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adipocyte maturation

Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Sami Almalki, Mohammad Mobarak, Muhammad Atteya, Zafar Iqbal, Jamil Amjad Hashmi, Sameerah Shaheen, Nehad Alajez, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Raed Abu Dawud, Amer Mahmood
TGF β is a potent regulator of several biological functions in many cell types, but its role in the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells (hMSCs) is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that a single dose of TGF β 1 prior to induction of osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation results in increased mineralized matrix or increased numbers of lipid-filled mature adipocytes, respectively. To identify the mechanisms underlying this TGF β -mediated enhancement of lineage commitment, we compared the gene expression profiles of TGF β 1-treated hMSC cultures using DNA microarrays...
2018: Stem Cells International
Hiroki Kaneko, Masaki Kobayashi, Yuhei Mizunoe, Maho Yoshida, Hiromine Yasukawa, Shunsuke Hoshino, Rei Itagawa, Takuma Furuichi, Naoyuki Okita, Yuka Sudo, Masato Imae, Yoshikazu Higami
Alterations in adipocyte characteristics are highly implicated in the pathology of obesity. In a recent article, we demonstrated that high-fat diet-induced obesity impairs lysosomal function, thereby suppressing autophagy in mice white adipose tissue. Taurine, an amino acid naturally contained in the normal diet and existing ubiquitously in tissues, has been reported to improve insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in animal models, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. From these findings, we hypothesized that improvement of obese pathology by taurine may be mediated through recovery of autophagy...
March 9, 2018: Amino Acids
Xiaoli Hou, Yongzhao Zhang, Wei Li, Alexander J Hu, Chi Luo, Wenhui Zhou, Jamie K Hu, Stefano G Daniele, Jinfeng Wang, Jinghao Sheng, Yongsheng Fan, Andrew S Greenberg, Stephen R Farmer, Miaofen G Hu
Whereas white adipose tissue depots contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, brown and beige adipose tissue has beneficial metabolic effects. Here we show that CDK6 regulates beige adipocyte formation. We demonstrate that mice lacking the CDK6 protein or its kinase domain (K43M) exhibit significant increases beige cell formation, enhanced energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance, and improved insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Re-expression of CDK6 in Cdk6-/- mature or precursor cells, or ablation of RUNX1 in K43M mature or precursor cells, reverses these phenotypes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Erica Silvestris, Giovanni de Pergola, Raffaele Rosania, Giuseppe Loverro
Both obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and have detrimental influences on several human body functions including the reproductive health. In particular, obese women undergo perturbations of the 'hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis', and frequently suffer of menstrual dysfunction leading to anovulation and infertility. Besides the hormone disorders and subfertility that are common in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in obesity the adipocytes act as endocrine organ. The adipose tissue indeed, releases a number of bioactive molecules, namely adipokines, that variably interact with multiple molecular pathways of insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, coagulation, and oocyte differentiation and maturation...
March 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
D Balan, Kit-Lam Chan, D Murugan, Sazaly AbuBakar, Pooi-Fong Wong
Bioactive compounds of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) jack were previously shown to reduce omentum fat mass and oestradiol-induced fatty uterine adhesion in rats. However, the exact role of EL on adipogenesis remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the effects of an EL standardized quassinoids-enriched fraction (SQEL) and the pure compound, eurycomanone, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate and treated for 8 days. The treatment reduced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and triglycerides in the differentiating adipocytes and induced lipolysis in matured adipocytes...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Kinyui Alice Lo, Shiqi Huang, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Meihui Liu, Lei Sun
Obesity induces profound transcriptome changes in adipocytes; recent evidence suggests that lncRNAs play key roles in this process. Here, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome study by RNA-Seq in adipocytes isolated from interscapular brown, inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissues in diet-induced obese mice. Our analysis reveals a set of obesity-dysregulated lncRNAs, many of which exhibit dynamic changes in fed vs. fasted state, potentially serving as novel molecular markers reflecting adipose energy status...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes
Mallory A Ballinger, Matthew T Andrews
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique thermogenic tissue in mammals that rapidly produces heat via nonshivering thermogenesis. Small mammalian hibernators have evolved the greatest capacity for BAT because they use it to rewarm from hypothermic torpor numerous times throughout the hibernation season. Although hibernator BAT physiology has been investigated for decades, recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular underpinnings of BAT regulation and function using a variety of methods, from mitochondrial functional assays to 'omics' approaches...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Cristina Salmerón
White adipose tissue (AT) is the main lipid storage depot in vertebrates. Initially considered to be a simple lipid store, AT has recently been recognized as playing a role as an endocrine organ that is implicated in processes such as energy homeostasis and as a rich source of stem cells. Interest in adipogenesis has increased not only because of the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, but also in aquaculture because of the excessive fat deposition experienced in some cultured fish species, which may compromise both their welfare and their final product quality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ann-Cathrin Volz, Petra Juliane Kluger
BACKGROUND AIMS: In vitro engineered adipose tissue is in great demand to treat lost or damaged soft tissue or to screen for new drugs, among other applications. However, today most attempts depend on the use of animal-derived sera. To pave the way for the application of adipose tissue-engineered products in clinical trials or as reliable and robust in vitro test systems, sera should be completely excluded from the production process. In this study, we aimed to develop an in vitro adipose tissue model in the absence of sera and maintain its function long-term...
February 26, 2018: Cytotherapy
X Su, D Q Peng
Objective: To verify whether Apo A5 could inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs). Methods: We isolated AMSCs by collagenase digestion method from the adipocyte tissue of patients underwent abdominal surgery in our hospital from February to July 2015. AMSCs were differentiated into mature adipocytes and incubated with Apo A5 (600 and 1 200 ng/ml) for 7, 14 and 21 days. Morphological changes, TG content, and gene expression levels of adipogenic differentiation markers were determined...
February 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Surekha Ulhas Arakeri, Shilpi Banga
Sialolipoma is a recently described rare histological variant of lipoma, characterized by well-demarcated proliferation of mature adipocytes with secondary entrapment of salivary gland elements. Less than forty cases of sialolipoma have been reported in English literature. This tumor has been reported both in major and minor salivary glands, with the parotid gland being the most common site. Age incidence in this tumor varies from 0 month to 84 years. However, the occurrence of this tumor in an infant is very rare...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Yi Lu, Junye Chen, Tao Xian, Yumeng Zhou, Wanwan Yuan, Mengxi Wang, Yuyang Gan, Kun Wang, Shaofeng Xiong, Cong Ma, Xueying Yu, Qiren Huang
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a pivotal effective component of green tea. It is known that EGCG has antioxidant activity, anti-angiogenesis, anti-tumor, cardiovascular protection and blood lipid regulation functions. Forkhead box-O1 (FOXO1) is one of the downstream signals of protein kinase B (AKT) and takes part in adipogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of EGCG on adipose differentiation and the likely mechanisms. 3T3-L1 cells were induced by DMI for 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Qiong A Wang, Fang Zhang, Lei Jiang, Risheng Ye, Yu An, Mengle Shao, Caroline Tao, Rana K Gupta, Philipp E Scherer
Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ that makes critical contributions to whole body metabolic homeostasis. Although recent studies have revealed that different fat depots have distinct molecular signatures, metabolic functions and adipogenic mechanisms, PPARγ is still widely viewed as the master regulator of adipogenesis and critical for maintaining mature adipocyte function. Using an inducible, adipocyte-specific knockout system, we explored the role of PPARγ in mature adipocytes in vivo Short-term PPARγ deficiency in adipocytes reduces whole body insulin sensitivity, but adipocytes are viable both in vitro and in vivo However, after high fat diet exposure, even short-term PPARγ deficiency leads to rapid adipocyte death...
February 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Niina Tsurumachi, Daisuke Akita, Koichiro Kano, Taro Matsumoto, Taku Toriumi, Tomohiko Kazama, Yoshinao Oki, Yoko Saito-Tamura, Morio Tonogi, Noriyoshi Shimizu, Masaki Honda
Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells were isolated from mature adipocytes using the ceiling culture method. Recently, we successfully isolated DFAT cells from adipocytes with a relatively small size (<40 μm). DFAT cells have a higher osteogenic potential than that of medium adipocytes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of collagenase solution for isolating small adipocytes from human buccal fat pads (BFPs). Four concentrations of collagenase solution (0.01%, 0...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Oral Science
Antonietta Liotti, Serena Cabaro, Ilaria Cimmino, Serena Ricci, Claudio Procaccini, Orlando Paciello, Gregory A Raciti, Rosa Spinelli, Susanna Iossa, Giuseppe Matarese, Claudia Miele, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a gene encoding for a homeodomain transcription factor which induces hepatic and muscular insulin resistance. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1i/+ ) mice, expressing low levels of protein, featured a 23% and a 25% reduction of total body lipid content and epididymal fat, respectively. The percentage of the small adipocytes (25-75 μm) was 30% higher in Prep1i/+ animals than in the WT, with a reciprocal difference in the large adipose cells (100-150 and >150 μm)...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kristina Schaedlich, Scarlett Gebauer, Luise Hunger, Laura-Sophie Beier, Holger M Koch, Martin Wabitsch, Bernd Fischer, Jana Ernst
DEHP is a plasticizer which has been used in plastic products of everyday use for decades. Studies in mice and murine cell culture models identified DEHP as an endocrine disruptor that may also act as an obesogen. As this is of high concern in respect of the worldwide obesity epidemic, our aim is the translation of these findings into a human model system. On the basis of DOHaD, we investigated the influence of an environmentally relevant dose of DEHP [50 µg/ml] on adipogenesis in the human cell culture model SGBS...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matías Gabrielli, Damián G Romero, Claudia N Martini, Laura Judith Raiger Iustman, María Del C Vila
We investigated for the first time the expression of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) and its involvement in the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. We found that MCAM mRNA increased subsequent to the activation of the master regulator of adipogenesis, PPARγ, and this increase was maintained in the mature adipocytes. On the other hand, MCAM knockdown impaired differentiation and induction of PPARγ as well as expression of genes activated by PPARγ. However, events that precede and are necessary for early PPARγ activation, such as C/EBPβ induction, β-catenin downregulation, and ERK activation, were not affected in the MCAM knockdown cells...
February 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Simon Göddeke, Birgit Knebel, Pia Fahlbusch, Tina Hörbelt, Gereon Poschmann, Frederique van de Velde, Tim Benninghoff, Hadi Al-Hasani, Sylvia Jacob, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Bruno Lapauw, Stefan Lehr, D Margriet Ouwens, Jorg Kotzka
BACKGROUND: CDH13, an atypical member of the cadherin superfamily, has been identified in adipocyte secretomes of lean mouse models. CDH13 abundance differs in mouse models according to their susceptibility to develop metabolic disorders, but the role of CDH13 in adipose tissue is unknown. METHODS: Secreted CDH13 protein levels and mRNA levels in visceral adipose tissue were determined in lean and obese mouse models. In vitro studies were performed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the role of CDH13 in adipocyte differentiation...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jayne F Martin Carli, Charles A LeDuc, Yiying Zhang, George Stratigopoulos, Rudolph L Leibel
Genetic variants within the FTO (α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase) gene have been strongly associated with a modest increase in adiposity as a result of increased food intake. These risk alleles are associated with decreased expression of both FTO and neighboring RPGRIP1L (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein 1 like). RPGRIP1L encodes a protein that is critical to the function of the primary cilium, which conveys extracellular information to the cell. Rpgrip1l+/- mice exhibit increased adiposity, in part, as a result of hyperphagia...
February 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Outi Huttala, Maaria Palmroth, Pauliina Hemminki, Tarja Toimela, Tuula Heinonen, Timo Ylikomi, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen
Many adipose tissue-related diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are worldwide epidemics. For studying these diseases, relevant human cell models are needed. In this study, we developed a vascularized adipose tissue model where human adipose stromal cells (hASC) and human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were co-cultured with natural adipogenic and defined serum-free angiogenic media for 14 days. Several different protocols were compared to each other. The protocols varied in cell numbers and plating sequences...
February 14, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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