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adipocyte maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429889/omentin-treatment-of-epicardial-fat-improves-its-anti-inflammatory-activity-and-paracrine-benefit-on-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Ángel Fernández-Trasancos, Rosa María Agra, Jose María García-Acuña, Ángel Luis Fernández, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Sonia Eiras
OBJECTIVE: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in coronary artery disease is insulin resistant and has a proinflammatory profile. This study examined the regulation of EAT by exogenous omentin and its consequence on vascular cells. METHODS: Stromal vascular cells (SC) of EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from patients who underwent heart surgery were cultured and exposed to adipogenic factors with or without omentin. Proinflammatory cytokine regulation by omentin was analyzed in SC and mature adipocytes...
April 21, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425850/a-novel-and-robust-method-for-testing-bimodality-and-characterizing-porcine-adipocytes-of-adipose-tissue-of-5-purebred-lines-of-pig
#2
Eric D Testroet, Peter Sherman, Chad Yoder, Amber Testroet, Carmen Reynolds, Mathew O'Neil, Soi Meng Lei, Donald C Beitz, Tom J Baas
Adipocyte sizes from adipose tissue of mature animals form a bimodal distribution, thus reporting mean cell size is misleading. The objectives of this study were to develop a robust method for testing bimodality of porcine adipocytes, describe the size distribution with an informative metric, and statistically test hypertrophy and appearance of new small adipocytes, possibly resulting from hyperplasia or lipid filling of previously divided fibroblastic cells. Ninety-three percent of adipose samples measured were bimodal (P < 0...
March 10, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425843/the-dual-role-of-bmp4-in-adipogenesis-and-metabolism
#3
Salvatore Modica, Christian Wolfrum
BMP4 has a well-established role in triggering commitment of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteogenic and adipogenic linage. We recently described an additional dual function in adipogenesis: after promoting the formation of both white and brown pre-adipocytes, Bmp4 drives terminal differentiation into mature white rather than brown fat cells. Besides this, Bmp4 seems to have a dual role in metabolism either promoting or repressing oxidative metabolism in a cell context dependent manner.
February 6, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409151/temporal-changes-in-gene-expression-profile-during-mature-adipocyte-dedifferentiation
#4
Julie Anne Côté, Frédéric Guénard, Julie Lessard, Marc Lapointe, Simon Biron, Marie-Claude Vohl, André Tchernof
Objective. To characterize changes in gene expression profile during human mature adipocyte dedifferentiation in ceiling culture. Methods. Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue samples were obtained from 4 participants paired for age and BMI. Isolated adipocytes were dedifferentiated in ceiling culture. Gene expression analysis at days 0, 4, 7, and 12 of the cultures was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 STvi arrays. Hierarchical clustering according to similarity of expression changes was used to identify overrepresented functions...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407685/extra-pancreatic-invasion-induces-lipolytic-and-fibrotic-changes-in-the-adipose-microenvironment-with-released-fatty-acids-enhancing-the-invasiveness-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#5
Takashi Okumura, Kenoki Ohuchida, Masafumi Sada, Toshiya Abe, Sho Endo, Kazuhiro Koikawa, Chika Iwamoto, Daisuke Miura, Yusuke Mizuuchi, Taiki Moriyama, Kohei Nakata, Yoshihiro Miyasaka, Tatsuya Manabe, Takao Ohtsuka, Eishi Nagai, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, Yoshinao Oda, Makoto Hashizume, Masafumi Nakamura
Pancreatic cancer progression involves components of the tumor microenvironment, including stellate cells, immune cells, endothelial cells, and the extracellular matrix. Although peripancreatic fat is the main stromal component involved in extra-pancreatic invasion, its roles in local invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. This study investigated the role of adipose tissue in pancreatic cancer progression using genetically engineered mice (Pdx1-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D; Trp53R172H/+) and an in vitro model of organotypic fat invasion...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406706/nanofat-2-0-experimental-evidence-for-a-fat-grafting-rich-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
D Lo Furno, S Tamburino, G Mannino, E Gili, G Lombardo, M S Tarico, C Vancheri, R Giuffrida, R E Perrotta
Different strategies have been developed in the last decade to obtain fat grafts as rich as possible of mesenchymal stem cells, so exploiting their regenerative potential. Recently, a new kind of fat grafting, called "nanofat", has been obtained after several steps of fat emulsification and filtration. The final liquid suspension, virtually devoid of mature adipocytes, would improve tissue repair because of the presence of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). However, since it is probable that many ASCs may be lost in the numerous phases of this procedure, we describe here a novel version of fat grafting, which we call "nanofat 2...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398656/a-biomimetic-hydrogel-functionalized-with-adipose-ecm-components-as-a-microenvironment-for-the-3d-culture-of-human-and-murine-adipocytes
#7
Fiona Louis, Pauline Pannetier, Zied Souguir, Didier Le Cerf, Philippe Valet, Jean-Pierre Vannier, Guillaume Vidal, Elise Demange
The lack of relevant in vitro models for adipose tissue makes necessary the development of a more physiological environment providing spatial and chemical cues for the effective maturation of adipocytes. We developed a biofunctionalized hydrogel with components of adipose extracellular matrix: collagen I, collagen VI and the cell binding domain of fibronectin and we compared it to usual 2D cultures on plastic plates. This scaffold allowed 3D culture of mature adipocytes from the preadipocytes cell lines 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A, as well as primary Human White Preadipocytes (HWP), acquiring in vivo-like organization, with spheroid shaped adipocytes forming multicellular aggregates...
April 11, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388424/repeal-and-replace-adipocyte-regeneration-in-wound-repair
#8
Valerie Horsley, Fiona Watt
Adipocyte precursor cells generate lipid-filled mature adipocytes in multiple tissues during a high-fat diet and in skin during hair follicle growth. In Science, Plikus et al. report that myofibroblasts can generate lipid-filled adipocytes in large skin wounds that regenerate hair follicles, suggesting a new source of adipogenic progenitor cells.
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385906/probe-dependent-negative-allosteric-modulators-of-the-long-chain-free-fatty-acid-receptor-ffa4
#9
Kenneth R Watterson, Steffen V F Hansen, Brian Hudson, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Sheikh Z Raihan, Carlos M G Azevedo, Gabriel Martin, Julia Dunlop, Stephen J Yarwood, Trond Ulven, Graeme Milligan
High affinity and selective antagonists that are able to block the actions of both endogenous and synthetic agonists of G protein-coupled receptors are integral to analysis of receptor function and to support suggestions of therapeutic potential. Although there is great interest in the potential of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type II diabetes, the broad distribution pattern of this receptor suggests it may play a range of roles beyond glucose homeostasis in different cells and tissues...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385723/fabp4-cre-mediated-sirt6-deletion-impairs-adipose-tissue-function-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-mice
#10
Xiwen Xiong, Cuicui Zhang, Yang Zhang, Rui Fan, Xinlai Qian, Xiaocheng Charlie Dong
SIRT6 is a member of sirtuin family of deacetylases involved in diverse processes including genome stability, metabolic homeostasis, and anti-inflammation. However, its function in the adipose tissue is not well understood. To examine the metabolic function of SIRT6 in the adipose tissue, we generated two mouse models that are deficient in Sirt6 using the Cre-lox approach. Two commonly used Cre lines that are driven by either the mouse Fabp4 or Adipoq gene promoter were chosen for this study. The Sirt6 knockout mice generated by the Fabp4-Cre line (Sirt6f/f:Fabp4-Cre) had a significant increase in both body weight and fat mass, and exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance as compared with the control wildtype mice...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376661/succination-of-protein-disulfide-isomerase-links-mitochondrial-stress-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-adipocyte-during-diabetes
#11
Allison M Manuel, Michael D Walla, Adam Faccenda, Stephanie L Martin, Ross M Tanis, Gerardo G Piroli, Julie Adam, Boris Kantor, Bulent Mutus, Danyelle M Townsend, Norma Frizzell
AIMS: Protein succination by fumarate increases in the adipose tissue of diabetic mice and in adipocytes matured in high glucose as a result of glucotoxicity driven mitochondrial stress. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductase protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is succinated in adipocytes matured in high glucose, and in this study we investigated if succination would alter PDI oxidoreductase activity, directly linking mitochondrial stress and ER stress. RESULTS: Protein succination and the ER stress marker CHOP are diminished following pharmaceutical targeting of mitochondrial stress with the chemical uncoupler niclosamide in adipocytes matured in high glucose concentrations...
April 4, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376564/adipogenic-differentiation-of-msc-alters-their-immunomodulatory-properties-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#12
Hafsa Munir, Lewis S C Ward, Lozan Sheriff, Samuel Kemble, Saba Nayar, Francesca Barone, Gerard B Nash, Helen M McGettrick
Chronic inflammation is associated with formation of ectopic fat deposits that might represent damage-induced aberrant mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Such deposits are associated with increased levels of inflammatory infiltrate and poor prognosis. Here we tested the hypothesis that differentiation from MSC to adipocytes in inflamed tissue might contribute to chronicity through loss of immunomodulatory function. We assessed the effects of adipogenic differentiation of MSC from bone marrow or adipose tissue- on their capacity to regulate neutrophil recruitment by endothelial cells and compared the differentiated cells to primary adipocytes from adipose tissue...
April 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372831/%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-1ap-1-complexes-different-essential-functions-and-regulatory-mechanisms-in-clathrin-dependent-protein-sorting
#13
Daniela Zizioli, Constanze Geumann, Manuel Kratzke, Ratnakar Mishra, Guiseppe Borsani, Dario Finazzi, Ermes Candiello, Peter Schu
γ2 adaptin is homologous to γ1, but is only expressed in vertebrates while γ1 is found in all eukaryotes. We know little about γ2 functions and their relation to γ1. γ1 is an adaptin of the heterotetrameric AP-1 complexes, which sort proteins in and do form clathrin-coated transport vesicles and they also regulate maturation of early endosomes. γ1 knockout mice develop only to blastocysts and thus γ2 does not compensate γ1-deficiency in development. γ2 has not been classified as a clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor protein in proteome analyses and functions for monomeric γ2 in endosomal protein sorting have been proposed, but adaptin interaction studies suggested formation of heterotetrameric AP-1/γ2 complexes...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362167/adipocyte-secretome-increases-radioresistance-of-malignant-melanocytes-by-improving-cell-survival-and-decreasing-oxidative-status
#14
Pedro Coelho, Liliana Silva, Isabel Faria, Mónica Vieria, Armanda Monteiro, Gabriela Pinto, Cristina Prudêncio, Rúben Fernandes, Raquel Soares
Radiotherapy is a treatment option for the majority of malignancies. However, because melanoma is known to be radioresistant, the use of ionizing radiation as an adjuvant therapy in cutaneous melanoma patients is ineffective. Obesity has now been recognized as a risk factor for melanoma. High adiposity is generally associated with a more pro-oxidative status. Oxidative stress is a major player in radiation therapy and also a common link between obesity and cancer. Several adipocyte-released proteins are known to have a role in controlling cellular growth and pro-survival signaling...
March 31, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359489/palpitations-and-a-left-ventricular-mass-an-odd-presentation-of-left-dominant-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#15
Sandor Toledo, Elizabeth Grigoryan, Jacobo Kirsch, Edward B Savage
A 20-year-old woman presented with palpitations. Echocardiography demonstrated a left ventricular mass involving the posterolateral apical wall and protruding into the ventricular cavity. Evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested fatty consistency with all edges well defined except the medial, which was ill defined, raising concern for an invasive liposarcoma. Open core needle biopsy demonstrated mature adipocytes infiltrating the myocardium with extensive interstitial fibrosis. The diagnosis was left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy...
April 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359093/diabetes-specific-regulation-of-adipocyte-metabolism-by-the-adipose-tissue-extracellular-matrix
#16
Nicki A Baker, Lindsey A Muir, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Christopher K Neeley, Sophie Yu-Pu Chen, Carmen G Flesher, John Vorwald, Jonathan F Finks, Amir A Ghaferi, Michael W Mulholland, Oliver A Varban, Carey N Lumeng, Robert W O'Rourke
Context: The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating adipocyte metabolism in the context of metabolic disease is poorly defined. Objective: The objective of this study was to define the metabolic phenotype of adipocytes associated with human diabetes (DM) and the role of the ECM in regulating adipocyte metabolism. Design: Adipose tissues from obese patients were studied in standard 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture and an in vitro model of decellularized adipose tissue ECM repopulated with human adipocytes, and results were correlated with DM status...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358362/deletion-of-stk40-impairs-definitive-erythropoiesis-in-the-mouse-fetal-liver
#17
Lina Wang, Hongyao Yu, Hui Cheng, Ke He, Zhuoqing Fang, Laixiang Ge, Tao Cheng, Ying Jin
The serine threonine kinase Stk40 has been shown to involve in mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation, pulmonary maturation and adipocyte differentiation. Here we report that targeted deletion of Stk40 leads to fetal liver hypoplasia and anemia in the mouse embryo. The reduction of erythrocytes in the fetal liver is accompanied by increased apoptosis and compromised erythroid maturation. Stk40(-/-) fetal liver cells have significantly reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) capable of erythroid differentiation, including burst forming unit-erythroid, CFU-erythroid (CFU-E), and CFU-granulocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte and macrophage, but not CFU-granulocyte/macrophages...
March 30, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320833/inflammatory-changes-in-bone-marrow-microenvironment-associated-with-declining-b-lymphopoiesis
#18
Domenick E Kennedy, Katherine L Knight
B lymphopoiesis arrests precipitously in rabbits such that by 2-4 mo of age, before sexual maturity, little to no B lymphopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM). Previously, we showed that in mice, adipocytes inhibit B lymphopoiesis in vitro by inducing inflammatory myeloid cells, which produce IL-1β. In this study, we characterized rabbit BM after the arrest of B lymphopoiesis and found a dramatic increase in fat, increased CD11b(+) myeloid cells, and upregulated expression of the inflammatory molecules, IL-1β and S100A9, by the myeloid cells...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316325/silencing-of-the-small-gtpase-diras3-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-white-adipose-stromal-progenitor-cells
#19
Asim Ejaz, Monika Mattesich, Werner Zwerschke
Inhibition of Akt-mTOR signaling protects from obesity and extends life span in animals. In the present study, we analyse the impact of the small GTPase, GTP-binding RAS-like 3 (DIRAS3), a recently identified weight-loss target gene, on cellular senescence in adipose stromal/progenitor cells (ASCs) derived from human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). We demonstrate that DIRAS3 knock-down (KD) in ASCs induces activation of Akt-mTOR signaling and proliferation arrest. DIRAS3 KD ASCs lose the potential to form colonies and are negative for Ki-67...
March 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300914/nevus-lipomatosus-cutaneous-superficialis
#20
Gustavo de Sá Menezes Carvalho, Silvana Maria de Morais Cavalcanti, Alzinira Souza Herênio, Márcia Almeida Galvão Teixeira, Eliane Ruth Barbosa de Alencar, Sergio Paulo Mendes Gonçalves
We report a case of nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis of Hoffman-Zurhelle (NCLS), with multiple lesions, in a ten-year-old child. The NLCS is considered rare. The classical clinical presentation is characterized by multiple skin-colored or yellowish papules and nodules, which can have a linear distribution. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis. The main therapeutic option is surgical excision. The classical Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis is reported in this case...
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
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