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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109162/odontoblastic-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-from-healthy-and-carious-teeth-on-an-original-pcl-based-3d-scaffold
#1
A Louvrier, E Euvrard, L Nicod, G Rolin, F Gindraux, L Pazart, C Houdayer, P Y Risold, F Meyer, C Meyer
AIMS: To isolate and characterize Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) obtained from carious and healthy mature teeth extracted when conservative treatment was not possible or for orthodontic reasons; to evaluate the ability of DPSCs to colonize, proliferate, and differentiate into functional odontoblast-like cells when cultured onto a polycaprolactone cone made by jet-spraying and prototyped into a design similar to a gutta-percha cone. METHODOLOGY: DPSCs were obtained from 9 carious and 12 healthy mature teeth...
January 21, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107070/tracheal-collapse-in-a-pekin-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-domestica
#2
Eugénie Henry-Guyot, Isabelle Langlois, Isabelle Lanthier, Dipl Acvp
A 5-year-old, 3.72-kg female Pekin duck ( Anas platyrhynchos domestica) was presented for acute respiratory distress, head shaking, and collapse. Similar spontaneously resolving episodes had previously occurred. Physical examination revealed severe inspiratory and expiratory dyspnea. Due to poor prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination revealed severe tracheal collapse involving the proximal trachea. The tracheal lumen was reduced in size by 75%. Histologic evaluation revealed ossification of the tracheal rings for approximately 60%-100% of their circumference...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098517/antiobesity-effects-of-sansa-crataegi-fructus-on-3t3-l1-cells-and-on-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-obese-rats
#3
Jae-Joon Lee, Hyun-Joo Lee, Seon-Woo Oh
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Crataegi fructus ethanol extracts (CFEEs) on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, and to evaluate the effects of C. fructus powder (CFP) on lipid metabolism and its antiobesity effect in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed for physiological activity and antiobesity effects on the serum, liver, and adipose tissues in obesity-induced rats. CFEEs showed significant inhibitory action on differentiation and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 mature cells in a dose-dependent manner...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096544/simamycin-5-o-geranyluridine-a-new-prenylated-nucleoside-from-streptomyces-sp
#4
Yasuhiro Igarashi, Takayuki Kyoso, Youngju Kim, Tsutomu Oikawa
A new nucleoside modified by prenylation, simamycin (1), was isolated from the culture broth of a soil-derived Streptomyces sp. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical synthesis as 5'-O-geranyluridine. Compound 1 induced differentiation of preadipocytes into matured adipocytes.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 18 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2016.163.
January 18, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090348/changes-in-hba1c-and-circulating-and-adipose-tissue-androgen-levels-in-overweight-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-response-to-electroacupuncture
#5
E Stener-Victorin, M Maliqueo, M Soligo, V Protto, L Manni, E Jerlhag, M Kokosar, A Sazonova, C J Behre, M Lind, C Ohlsson, K Højlund, A Benrick
AIM: Insulin sensitivity is ~40% lower in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in controls. We tested the hypothesis that 5 weeks of electroacupuncture treatment improves glucose regulation and androgen levels in overweight/obese women with PCOS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen women with PCOS, aged 18 to 38 years, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2) and diagnosed with PCOS were included in this experimental and feasibility study and subjected to five weeks of electroacupuncture treatments three times/week...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088466/teneurin-2-tenm2-deficiency-induces-ucp1-expression-in-differentiating-human-fat-cells
#6
D Tews, T Fromme, M Keuper, S M Hofmann, K M Debatin, M Klingenspor, M Wabitsch, P Fischer-Posovszky
Under certain conditions UCP1 expressing adipocytes arise in white adipose tissue depots of both mice and humans. It is still not fully understood whether these cells differentiate de novo from specific progenitor cells or if they transdifferentiate from mature white adipocytes. Performing expression pattern analysis comparing adipocyte progenitor cells from deep and subcutaneous neck adipose tissue, we recently identified teneurin-2 (TENM2) enriched in white adipocyte progenitor cells. Here we tested whether TENM2 deficiency in adipocyte progenitor cells would lead to a brown adipocyte phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073315/metabolically-active-3-dimensional-brown-adipose-tissue-engineered-from-white-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#7
Jessica P Yang, Amy Elizabeth Anderson, Annemarie McCartney, Xavier Ory, Garret Ma, Elisa Pappalardo, Joel Bader, Jennifer Elisseeff
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070930/pituitary-adenoma-with-adipose-tissue-a-new-metaplastic-variant
#8
Chiara Caporalini, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Luigi Pansini, Selene Moscardi, Luca Novelli, Gianna Baroni, Lorenzo Bordi, Franco Ammannati, Gian Luigi Taddei
Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors representing approximately 15-20% of intracranial neoplasms. There have been few reports of metaplastic osseous transformation and about 60 cases of neuronal metaplasia in pituitary adenoma but adipose metaplasia has not been previously described in the English literature. Here we report a case of pituitary adenoma with metaplastic adipose tissue in a 58-year-old male patient. Histologically this case fulfilled the criteria of a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and moreover a central area of adipose tissue, made by mature adipocytes, and many tumor cells, containing fat droplet were evident...
January 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070709/influence-of-resveratrol-on-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-expression-of-adipokines-in-adipose-tissues-adipocytes-induced-by-high-calorie-diet-or-palmitic-acid
#9
Li Chen, Ting Wang, Guanjun Chen, Nuojin Wang, Li Gui, Fang Dai, Zhaohui Fang, Qiu Zhang, Yunxia Lu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether resveratrol treatment alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes the expression of adipokines in adipose tissues and cells. METHODS: 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-calorie diet (HCD group) or high-calorie diet supplemented with resveratrol (high-calorie diet  + resveratrol group) for 3 months. Insulin resistance, serum lipids and proinflammatory indices, the size and inflammatory cell infiltration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were analyzed...
January 9, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065828/adipocyte-dynamics-and-reversible-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice-with-an-inducible-adipocyte-specific-deletion-of-the-insulin-receptor
#10
Masaji Sakaguchi, Shiho Fujisaka, Weikang Cai, Jonathon N Winnay, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T O'Neill, Mengyao Li, Rubén García-Martín, Hirokazu Takahashi, Jiang Hu, Rohit N Kulkarni, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF1 signaling are important for adipose tissue development and function; however, their role in mature adipocytes is unclear. Mice with a tamoxifen-inducible knockout of insulin and/or IGF1 receptors (IR/IGF1R) demonstrate a rapid loss of white and brown fat due to increased lipolysis and adipocyte apoptosis. This results in insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatosteatosis, islet hyperplasia with hyperinsulinemia, and cold intolerance. This phenotype, however, resolves over 10-30 days due to a proliferation of preadipocytes and rapid regeneration of both brown and white adipocytes as identified by mTmG lineage tracing...
January 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057454/infiltrating-lipomatosis-of-the-face-case-series-and-literature-review
#11
Marianna Sampaio Serpa, Crispian Scully, Ana Paula Molina Vivas, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Felipe D'Almeida Costa, Fábio Abreu Alves
Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a rare disorder in which mature adipocytes infiltrate tissues, leading to facial asymmetry. We present three cases, emphasizing their clinical and imaging features. In two of our cases, typical clinical features of infiltrating lipomatosis of the face were observed, including enlargement of cheek and bones, as well as early tooth eruption. The other case stood out because of its uncommon clinical presentation: presenting with hemimacroglossia, ipsilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and papillomatosis on the dorsum of the tongue...
October 15, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055005/enhanced-expression-of-survivin-has-distinct-roles-in-adipocyte-homeostasis
#12
Liping Ju, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yujie Deng, Junfeng Han, Jian Yang, Shuqin Chen, Qichen Fang, Ying Yang, Weiping Jia
Although precisely controlled lipolysis is crucial for maintaining physiological levels of circulating free fatty acids in response to energetic stress, the underlying mechanisms by which this process is governed remain poorly understood. Survivin is a gene that has been found to be highly expressed in the most common human tumors, and it is considered to be associated with tumorigenesis. Survivin expression in normal tissue is developmentally downregulated and is undetectable in most terminally differentiated adult tissues...
January 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029186/adipokine-chemerin-bridges-metabolic-dyslipidemia-and-alveolar-bone-loss-in-mice
#13
Erivan S Ramos-Junior, Gisele A Leite, Cecilia C Carmo-Silva, Thaise M Taira, Karla B Neves, David F Colón, Lea Ab da Silva, Sergio L Salvador, Rita C Tostes, Fernando Q Cunha, Sandra Y Fukada
Chemerin is an adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and metabolic functions of mature adipocytes mainly through the activation of chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Elevated levels of chemerin have been found in individuals with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. This adipokine was identified as an inflammatory and metabolic syndrome marker. Considering that the association between metabolic syndrome and bone health remains unclear, the present study aimed to clarify the role of chemerin in the pathophysiology of bone loss induced by dyslipidemia, particularly modulating osteoclastogenesis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998209/immunodepletion-and-hypoxia-preconditioning-of-mouse-compact-bone-cells-as-a-novel-protocol-to-isolate-highly-immunosuppressive-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Kisha Nandini Sivanathan, Stan Gronthos, Shane T Grey, Darling Rojas-Canales, Patrick T Coates
Compact bones (CB) are major reservoirs of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSC). Here, we established a protocol to isolate MSC from CB and tested their immunosuppressive potential. Collagenase type II digestion of BM-flushed CB from C57B/6 mice was performed to liberate mMSC precursors from bone surfaces to establish nondepleted mMSC. CB cells were also immunodepleted based on the expression of CD45 (leukocytes) and TER119 (erythroid cells) to eliminate hematopoietic cells. CD45-TER119- CB cells were subsequently used to generate depleted mMSC...
December 21, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992530/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-rosiglitazone-in-obesity-impaired-wound-healing-depend-on-adipocyte-differentiation
#15
Anna Siebert, Itamar Goren, Josef Pfeilschifter, Stefan Frank
Combined diabetes-obesity syndromes severely impair regeneration of acute skin wounds in mouse models. This study assessed the contribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue to exacerbated wound inflammatory conditions. Genetically obese (ob/ob) mice showed an increased expression of positive transcriptional effectors of adipocyte differentiation such as Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and an associated expression of leptin and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)-4, but also CXCL2 in isolated subcutaneous fat...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987321/human-white-adipocytes-convert-into-rainbow-adipocytes-in-vitro
#16
Giulia Maurizi, Antonella Poloni, Domenico Mattiucci, Spartaco Santi, Angela Maurizi, Valerio Izzi, Angelica Giuliani, Stefania Mancini, Maria Cristina Zingaretti, Jessica Perugini, Ilenia Severi, Massimo Falconi, Marco Vivarelli, Maria Rita Rippo, Silvia Corvera, Antonio Giordano, Pietro Leoni, Saverio Cinti
White adipocytes are plastic cells able to reversibly transdifferentiate into brown adipocytes and into epithelial glandular cells under physiologic stimuli in vivo. These plastic properties could be used in future for regenerative medicine, but are incompletely explored in their details. Here, we focused on plastic properties of human mature adipocytes (MA) combining gene expression profile through microarray analysis with morphologic data obtained by electron and time lapse microscopy. Primary MA showed the classic morphology and gene expression profile of functional mature adipocytes...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980094/adipose-tissue-development-and-the-molecular-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Arthe Raajendiran, Thomas Tsiloulis, Matthew J Watt
The production of new adipocytes is required to maintain adipose tissue mass and involves the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs). In this review, we outline new developments in understanding the phenotype of APCs and provide evidence suggesting that APCs differ between distinct adipose tissue depots and are affected by obesity. Post-mitotic mature adipocytes regulate systemic lipid homeostasis by storing and releasing free fatty acids, and also modulate energy balance via the secretion of adipokines...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964926/retinoic-acid-receptor-signalling-directly-regulates-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-differentiation-from-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells
#18
A C Green, P Kocovski, T Jovic, M K Walia, R A S Chandraratna, T J Martin, E K Baker, L E Purton
Low and high serum retinol levels are associated with increased fracture risk and poor bone health. We recently showed retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Here we show RARs are also negative regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. The pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), directly inhibited differentiation and mineralisation of early osteoprogenitors and impaired the differentiation of more mature osteoblast populations. In contrast, the pan-RAR antagonist, IRX4310, accelerated differentiation of early osteoprogenitors...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957277/intraoral-lipomas-review-of-literature-and-report-of-two-clinical-cases
#19
REVIEW
Sonia Egido-Moreno, Ana-Belén Lozano-Porras, Siddharth Mishra, Marcos Allegue-Allegue, Antonio Marí-Roig, José López-López
BACKGROUND: Lipomas are benign mesenchymal tumors composed of mature adipocytes. They are classified according to their histological pattern and their etiology remains unclear. Objectives: To present two cases and review the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was conducted in the Medline / PubMed and Scielo data bases of the last 10 years (2004-2014) with the keywords " intraoral lipoma OR oral cavity lipoma". RESULTS: 46 articles with 95 cases (56 women and 39 men) were reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938388/berberine-increases-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-through-the-ampk-pathway
#20
Dongqing Jiang, Dianhui Wang, Xianghua Zhuang, Zhanqing Wang, Yihong Ni, Shihong Chen, Fudun Sun
BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely related to the metabolism of triacylglycerol (TG) in adipocytes. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are rate-limiting enzymes that control the hydrolysis of TG. Effects on ATGL and HSL to increase lipolysis may counteract obesity. Berberine (BBR) is a compound derived from the Chinese medicine plant Coptis chinensis. In the present study we show the effects of BBR on ATGL and HSL and explore the potential underlying mechanisms of these effects...
December 9, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
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