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adipocyte maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141038/depot-specific-inflammation-with-decreased-expression-of-atm2-in-white-adipose-tissues-induced-by-high-margarine-lard-intake
#1
Nannan Wang, Jie Guo, Fuding Liu, Mingxia Wang, Chuntao Li, Lihong Jia, Lingling Zhai, Wei Wei, Yinglong Bai
A high-fat diet has been recognized as an important risk factor of obesity, with variable impacts of different fatty acid compositions on the physiological process. To understand the effects of a high-margarine/lard diet, which is a major source of trans fatty acids (TFAs)/ saturated fatty acids (SFAs), elaidic acid as a biomarker of margarine intake was used to screen affected adipokines on mature human adipocytes in vitro. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet enriched with margarine/lard to generate obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) models, which were then used to explore the inflammatory responses of depot-specific white adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138673/the-beneficial-effects-of-quercetin-curcumin-and-resveratrol-in-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Yueshui Zhao, Bo Chen, Jing Shen, Lin Wan, Yinxin Zhu, Tao Yi, Zhangang Xiao
Over the past two decades, obesity has been one of the major public health concerns in most countries. In the search for new molecules that could be used for the treatment of obesity, good perspectives have been opened up for polyphenols, a class of natural bioactive phytochemicals. Experimental and limited clinical trial evidence supports that some polyphenols such as quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol have potential benefit functions on obesity treatment. This brief review focuses on the main functions of the above-named polyphenols on adipose tissue...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138005/distinct-hypoxic-regulation-of-preadipocyte-factor-1-pref-1-in-preadipocytes-and-mature-adipocytes
#3
Yunwon Moon, Seongyeol Lee, Bongju Park, Hyunsung Park
Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a secretory soluble protein, which exerts pleiotropic effects on maintenance of cancer stem cell characteristics and commitment of mesenchymal stem cell lineages by inhibiting adipogenesis. Observations that obesity renders the microenvironment of adipose tissues hypoxic and that hypoxia inhibits adipogenesis lead us to investigate whether hypoxia increases the expression of anti-adipogenic Pref-1 in preadipocytes, mature adipocytes, and adipose tissues from obese mouse. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, hypoxia induces Pref-1 by a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-dependent mechanism accompanied by increase in the levels of the active histone mark, acetylated H3K9/14 (H3K9/14Ac)...
November 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137982/adipose-tissue-complement-factor-b-promotes-adipocyte-maturation
#4
Hiroaki Matsunaga, Misaki Iwashita, Takanori Shinjo, Akiko Yamashita, Mitsudai Tsuruta, Shoichiro Nagasaka, Ataru Taniguchi, Mitsuo Fukushima, Naoya Watanabe, Fusanori Nishimura
OBJECTIVES: It is well-known that the complement system plays an essential role in host immunity. Observational studies have indicated that complement system-related molecules such as complement factor B (CfB) and other components are correlated with obesity and/or insulin resistance parameters. In this study, we investigated the role of adipocyte-derived CfB in adipose tissue metabolism. METHODS: We investigated the expression level of complement system-related genes in adipocytes...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134302/nuclear-organization-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-into-adipocytes
#5
Joanna Stachecka, Agnieszka Walczak, Beata Kociucka, Błażej Ruszczycki, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Izabela Szczerbal
Differentiation of progenitor cells into adipocytes is accompanied by remarkable changes in cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression profile. Mature adipocytes are filled with a large lipid droplet and the nucleus tends to move to the cell periphery. It was hypothesized that the differentiation process is also associated with changes of nuclear organization. The aim of this study was to determine the number and distribution of selected components of nuclear architecture during porcine in vitro adipogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#6
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125119/research-progress-of-the-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes-into-mature-adipocytes
#7
Xiu Liu, Xi-Nong Liu, Tian-Jia Li, Bao Liu
Along with the increase in the prevalence of lipid metabolism disorders,in vitro research on the adipocytes has been a hot topic in recent years. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte line is one of the most commonly used cell line for establishing adipocytes models. However,for 3T3-L1 cell lines,the traditional method,known also as the "Cocktail" method,have disadvantages including low transformation rate and heterogeneous conversion. Therefore,many studies aimed to improving the induction method by changing the time of inducers or adding other new drugs have been performed(known as the improved method)...
October 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120093/imbalanced-osteogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-mice-deficient-of-the-chemokine-cxcl12-sdf1-in-the-bone-mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells
#8
Yi-Shiuan Tzeng, Ni-Chun Chung, Yu-Ren Chen, Hsin-Yi Huang, Wen-Po Chunang, Dar-Ming Lai
Bone and bone marrow serve as an imperative ecosystem to various types of cells participating in critical body functions. The chemokine Cxcl12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 (Sdf1), is one of the communication factors in the marrow microenvironment that regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. However, the function of Cxcl12 in other bone marrow cells in vivo is yet to be discovered. Here we report a novel function of Cxcl12 in postnatal bone development and homeostasis. Targeted deletion of Cxcl12 in Prx1- or Osx-expressing mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs), but not in mature osteoblasts, resulted in marrow adiposity and reduced trabecular bone content...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118013/restricting-glycolysis-impairs-brown-adipocyte-glucose-and-oxygen-consumption
#9
Sally Winther, Marie S Isidor, Astrid L Basse, Nina Skjoldborg, Amanda Cheung, Bjørn Quistorff, Jacob B Hansen
During thermogenic activation, brown adipocytes take up large amounts of glucose. In addition, cold stimulation leads to an upregulation of glycolytic enzymes. Here we have investigated the importance of glycolysis for brown adipocyte glucose consumption and thermogenesis. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown in mature adipocytes, we explored the effect of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes on brown adipocyte functions such as consumption of glucose and oxygen. Basal oxygen consumption in brown adipocytes was equally dependent on glucose and fatty acid oxidation, whereas isoproterenol (ISO)-stimulated respiration was fueled mainly by fatty acids, with a significant contribution from glucose oxidation...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115612/isopsoralen-regulates-ppar%C3%A2-%C3%AE-wnt-to-inhibit-oxidative-stress-in-osteoporosis
#10
Jian Wang, Gang Wang, Li Gong, Guanwen Sun, Bin Shi, Huhe Bao, Yan Duan
The present study aimed to examine the effects of isopsoralen against postmenopausal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model. The ovariectomized rats were treated with three days 10 mg/kg isopsoralen or with three days 20 mg/kg isopsoralen. Alkaline phosphatase, the oxidative stress indicators and caspase‑3/9 were measured using ELISA assay kits. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure collagen type I (Col I), osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA levels. Wnt, β‑catenin and peroxisome proliferators‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) were analyzed using western blot analysis...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115433/adiponectin-promotes-preadipocyte-differentiation-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-pathway
#11
Wenkai Yang, Chunli Yang, Jun Luo, Yutao Wei, Wenying Wang, Yingmei Zhong
According to the results of a preliminary study, it was hypothesized that the effects of adiponectin (APN) on the improvement of atherosclerosis may be associated with adipocyte differentiation and peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The present study simulated the inflammatory environment of epicardial adipose tissue by stimulating mature adipocytes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); subsequently, the differentiation of 3T3‑L1 preadipocytes was observed. 3T3‑L1 preadipocytes were infected with an adenovirus containing the human adiponectin gene apM1 (Ad‑apM1) and were co‑cultured with mature adipocytes stimulated with LPS...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094257/the-effects-of-exendin-4-on-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-cells
#12
Paola Luciani, Benedetta Fibbi, Benedetta Mazzanti, Cristiana Deledda, Lara Ballerini, Alessandra Aldinucci, Susanna Benvenuti, Riccardo Saccardi, Alessandro Peri
PURPOSE: GLP-1 receptor agonists are antidiabetic drugs currently used in the therapy of type 2 diabetes. Despite several in vitro and in vivo animal studies suggesting a beneficial effect of GLP-1 analogues on bone, in humans their skeletal effects are not clear and clinical studies report conflicting results. METHODS: We differentiated human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) toward the adipogenic and the osteoblastic lineages, analysing the effect of Exendin-4 (EXE) before, during and after specific differentiations...
November 1, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092089/notch-wnt-cross-signalling-regulates-stemness-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-through-expression-of-neural-crest-and-core-pluripotency-factors
#13
V Uribe-Etxebarria, J Luzuriaga, P García-Gallastegui, A Agliano, F Unda, G Ibarretxe
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from adult teeth express neural crest (NC) markers together with core transcriptional factors associated with stem cell pluripotency, such as Oct4a, Sox2, c-Myc, Rex1, Stella/Dppa3, Ssea1/Fut4, Lin28 and Nanog. The possibility to boost the natural stemness features of DPSCs by mild methods, that do not involve gene and/or chromatin modification or gene transfection, is highly desirable for cell therapy. Canonical Wnt and Notch are two highly conserved developmental signalling pathways that are involved in NC emergence and stem cell self-renewal...
November 1, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090203/angiomyolipoma-of-the-glabellar-region
#14
Hyo Joong Kim, Chan Min Chung, Jae Yeon Park, Sung Gyun Jung
Angiomyolipomas are hamartomatous lesions consisting of smooth muscle bundles, thick-walled blood vessels, and mature adipocytes. They are usually found in the kidneys of tuberous sclerosis patients and more rarely in other organs, such as the liver, the oral cavity, the sinonasal tract, the heart, the large intestines, the lungs, and the skin. Cutaneous angiomyolipoma has shown to be very rare and generally occurs at the ends of the digits, the elbows, the ears, and the nose. Herein, we report the first documented case of angiomyolipoma of the glabellar region...
September 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067487/epigenetic-modifications-of-the-zfp-znf423-gene-control-murine-adipogenic-commitment-and-are-dysregulated-in-human-hypertrophic-obesity
#15
Michele Longo, Gregory A Raciti, Federica Zatterale, Luca Parrillo, Antonella Desiderio, Rosa Spinelli, Ann Hammarstedt, Shahram Hedjazifar, Jenny M Hoffmann, Cecilia Nigro, Paola Mirra, Francesca Fiory, Pietro Formisano, Claudia Miele, Ulf Smith, Francesco Beguinot
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and predicts its future development independent of obesity. In humans, subcutaneous adipose tissue hypertrophy is a consequence of impaired adipocyte precursor cell recruitment into the adipogenic pathway rather than a lack of precursor cells. The zinc finger transcription factor known as zinc finger protein (ZFP) 423 has been identified as a major determinant of pre-adipocyte commitment and maintained white adipose cell function...
October 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066306/sfrp5-is-a-target-gene-transcriptionally-regulated-by-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#16
Jun Zeng, Jiongyu Hu, Yu Lian, Youzhao Jiang, Bing Chen
Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a newly identified adipokine. SFRP5 expression increases during the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes, but the factors regulating SFRP5 expression during this process remain unclear. This study showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) adenovirus transfection could enhance the SFRP5 expression of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Three potential binding sites of PPARγ in the SFRP5 promoter domain were found by bioinformatics analysis. Luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated that PPARγ regulated the activity of the SFRP5 promoter through cis-acting elements at -2,284--1,500bp...
October 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060669/electrical-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-as-biosensor-technique-to-identify-cells-lineages-and-cell-differentiation-process
#17
C I Guerrero-Robles, G J Vazquez-Zapien, M M Mata-Miranda, J E Noriega-Gonzalez, C A Gonzalez-Diaz
The identification and characterization of diverse cells types and cell differentiation process requires complex techniques as flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and the exploration of molecular markers; such techniques require infrastructure and qualified personnel. The objective of this study was to analyze the use of Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) measurements as a non-complex alternative technique to identify populations of undifferentiated mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells (mPSCs), Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) and the differentiation process from preadipocytes (3T3-L1) to mature adipocytes...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054053/leptin-reduces-microrna-122-level-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Xuguang Zhai, Fangyun Cheng, Li Ji, Xiaofei Zhu, Qing Cao, Yali Zhang, Xin Jia, Qian Zhou, Wei Guan, Yajun Zhou
Obese patients, often accompanied by hyperleptinemia, are more likely to develop liver fibrosis. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, augments inflammatory in liver and promotes hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation (a key step for liver fibrogenesis) and liver fibrosis. microRNA-122 (miR-122) is the most abundant liver-specific miRNA and can attenuate liver fibrosis. This study examined the effect of leptin on miR-122 level in HSCs in vivo and in vitro. Results demonstrated that leptin reduced the levels of both miR-122 (mature miR-122) and primary miR-122 (pri-miR-122)...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035359/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-disrupts-endogenous-myelo-erythropoiesis-by-compromising-the-adipocyte-bone-marrow-niche
#19
Allison L Boyd, Jennifer C Reid, Kyle R Salci, Lili Aslostovar, Yannick D Benoit, Zoya Shapovalova, Mio Nakanishi, Deanna P Porras, Mohammed Almakadi, Clinton J V Campbell, Michael F Jackson, Catherine A Ross, Ronan Foley, Brian Leber, David S Allan, Mitchell Sabloff, Anargyros Xenocostas, Tony J Collins, Mickie Bhatia
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is distinguished by the generation of dysfunctional leukaemic blasts, and patients characteristically suffer from fatal infections and anaemia due to insufficient normal myelo-erythropoiesis. Direct physical crowding of bone marrow (BM) by accumulating leukaemic cells does not fully account for this haematopoietic failure. Here, analyses from AML patients were applied to both in vitro co-culture platforms and in vivo xenograft modelling, revealing that human AML disease specifically disrupts the adipocytic niche in BM...
November 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031730/bidirectional-manipulation-of-gene-expression-in-adipocytes-using-crispra-and-sirna
#20
Morten Lundh, Kaja Pluciñska, Marie S Isidor, Patricia S S Petersen, Brice Emanuelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional investigation of novel gene/protein targets associated with adipocyte differentiation or function heavily relies on efficient and accessible tools to manipulate gene expression in adipocytes in vitro. Recent advances in gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9 have not only eased gene editing but also greatly facilitated modulation of gene expression without altering the genome. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a competent in vitro adipocyte model of controllable functionality as well as multiplexed gene manipulation in adipocytes, using the CRISPRa "SAM" system and siRNAs to simultaneously overexpress and silence selected genes in the same cell populations...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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