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Jun Kim, Hong Lan Jin, Dae Sik Jang, Kwang Won Jeong, Se-Young Choung
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is among the increasing number of diseases causing irreversible blindness in the elderly. Dry AMD is characterized by the accumulation of lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. N-Retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), a component of lipofuscin, is oxidized to oxo-A2E under blue light illumination, leading to retinal cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (QA) against blue light (BL)-induced damage in both RPE cells and mice models...
March 15, 2018: Food & Function
T Vandermarken, K Croes, K Van Langenhove, I Boonen, P Servais, T Garcia-Armisen, N Brion, M S Denison, L Goeyens, M Elskens
The Zenne River, crossing the Brussels region (Belgium) is an extremely urbanized river impacted by both domestic and industrial effluents. The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and activity of Endocrine Active Substances (EAS) in river water and sediments in the framework of the Environmental Quality Standards Directive (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EU). Activities were determined using Estrogen and Dioxin Responsive Elements (ERE and DRE) Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression (CALUX) bioassays...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Semir Gül, Mehmet Gül, Birgül Yigitcan
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic agent and has disruptive effects on reproductive tissues in females. TCDD disrupts the hormonal regulation of the body and decreases the production of melatonin. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of melatonin supplements against the toxic effects of TCDD on ovaries of female rats. TCDD caused a significant decrease in the average number of corpora lutea and follicles per tissue section (2.1 ± 0.7; 2.3 ± 0.8, respectively), whereas these numbers were maintained in the melatonin supplemented group (5...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Wenjing Tian, Hualing Fu, Tuan Xu, Sherry Li Xu, Zhiling Guo, Jijing Tian, Wuqun Tao, Heidi Qunhui Xie, Bin Zhao
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays an important role in mediating dioxins toxicity. Currently, genes of P450 families are major research interests in studies on AhR-mediated gene alterations caused by dioxins. Genes related to other metabolic pathways or processes may be also responsive to dioxin exposures. Amino acid transporter B0AT1 (encoded by SLC6A19) plays a decisive role in neutral amino acid transport which is present in kidney, intestine and liver. However, effects of dioxins on its expression are still unknown...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Joanna Rosińczuk, Robert Dymarek, Ireneusz Całkosiński
BACKGROUND: Dioxins contribute to neurological disorders in humans and animals, causing also neurological disorders in offspring during prenatal and postnatal periods. These compounds significantly affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS) structures, which results in behavioral changes. Tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may provide protective measures to reduce the inflammatory effects in the CNS associated with free radicals generated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), thus contributing to the reduction of the negative effects of dioxin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Hyun-Sook Kim, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Youngmi Kim Pak, Wonchae Choe, Joohun Ha, Suk Chon
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus) and beer. The aim of the current study was to explore the role of xanthohumol in modulating the toxicity of TCDD in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. In cells treated with TCDD alone, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species production, cardiolipin peroxidation, nitric oxide release and cytochrome P450 1A1 expression were significantly increased...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Young-Ah You, Elsayed A Mohamed, Md Saidur Rahman, Woo-Sung Kwon, Won-Hee Song, Buom-Yong Ryu, Myung-Geol Pang
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a reproductive and developmental toxicant that can alter the sex ratio of offspring (proportion of male offspring). We hypothesized that the alteration of sex ratio is associated with sex chromosome ratio of live spermatozoa affected by exposure to TCDD. After exposure to TCDD we analyzed simultaneously sperm sex chromosome constitution and viability, and evaluated sperm sex chromosome ratio association with embryo sex ratio in mice. Short-term exposure to TCDD affects the decreased sperm motility and viability, and the increased acrosome reaction...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Gloria R Garcia, Sean M Bugel, Lisa Truong, Sean Spagnoli, Robert L Tanguay
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a conserved ligand-activated transcription factor required for proper vertebrate development and homeostasis. The inappropriate activation of AHR by ubiquitous pollutants can lead to adverse effects on wildlife and human health. The zebrafish is a powerful model system that provides a vertebrate data stream that anchors hypothesis at the genetic and cellular levels to observations at the morphological and behavioral level, in a high-throughput format. In order to investigate the endogenous functions of AHR, we generated an AHR2 (homolog of human AHR)-null zebrafish line (ahr2osu1) using the clustered, regulatory interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 precision genome editing method...
2018: PloS One
Morgan Ye, Marcella Warner, Paolo Mocarelli, Paolo Brambilla, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic environmental contaminant that can bioaccumulate in humans, cross the placenta, and cause immunological effects in children, including altering their risk of developing allergies. On July 10, 1976, a chemical explosion in Seveso, Italy, exposed nearby residents to a high amount of TCDD. In 1996, the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) was established to study the effects of TCDD on women's health. Using data from the Seveso Second Generation Health Study, we aim to examine the effect of prenatal exposure to TCDD on the risk of atopic conditions in SWHS children born after the explosion...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Jiajun Zhou, Joseph Henriquez, Robert Crawford, Norbert Kaminski
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is well established at suppressing humoral immunity. Previous studies in mouse B cells revealed that decreased IgM production was due to a significant suppression in the mRNA levels of the immunoglobulin M components (IgH, IgJ and Igκ chains) and subsequent decrease in IgM synthesis. By contrast, the current study shows that activation of AHR in human B cells also results in a significant suppression of the number of IgM secreting cells, but this is not due to a decrease in the transcription or translation of IgH, IgJ and Igκ chains...
February 16, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Marco Colonna
The immune system of the intestinal tract has the challenging task of recognizing and eliminating intestinal pathogens while maintaining tolerance to dietary and commensal antigens; therefore, it must be able to sense environmental cues within the intestine and mount suitable responses dictated by their pathogenic or nonpathogenic nature. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was originally characterized as a chemical sensor of the environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) [12]. More recently, AHR has emerged as a major chemical sensor expressed in many intestinal immune cells that enables them to distinguish nutritional and microbial cues and is, therefore, important for development, maintenance and function of the intestinal immune system...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Iván L Csanaky, Andrew J Lickteig, Curtis D Klaassen
The effects of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on bile acid (BA) homeostasis was examined in male and female wild-type and AhR-null mice shortly after 4-day exposure, rather than at a later time when secondary non-AhR dependent effects are more likely to occur. TCDD had similar effects on BA homeostasis in male and female mice. TCDD decreased the concentration of total-(Σ) BAs in liver by approximately 50% (all major BA categories except for the non-6,12-OH BAs), without decreasing the expression of the rate limiting BA synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) or altering the major BA regulatory pathways (FXR) in liver and intestine...
February 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Mammalian attachment behaviors, such as crying, are essential for infant survival by receiving food, protection, and warmth from caregivers. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) of infant rodents functions to promote maternal proximity. Impaired USV emission has been reported in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder, suggesting that USV is associated with higher brain function. In utero and lactational dioxin exposure is known to induce higher brain function abnormalities in adulthood; however, whether perinatal dioxin exposure affects behavior during infancy is unclear...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Ali Kabir, Rezvan Zendehdel, Raana Tayefeh-Rahimian
Background: In pesticide exposure groups such as farmers, the risk of prostate cancer was increased, although the report of the cause of evidence is limited. We selected chlorophenol compounds as an important group of the contaminated pesticide with highly toxic 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). This meta-analysis, the risk of death from prostate cancer was analyzed. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google and web of Sciences until 2016 were searched...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
J Rajesh Banu, S Sugitha, R Yukesh Kannah, S Kavitha, Ick Tae Yeom
The present study concerns the liquefying potential of an unusual source of lignocellulosic biomass (Marsilea spp., water clover, an aquatic fern) during combinative pretreatment. The focus was on how the pretreatment affects the biodegradability, methane production, and profitability of thermochemical dispersion disintegration (TCDD) based on liquefaction and soluble lignin. The TCDD process was effective at 12,000 rpm and 11 min under the optimized thermochemical conditions (80 °C and pH 11). The results from biodegradability tests imply that 30% liquefaction was sufficient to achieve enhanced biodegradability of about 0...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Nirmal K Roy, Allison Candelmo, Melissa DellaTorre, R Christopher Chambers, Arthur Nádas, Isaac Wirgin
Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon co-occur in many estuaries along the Atlantic Coast of North America. Both species are protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and internationally on the IUCN Red list and by CITES. Early life-stages of both sturgeons may be exposed to persistent aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs which are at high levels in the sediments of impacted spawning rivers. Our objective was to compare the PCBs and TCDD sensitivities of both species with those of other fishes and to determine if environmental concentrations of these contaminants approach those that induce toxicity to their young life-stages under controlled laboratory conditions...
February 2, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Abdulsamie Hanano, Ibrahem Almousally, Mouhnad Shaban, Denis J Murphy
We have investigated the effects of dioxins on seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dioxins are highly toxic persistent organic pollutants bioaccumulated by both plants and animals that also cause severe developmental abnormalities in humans. Plants were exposed to various concentrations of the most toxic congener of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the effects on seed development were analysed in depth at transcriptome, proteome and metabolome levels. Exposure to dioxin led to generalised effects on vegetative tissues plus a specific set of perturbations to seed development...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wei Zhang, Shanshan Zhou, Yuwei Gao, Hongquan Song, Xiaohui Jiao, Xiaotong Wang, Yong Li
Maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces cleft palate formation in mice. This TCDD treatment, which may be considered an environmental factor in cleft palate formation, is associated with alterations in DNA methylation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation produced by TCDD in mouse embryos are poorly understood. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl‑CpG binding domain proteins (MBDs) are thought to be closely associated with the actions of DNA methylation...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lisbeth A Boule, Catherine G Burke, Guang-Bi Jin, B Paige Lawrence
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) offers a compelling target to modulate the immune system. AHR agonists alter adaptive immune responses, but the consequences differ across studies. We report here the comparison of four agents representing different sources of AHR ligands in mice infected with influenza A virus (IAV): TCDD, prototype exogenous AHR agonist; PCB126, pollutant with documented human exposure; ITE, novel pharmaceutical; and FICZ, degradation product of tryptophan. All four compounds diminished virus-specific IgM levels and increased the proportion of regulatory T cells...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Woon-Won Jung, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Youngmi Kim Pak, Suk Chon
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a well-known environmental contaminant that exerts its toxicity through a variety of signaling mechanisms. The present study evaluated the effects of 27-deoxyactein, one of the major constituents isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa, on TCDD-induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. TCDD reduced cell survival, markedly increased apoptosis, and enhanced autophagy activity. However, pre-treatment with 27-deoxyactein attenuated all TCDD-induced effects and significantly decreased intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cardiolipin peroxidation compared to the TCDD-treated controls...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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