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Childhood maltreatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533584/reversal-learning-deficits-in-criminal-offenders-effects-of-psychopathy-substance-use-and-childhood-maltreatment-history
#1
Monika Dargis, Richard C Wolf, Michael Koenigs
Deficits in reinforcement learning are presumed to underlie the impulsive and incorrigible behavior exhibited by psychopathic criminals. However, previous studies documenting reversal learning impairments in psychopathic individuals have not investigated this relationship across a continuous range of psychopathy severity, nor have they examined how reversal learning impairments relate to different psychopathic traits, such as the interpersonal-affective and lifestyle-antisocial dimensions. Furthermore, previous studies have not considered the role that childhood maltreatment and substance use may have in this specific cognitive deficit...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532273/childhood-trauma-affects-processing-of-social-interactions-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study-investigating-empathy-for-pain
#2
Vera Flasbeck, Björn Enzi, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) have difficulties in empathizing with others and show disturbances in social interactions. Using a 'Social Interaction Empathy Task', we found that BPD patients judged neutral and psychologically painful conditions as more painful than healthy subjects. Here, we present the neural correlates underlying these differences in empathy for pain. METHODS: Female BPD patients and healthy controls completed the 'Social Interaction Empathy Task' during EEG recording...
May 22, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531836/trauma-exposure-incident-psychiatric-disorders-and-disorder-transitions-in-a-longitudinal-population-representative-sample
#3
Kate Walsh, Katie A McLaughlin, Ava Hamilton, Katherine M Keyes
Heterotypic continuity, whereby individuals transition from one disorder to another, is common; however, longitudinal studies examining transdiagnostic predictors of heterotypic continuity are lacking. The current study examined whether trauma exposure during childhood (maltreatment) and adulthood (interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma) is associated with heterotypic continuity in a national sample. Men and women (N = 34,653) who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) completed face-to-face interviews about trauma exposure and psychopathology...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522128/does-adult-attachment-style-mediate-the-relationship-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-mental-and-physical-health-outcomes
#4
Cathy Spatz Widom, Sally J Czaja, Sandra Sepulveda Kozakowski, Preeti Chauhan
Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes...
May 15, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520660/childhood-trauma-and-lifetime-traumatic-brain-injury-among-individuals-who-are-homeless
#5
Michael Jae Song, Mohammadali Nikoo, Fiona Choi, Christian G Schütz, Kerry Jang, Reinhard Michael Krausz
OBJECTIVES: To study the association of childhood trauma and lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among individuals who are homeless. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Three cities in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred individuals who are homeless and 19 years of age or older in 2009. MEASUREMENTS: Traumatic brain injury was identified with National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) and childhood trauma using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516831/an-exploration-of-the-mediators-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-intimate-partner-violence
#6
Elizabeth J Smyth, Frank L Gardner, Donald R Marks, Zella E Moore
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with numerous long-term consequences and warrants significant clinical attention. Recent theoretical models and empirical research have suggested that several factors play a role in the development of IPV perpetration, including childhood maltreatment, early maladaptive schemas, anger, and difficulties in emotion regulation. This study investigated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and IPV, specifically examining the mediation of this relationship by several variables thought to be related to this pernicious problem, including early maladaptive schemas, the experience of anger, and emotion regulation difficulties...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511734/sleeping-with-one-eye-open-loneliness-and-sleep-quality-in-young-adults
#7
T Matthews, A Danese, A M Gregory, A Caspi, T E Moffitt, L Arseneault
BACKGROUND: Feelings of loneliness are common among young adults, and are hypothesized to impair the quality of sleep. In the present study, we tested associations between loneliness and sleep quality in a nationally representative sample of young adults. Further, based on the hypothesis that sleep problems in lonely individuals are driven by increased vigilance for threat, we tested whether past exposure to violence exacerbated this association. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2232 twins born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995...
May 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509622/attachment-insecurity-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-adult-dissociation
#8
Seong Sook Kong, Dae Ryong Kang, Min Jung Oh, Nam Hee Kim
This study aimed to investigate whether attachment insecurity mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult dissociation, specifically in regards to individual forms of childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric outpatients who visited a specialized trauma clinic (n = 115) participated in the study. Data were collected via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Revised Adult Attachment Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. Structural equation modeling and path analysis were performed to analyze the mediating effects of attachment insecurity on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult dissociation...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481912/experiences-of-severe-childhood-maltreatment-depression-anxiety-and-alcohol-abuse-among-adults-in-finland
#9
Wail Rehan, Jan Antfolk, Ada Johansson, Patrick Jern, Pekka Santtila
Childhood maltreatment increases the risk of subsequent depression, anxiety and alcohol abuse, but the rate of resilient victims is unknown. Here, we investigated the rate of victims that do not suffer from clinical levels of these problems after severe maltreatment in a population-based sample of 10980 adult participants. Compared to men, women reported more severe emotional and sexual abuse, as well as more severe emotional neglect. For both genders, severe emotional abuse (OR = 3.80 [2.22, 6.52]); severe physical abuse (OR = 3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481563/mother-child-interactions-at-six-months-postpartum-are-not-predicted-by-maternal-histories-of-abuse-and-neglect-or-maltreatment-type
#10
Minden B Sexton, Margaret T Davis, Rena Menke, Greer A Raggio, Maria Muzik
OBJECTIVE: A history of childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with increased rates of maternal psychiatric symptoms and other adverse outcomes in adulthood among postpartum women. However, to date only a few studies have examined associations between CM and mother-child interactions among a nonclinical sample of postpartum women, and the specific potential influence of the type of abuse or neglect is poorly understood. This study was an aim to examine the relationships between CM types and observed parenting in a nonclinical group of recently postpartum mothers with maltreatment histories...
May 8, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471337/childhood-maltreatment-and-child-protective-services-involvement-among-the-commercially-sexually-exploited-a-comparison-of-women-who-enter-as-juveniles-or-as-adults
#11
Andrea N Cimino, Elissa E Madden, Kris Hohn, Courtney M Cronley, Jaya B Davis, Karen Magruder, M Alexis Kennedy
A risk for commercial sexual exploitation is childhood maltreatment. It's unknown whether juveniles in commercial sexual exploitation experience more childhood maltreatment than adults or how involved child protective services is in investigating maltreatment, a focus of this study. Women (N = 96) who sold sex commercially completed a cross-sectional questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, t tests, chi-squares, and odds ratios were used to examine differences in background, childhood maltreatment, and child protective services involvement by juvenile or adult entry...
April 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467103/pathways-linking-childhood-maltreatment-and-adolescent-sexual-risk-behaviors-the-role-of-attachment-security
#12
Marie-Eve Thibodeau, Francine Lavoie, Martine Hébert, Martin Blais
Previous research has shown an association between child maltreatment (sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, or witnessing interparental violence) and adolescent sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The mechanisms explaining this association are not well understood, but attachment theory could provide further insight into them. This study examined the relationships between child maltreatment and SRBs and investigated anxious and avoidant attachment as mediators. The sample comprised 1,900 sexually active adolescents (13 to 17 years old; 60...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460368/childhood-maltreatment-and-chinese-adolescents-bullying-and-defending-the-mediating-role-of-moral-disengagement
#13
Xingchao Wang, Li Yang, Ling Gao, Jiping Yang, Li Lei, Caiyu Wang
In the present study, we tested the mediating role of moral disengagement in the effect of childhood maltreatment on bullying and defending. We also examined whether the mediating effect of moral disengagement differed between girls and boys, early and middle adolescents, as well as only and non-only children. Five hundred and fifty-two Chinese adolescents participated in this study. The results indicated that the prevalence rates of physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were 4...
April 28, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460367/a-retrospective-study-with-icast-r-ispcan-child-abuse-screening-tools-retrospective-questionnaire-for-determination-of-child-abuse-in-first-year-medical-students-in-turkish-population
#14
Erdem Simsek, Sevay Alsen Guney, Serpil Ugur Baysal
Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) is an important problem both in Turkey and worldwide. Unfortunately, we still don't have enough and reliable data on this important subject. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in a population of first year medical students in a Turkish university using the retrospective version of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool (ICAST-R). One hundred seventy three first year medical students, aged between 18 and 24 years, who agreed to complete the ICAST-R questionnaire, were recruited in our study...
April 28, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455636/childhood-neglect-internalizing-symptoms-and-adolescent-substance-use-does-the-neighborhood-context-matter
#15
Erinn B Duprey, Assaf Oshri, Margaret O Caughy
Childhood neglect is associated with risk behaviors in adolescence, including substance use. There is evidence that internalizing behaviors may serve as a mechanism linking childhood neglect and substance use; however, further research is needed to examine this developmental pathway. According to developmental and ecological approaches, the neighborhood context and the developmental timing of maltreatment should both be considered when examining the sequelae of childhood neglect. Hence, the present study uses a longitudinal sample of youth (N = 965, 49...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451071/understanding-the-role-of-childhood-abuse-and-neglect-as-a-cause-and-consequence-of-substance-abuse-the-german-cansas-network
#16
Ingo Schäfer, Silke Pawils, Martin Driessen, Martin Härter, Thomas Hillemacher, Michael Klein, Markus Muehlhan, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Martin Schäfer, Norbert Scherbaum, Barbara Schneider, Rainer Thomasius, Klaus Wiedemann, Karl Wegscheider, Sven Barnow
Background: Substance use disorders (SUD) belong to the most frequent behavioural consequences of childhood abuse and neglect (CAN). If parents are concerned, SUD are also an important risk factor for CAN. The relationship between CAN and SUD remains poorly understood. There is a need of adequate treatments for SUD patients suffering from the consequences of CAN, as well as for approaches to prevent CAN by parents with SUD. Objective: To describe the aims and the structure of a German research network on relationships between CAN and SUD (CANSAS network)...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449066/childhood-maltreatment-and-psychological-well-being-in-later-life-the-mediating-effect-of-contemporary-relationships-with-the-abusive-parent
#17
Jooyoung Kong
Objectives: Parental childhood maltreatment has a negative impact on psychological well-being in adulthood. However, little is known about whether and how contemporary relationships with an abusive parent might explain the long-term harmful effects. Thus, this study aims to examine the mediating effect of later-life relationships with an abusive parent on the association between parental childhood maltreatment and psychological well-being. Methods: Using the 2004-2005 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, this study analyzed a total of 1,696 adults aged 65 years...
April 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448804/the-associations-between-childhood-trauma-neuroticism-and-comorbid-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#18
Marieke Josien Schreuder, Frederike Schirmbeck, Carin Meijer, Lieuwe de Haan
Various studies reported remarkably high prevalence rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in patients with a psychotic disorder. Little is known about the pathogenesis of this co-occurrence. The current study aimed to investigate the contribution of shared underlying risk factors, such as childhood trauma and neuroticism, to the onset and course of OCS in patients with psychosis. Data were retrieved from 161 patients with psychosis included in the 'Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis' project. Patients completed measures of OCS and psychotic symptoms at study entrance and three years later...
April 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443533/childhood-adversity-adult-stress-and-the-risk-of-major-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-us-soldiers-a-test-of-the-stress-sensitization-hypothesis
#19
G Bandoli, L Campbell-Sills, R C Kessler, S G Heeringa, M K Nock, A J Rosellini, N A Sampson, M Schoenbaum, R J Ursano, M B Stein
BACKGROUND: The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433086/intergenerational-transmission-of-maternal-childhood-maltreatment-exposure-implications-for-fetal-brain-development
#20
REVIEW
Claudia Buss, Sonja Entringer, Nora K Moog, Philipp Toepfer, Damien A Fair, Hyagriv N Simhan, Christine M Heim, Pathik D Wadhwa
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests the deleterious consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment (CM) not only might endure over the exposed individual's lifespan but also might be transmitted across generations. The time windows, mechanisms, and targets of such intergenerational transmission are poorly understood. The prevailing paradigm posits that mother-to-child transmission of the effects of maternal CM likely occurs after her child's birth. The authors seek to extend this paradigm and advance a transdisciplinary framework that integrates the concepts of biological embedding of life experiences and fetal origins of health and disease risk...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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