection-after-radical-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-incidence-pathogens-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#11
Hua Xiao, Yanping Xiao, Hu Quan, Wu Liu, Shuguang Pan, Yongzhong Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection, particularly intra-abdominal infection (IAI), remains a clinically important event after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the incidence, pathogens, risk factors and outcomes of IAI following gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: The study cohort was 1835 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer from January 2011 through December 2016. The incidence, pathogens, and treatment outcomes of IAI were examined, and the risk factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742549/readmissions-for-recurrent-sepsis-new-or-relapsed-infection
#12
Kimberley Marie DeMerle, Stephanie C Royer, Mark E Mikkelsen, Hallie C Prescott
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis hospitalizations are frequently followed by hospital readmissions, often for recurrent sepsis. However, it is unclear how often sepsis readmissions are for relapsed/recrudescent versus new infections. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which 90-day readmissions for recurrent sepsis are due to infection of the same site and same pathogen as the initial episode. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University of Michigan Health System...
July 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710255/cathelicidins-inhibit-escherichia-coli-induced-tlr2-and-tlr4-activation-in-a-viability-dependent-manner
#13
Maarten Coorens, Viktoria A F Schneider, A Marit de Groot, Albert van Dijk, Marjolein Meijerink, Jerry M Wells, Maaike R Scheenstra, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Activation of the immune system needs to be tightly regulated to provide protection against infections and, at the same time, to prevent excessive inflammation to limit collateral damage to the host. This tight regulation includes regulating the activation of TLRs, which are key players in the recognition of invading microbes. A group of short cationic antimicrobial peptides, called cathelicidins, have previously been shown to modulate TLR activation by synthetic or purified TLR ligands and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammation during infections...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689399/sphingomonas-paucimobilis-a-rare-infectious-agent-found-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#14
Tuncer Göker, Rahile Zülal Aşık, Muhammet Bahadır Yılmaz, İlhami Çelik, Ayhan Tekiner
Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S. paucimobilis) is a gram negative bacillus. It has existed in soil, drinking water and plants. It has been isolated from distilled water tanks, respirators, and hemodialysis devices at the hospital setting. Patients with chronic disorders or immune suppression may be susceptible to infections with it. This microorganism has also been reported to infect healthy persons. Both nosocomial and community-acquired infections have been reported. So far, a variety of infections have been reported, including sepsis, septic pulmonary embolism, septic arthritis, peritonitis, and endophthalmitis...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689228/impact-of-a-rapid-molecular-test-for-positive-blood-cultures-from-neonatal-intensive-care-patients-on-clinical-management-a-retrospective-audit
#15
L L Koh, S O'Rourke, M Brennan, L Clooney, M Cafferkey, N McCallion, R J Drew
BACKGROUND: Both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci are common causes of late-onset neonatal sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), usually relating to intravascular access device infections. AIMS: This project aimed to review the impact on antimicrobial treatment and clinical outcome in the NICU setting, of the introduction of the Xpert MRSA/SA BC test (Cepheid, USA) for the identification of staphylococci in blood cultures. METHODS: A retrospective audit was carried out of the pre- and post-intervention periods; the intervention was the introduction of the Xpert MRSA/SA BC test...
July 8, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673002/igf-1-may-predict-the-severity-and-outcome-of-patients-with-sepsis-and-be-associated-with-microrna-1-level-changes
#16
Liang Xu, Weijun Zhang, Renhua Sun, Jingquan Liu, Jun Hong, Qian Li, Bangchuan Hu, Fangxiao Gong
IGF-1 functions as an anti-oxidative stress molecule and some critical patients with sepsis have a lower level of serum IGF-1. However, the association between IGF-1 and the severity or prognosis of sepsis remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between serum IGF-1 levels and the severity and prognosis of sepsis, and the possible mechanism was analyzed. Clinical characteristics of patients with sepsis were recorded and analyzed. Serum IGF-1 levels and micro (mi)RNA-1 levels were tested using radioimmunoassay and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, respectively...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669977/an-unusual-triad-of-hemophagocytic-syndrome-lymphoma-and-tuberculosis-in-a-non-hiv-patient
#17
Hafiz Rizwan Talib Hashmi, Rashmi Mishra, Masooma Niazi, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
BACKGROUND Lymphoma complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome and tuberculosis has been rarely reported. The clinical and radiological presentation of these potentially fatal conditions can be easily confused and there is a potential for misdiagnosis. CASE REPORT We present a 58-year-old Hispanic female who was admitted to the hospital with dizziness and fever. Her initial admission diagnosis was severe sepsis secondary to community acquired pneumonia. She was started on intravenous antibiotics. Due to mediastinal lymphadenopathy, lymphoma was considered as a differential diagnosis for which she underwent bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound-guided sampling of her mediastinal lymph nodes...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667715/family-centered-care-to-complement-care-of-sick-newborns-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ankit Verma, Arti Maria, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Charoo Hans, Arushi Verma, Fahima Sherwani
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of family-centered care in delivery of care to sick newborns, on nosocomial infection rate. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary referral nursery (October 2010 to March 2012). PARTICIPANTS: 295 neonates randomized at the time of hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit. INTERVENTION: Parent-attendant of intervention group were trained using an indigenously developed and pretested, culturally sensitive, simple audio-video tool that covered domains of personal hygiene, hand washing, danger signs recognition and feeding of sick neonate...
June 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663673/spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-by-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-a-rare-difficult-to-treat-infection-in-decompensated-cirrhotic-patients
#19
Sunil Taneja, Pramod Kumar, Vikas Gautam, Ajay Duseja, Virendra Singh, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
INTRODUCTION: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is non-fermenting Gram-negative bacillus and has been rarely reported to cause spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in decompensated cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: This study was done to evaluate the clinical presentation of cirrhotic patients with SBP due to Bcc and to determine its impact on clinical outcome. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational study conducted during the period from 1st January 2013 through 31st March 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659321/performance-of-a-quantitative-pcr-based-assay-and-beta-d-glucan-detection-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonatal-patients-candineo-study
#20
Jose Tomas Ramos, Sonia Villar, Emilio Bouza, Elena Bergon-Sendin, Alfredo Perez Rivilla, Caridad Tapia Collados, Mariano Andreu, Candelaria Santana Reyes, María Isolina Campos-Herrero, Jon López de Heredia, María Cruz López Herrera, Paloma Anguita Alonso, Carmen Rosa Pallás-Alonso, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella
An epidemiological, multicenter, non-interventional, observational case-control study was conducted to describe the performance of serum Beta-D-Glucan (BDG) and Candida polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood, serum and sterile samples for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates, and to compare these techniques with cultures from blood and other sterile sites. Seventeen centers participated in the study and the number of episodes analyzed was 159. A total of nine episodes of IC from nine patients (seven confirmed and two probable) and 150 episodes of suspected sepsis from 117 controls were identified...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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