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Growth hormone

Héctor Cervera, Silvia Ambrós, Guillermo P Bernet, Guillermo Rodrigo, Santiago F Elena
Determining the fitness of viral genotypes has become a standard practice in virology as it is essential to evaluate their evolutionary potential. Darwinian fitness, defined as the advantage of a given genotype with respect to a reference, is a complex property that captures, in a single figure, differences in performance at every stage of viral infection. To what extent does viral fitness result from specific molecular interactions with host factors and regulatory networks during infection? Can we identify host genes in functional classes whose expression depends on viral fitness? Here, we compared the transcriptomes of tobacco plants infected with seven genotypes of tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) that differ in fitness...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, S Zaguri, J Bartman, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in-ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increased the somatotropic axis expression in broilers embryos. The objective of the current study was to detect the critical period for in-ovo GL photostimulation, in order to find the optimal targeted photostimulation period during the incubation process. Three hundred thirty-six fertile broiler eggs were divided into 4 groups. The first group was incubated under dark conditions as a negative control. The second incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
F Saki, S R Kasaee, F Sadeghian, F Koohpeyma, G H R Omrani
BACKGROUND: Testosterone deficiency might be associated with vitamin D levels in hypogonadal men, but it is not clear whether testosterone can affect vitamin D and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), either directly or indirectly via aromatization to estradiol. We aimed to investigate the role of testosterone on vitamin D metabolism and serum FGF23 in male rats. METHODS: A total of 48 male rats were divided into 4 equal groups: sham; O, orchiectomy; O + T, orchiectomized rats treated with testosterone; and O + T + L, orchiectomized rats treated with combination of testosterone and letrozole...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuan Huang, Yiming Guo, Yuting Liu, Feng Zhang, Zhikui Wang, Hongyan Wang, Feng Wang, Dongping Li, Dandan Mao, Sheng Luan, Manzhong Liang, Liangbi Chen
Although abscisic acid (ABA) is an important hormone that regulates seed dormancy, stomatal closure, plant development, as well as responses to environmental stimuli, the physiological mechanisms of ABA response to multiple stress in rice remain poorly understood. In the ABA biosynthetic pathway, 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the key rate-limiting enzyme. Here, we report important functions of OsNCED3 in multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice. The OsNCED3 is constitutively expressed in various tissues under normal condition, Its expression is highly induced by NaCl, PEG, and H2 O2 stress, suggesting the roles for OsNCED3 in response to the multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dragana Nikitovic, Aikaterini Berdiaki, Ioanna Spyridaki, Theodoros Krasanakis, Aristidis Tsatsakis, George N Tzanakakis
Proteoglycans (PGs), important constituents of the extracellular matrix, have been associated with cancer pathogenesis. Their unique structure consisting of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan chains endowed with fine modifications constitutes these molecules as capable cellular effectors important for homeostasis and contributing to disease progression. Indeed, differential expression of PGs and their interacting proteins has been characterized as specific for disease evolvement in various cancer types. Importantly, PGs to a large extent regulate the bioavailability of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines as well as the activation of their respective receptors which regulate phenotypic diversibility, gene expression and rates of recurrence in specific tumor types...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Michael F Sweeney, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
Background: Three-dimensional cultures of mammary epithelial cells allow for biologically-relevant studies of the development of the mammary gland in rodents and humans under normal and pathological conditions, like carcinogenesis. Under these conditions, mammotropic hormones play significant roles in tissue morphogenesis. Therefore, a system that recreates the normal, hormonally responsive epithelium would be a valuable tool to study the normal state and its transition to carcinogenesis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Luana Paulesu, Ch V Rao, Francesca Ietta, Adalgisa Pietropolli, Carlo Ticconi
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone of considerable importance in the establishment, promotion and maintenance of human pregnancy. It has been clearly demonstrated that hCG exerts multiple endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions on a variety of gestational and non-gestational cells and tissues. These actions are directed to promote trophoblast invasiveness and differentiation, placental growth, angiogenesis in uterine vasculature, hormone production, modulation of the immune system at the maternal-fetal interface, inhibition of myometrial contractility as well as fetal growth and differentiation...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Keith G Avin, Julian A Vallejo, Neal X Chen, Kun Wang, Chad D Touchberry, Marco Brotto, Sarah L Dallas, Sharon M Moe, Michael J Wacker
Skeletal muscle dysfunction accompanies the clinical disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. In both disorders fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, becomes chronically elevated. FGF23 has been shown to play a direct role in cardiac muscle dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether FGF23 signaling can also directly induce skeletal muscle dysfunction. We found expression of potential FGF23 receptors ( Fgfr1-4) and α-Klotho in muscles of two animal models (CD-1 and Cy/+ rat, a naturally occurring rat model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder) as well as C2 C12 myoblasts and myotubes...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shih-Fan Lai, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Tony Hsiang-Kuang Liang, Che-Yu Hsu, Huang-Chun Lien, Yen-Sen Lu, Chiun-Sheng Huang, Sung-Hsin Kuo
INTRODUCTION: Whole brain (WB) re-irradiation for breast cancer patients with progressive brain metastasis after first-course WB radiotherapy (WBRT) is controversial. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between the molecular sub-classifications and breast-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA, which includes the Karnofsky performance status, molecular subtypes, and age as its indices) and the outcomes of breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation. METHODS: Twenty-three breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation for relapsed and progressive intracranial lesions after first-course WBRT between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Geneviève Gauthier, Patrick Gagnon-Sanschagrin, Annie Guérin, Rebecca Burne, Tania Small, Polly Niravath, Anand A Dalal
INTRODUCTION: Premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) have complex treatment needs and may receive sequential combinations of endocrine therapy (ET) or chemotherapy. This study describes healthcare utilization (HRU) and costs among premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- mBC in real-world settings from a payer's perspective. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- mBC who received ET or chemotherapy were identified from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database (1 January 2006-31 December 2015)...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Maurizio Zangari, Hanna Yoo, Ik Jae Shin, Donghoon Yoon, Larry J Suva
The 5TGM1 multiple myeloma transplanted C57BL6/KaLwRij model recapitulates many disease features including monoclonal paraprotein production as well as the development of osteolytic bone lesions. Since a significant association between serum parathyroid hormone PTH variations, bone anabolism and myeloma progression in patients receiving proteasome inhibitors exists, this study investigated the effect of the PTH axis on murine myeloma development in vivo . C57BL6/KaLwRij myeloma-bearing mice underwent thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) before and after 5TGM1 cell transplantation...
September 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
Tianxiang Lei, Huan Wang, Songling Li, Jianwei Shen, Shilong Chen, Xiaojian Cai, Dangwei Zhou
To achieve a high yield of tropane alkaloids (TA) and exploit the alpine plant sustainably, an optimized protocol for induction and establishment of hairy roots culture of Prezwalskia tangutica Maxim was developed through selection of appropriate Agrobacterium strain and the explant type. The hypocotyl is more readily facile to induce the HR than the cotyledon is when infected with the three different agrobacterium strains. MUS440 has an efficiency (of up to 20%), whereas the ATCC10060 (A4) can induce HR on both types of explants with the highest frequency (33...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Morten Kristoffersen, Øyvind Sandbakk, Espen Tønnessen, Ida Svendsen, Gøran Paulsen, Elisabeth Ersvær, Irene Nygård, Kari Rostad, Anita Ryningen, Vegard V Iversen, Knut Skovereng, Bent R Rønnestad, Hilde Gundersen
Purpose: Although strength and sprint training are widely used methods in competitive cycling, no previous studies have compared the acute responses and recovery rates following such sessions among highly trained cyclists. The primary aim of the current study was to compare power production and biochemical markers of metabolic stress and muscle damage following a session of heavy strength (HS) and short-sprint training (SS). Methods: Eleven well-trained male cyclists (18 ± 2 years with maximal oxygen uptake of 67...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Benjamin Benzon, Stephanie A Glavaris, Brian W Simons, Robert M Hughes, Kamyar Ghabili, Patrick Mullane, Rebecca Miller, Katriana Nugent, Brian Shinder, Jeffrey Tosoian, Ephraim J Fuchs, Phuoc T Tran, Paula J Hurley, Milena Vuica-Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Charles G Drake, Ashley E Ross
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. Immune check point blocking antibodies have revolutionized treatment of multiple solid tumors, but results in prostate cancer remain marginal. Previous reports have suggested that local therapies, in particular cryoablation might increase tumor immunogenicity. In this work, we examine potential synergism between tumor cryoabalation and check point blocking antibodies. METHODS: FVB/NJ mice were injected subcutaneously into each flank with either 1 × 106 or 0...
March 20, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Harold S Matthews, Anthony J Penington, Rita Hardiman, Yi Fan, John G Clement, Nicola M Kilpatrick, Peter D Claes
Many disorders present with characteristic abnormalities of the craniofacial complex. Precise descriptions of how and when these abnormalities emerge and change during childhood and adolescence can inform our understanding of their underlying pathology and facilitate diagnosis from craniofacial shape. In this paper we develop a framework for analysing how anatomical differences between populations emerge and change over time, and for binary group classification that adapts to the age of each participant. As a proxy for a disease-control comparison we use a database of 3D photographs of normally developing boys and girls to examine emerging sex-differences...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sreeharsha Gurrapu, Emanuela Pupo, Giulia Franzolin, Letizia Lanzetti, Luca Tamagnone
Semaphorin 4C (Sema4C) expression in human breast cancers correlates with poor disease outcome. Surprisingly, upon knock-down of Sema4C or its receptor PlexinB2 in diverse mammary carcinoma cells (but not their normal counterparts), we observed dramatic growth inhibition associated with impairment of G2/M phase transition, cytokinesis defects and the onset of cell senescence. Mechanistically, we demonstrated a Sema4C/PlexinB2/LARG-dependent signaling cascade that is required to maintain critical RhoA-GTP levels in cancer cells...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Ewa Bromek, Marta Rysz, Anna Haduch, Jacek Wojcikowski, Władysława Anna Daniel
Our recent work suggested a negative effect for the serotonergic innervation of the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus on growth hormone secretion and growth hormone-dependent expression of cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11). The aim of our present research was to determine the effect of the activation of the 5-HT1 or 5-HT2 receptors in the PVN on the expression and activity of cytochrome P450 in male rat liver. The serotonergic agonists 5-CT (5-carboxyamidotryptamine, a 5-HT1 receptor-type agonist), 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyloamino)-tetralin, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist), sumatriptan (a 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist) and DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist) were individually injected into the PVN...
March 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Chantal Beatrice Magne Nde, Gloria Casas Gimeno, Maria Docanto, Kevin C Knower, Morag J Young, Jakob Buehn, Edris Sayed, Colin D Clyne
Activation of oestrogen receptor α (ERα) stimulates cell division and tumour growth by modulating the expression of ERα target genes. This activation involves the recruitment of specific proteins with activities that are still not fully understood. Timeless, the human homologue of the Drosophila gene involved in circadian rhythm, was previously shown to be a strong predictor of tamoxifen relapse, and is involved in genomic stability and cell cycle control. In this study, we investigated the interplay between Timeless and ERα, and showed that human Timeless is an ERα coactivator...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Thomas Spallek, Pamela Gan, Yasuhiro Kadota, Ken Shirasu
Virulence factors are molecules that enable plant pathogens to infect and colonize host tissues successfully. These molecules co-evolve with host genes to ensure functionality and to avoid recognition by the host immune system. Some pathogens also produce the plant growth hormone cytokinin (CK) and other plant hormones that contribute to virulence without being subjected to the molecular arms race. Here, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of CKs during infection and the establishment of plant diseases...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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