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Childhood maltreatment

Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
Nehal Eldeeb, Samia Halileh, Khalid A Alyafei, Rula Ghandour, Soha Dargham, Rita Giacaman, Madeeha Kamal, Sawsan Imseeh, Mona Korayem, Shiraz Nasr, Ziyad Mahfoud, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Hassan Tawfik, Margaret A Lynch, Marcellina Mian
To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range...
October 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Fatima Tuba Yaylaci, Dante Cicchetti, Fred A Rogosch, Okan Bulut, Susan R Hetzel
The FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) has been associated with susceptibility to pathogenic effects of childhood trauma including dissociative symptoms. This study examines the impact of maltreatment on dissociative tendencies in adolescence as moderated by the FKBP5 gene. Dissociative symptoms and variation within FKBP5 were assessed in a high-risk, low socioeconomic status community sample of 279 maltreated and 171 nonmaltreated adolescents. Following the assignment of haplotypes across four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780, and rs9470080), individuals with one or more copies of the CATT haplotype (N = 230) were grouped together and compared to individuals with zero copies of this haplotype (N = 185)...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Hanna Gustafsson, Colleen Doyle, Michelle Gilchrist, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
The consequences of childhood maltreatment are profound and long lasting. Not only does the victim of abuse suffer as a child, but there is mounting evidence that a history of maltreatment places the next generation at risk for significant psychopathology. Research identifies postnatal factors as affecting this intergenerational transmission of trauma. However, emerging evidence suggests that part of this risk may be transmitted before birth, passed on via abuse-related alterations in the in utero environment that are as yet largely unidentified...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Hugh Klein, Claire E Sterk, Kirk W Elifson
Purpose. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol-related problems, the factors underlying these problems, and whether or not there is evidence of syndemic effects in a community population of southern, urban African American women. Methods. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 817 women, all African American, from 80 targeted census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Most of the alcohol users (67.8%) experienced at least one problem as a result of their alcohol (ab)use, with most women experiencing two or more such problems...
2016: Journal of Addiction
Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Catherine Pelletier, Jennifer L Dykxhoorn, Siobhan C O'Donnell, Lil Tonmyr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: BMC Public Health
Maria Muzik, Diana Morelen, Jessica Hruschak, Katherine Lisa Rosenblum, Erika Bocknek, Marjorie Beeghly
BACKGROUND: The postpartum period represents a major transition in the lives of many women, a time when women are at increased risk for the emergence of psychopathology including depression and PTSD. The current study aimed to better understand the unique contributions of clinically significant postpartum depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD/depression on mother-infant bonding and observed maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., behavioral sensitivity, negative affect, positive affect) at 6 months postpartum...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Erin C Dunn, Kristen Nishimi, Abigail Powers, Bekh Bradley
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, the impact of the developmental timing of exposure remains unclear. This study examined the effect of age at first trauma exposure on levels of adult depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Lifetime trauma exposure (including age at first exposure and frequency), current psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic information were collected during interviews with adults participating in a study at a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Emily C MacNeill, Whitney Cabey, Robert Kluge, James Norton, Alice M Mitchell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early childhood high frequency use (HFU) of the emergency department (ED) has been endorsed as a marker for increased risk of child maltreatment. In a prior analysis of pediatric ED (PED) visits by 16,664 children, 0-36 months old, we defined early childhood HFU (the 90th percentile) as ≥5 visits. The purpose of this study was to follow HFU patients to determine if they had a higher likelihood of reported maltreatment. METHODS: This is a single-center, cross-sectional, observational study of the association between PED use in early life and subsequent intervention by child protective services (CPS)...
September 22, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Jeremy G Stewart, Erika C Esposito, Catherine R Glenn, Stephen E Gilman, Bryan Pridgen, Joseph Gold, Randy P Auerbach
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13-18 years (M = 15...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Todd I Herrenkohl, Hyunzee Jung
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to violence increases their risk for later victimisation and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the relative influence of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval of violence and pro-violence attitudes on later IPV is not well established. AIMS: Analyses focus on the prediction of adult IPV from variables measured in childhood and adolescence to establish the unique influence of earlier victimisation and perpetration of violence, as well as other variables grounded in theory and empirical findings...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Charlotte Heleniak, Jessica L Jenness, Ann Vander Stoep, Elizabeth McCauley, Katie A McLaughlin
Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Audrey R Tyrka, Kathryn K Ridout, Stephanie H Parade
Early childhood experiences have lasting effects on development, including the risk for psychiatric disorders. Research examining the biologic underpinnings of these associations has revealed the impact of childhood maltreatment on the physiologic stress response and activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. A growing body of literature supports the hypothesis that environmental exposures mediate their biological effects via epigenetic mechanisms. Methylation, which is thought to be the most stable form of epigenetic change, is a likely mechanism by which early life exposures have lasting effects...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Anat Talmon, Karni Ginzburg
Self-objectification is a process or state in which an individual loses his/her sense of subjectivity. Although several measures assess self-objectification as representing self-perception based on sexual and bodily appearance, there is a need for a measure assessing self-objectification as reflecting dehumanization. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Self-Objectification Scale (SOS). In Study 1, the SOS was administered to 373 students. In Study 2, the SOS was administered to 300 female students along with a battery of questionnaires, including the Experience of Shame Scale (ESS) and the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBC)...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Martina Ardizzi, Maria Alessandra Umiltà, Valentina Evangelista, Alessandra Di Liscia, Roberto Ravera, Vittorio Gallese
Facial mimicry and vagal regulation represent two crucial physiological responses to others' facial expressions of emotions. Facial mimicry, defined as the automatic, rapid and congruent electromyographic activation to others' facial expressions, is implicated in empathy, emotional reciprocity and emotions recognition. Vagal regulation, quantified by the computation of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA), exemplifies the autonomic adaptation to contingent social cues. Although it has been demonstrated that childhood maltreatment induces alterations in the processing of the facial expression of emotions, both at an explicit and implicit level, the effects of maltreatment on children's facial mimicry and vagal regulation in response to facial expressions of emotions remain unknown...
2016: PloS One
Karin Pos, Lindy Lou Boyette, Carin J Meijer, Maarten Koeter, Lydia Krabbendam, Lieuwe de Haan
INTRODUCTION: Recent life events are associated with transition to and outcome in psychosis. Childhood trauma and personality characteristics play a role in proneness to adult life events. However, little is known about the relative contribution and interrelatedness of these characteristics in psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and childhood trauma (abuse and neglect) predict adult life events, and whether the effect of childhood trauma on life events is mediated by personality traits...
September 28, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Fatima Ahmed-Leitao, Georgina Spies, Leigh van den Heuvel, Soraya Seedat
We systematically reviewed differences in hippocampal and amygdala volumes between adults with childhood maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy controls. Using the terms "adults", "MRI", "magnetic resonance imaging", with "posttraumatic stress disorder" "PTSD", "child abuse", and "child maltreatment", we conducted searches on several electronic databases. We identified 10 studies that met our inclusion criteria; 7 of which were included in a meta-analysis of hippocampal volume and 4 that were included in a meta-analysis of amygdala volume...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
James Topitzes, Joshua P Mersky, Arthur J Reynolds
Although expected, distinct gender-specific trajectories from early victimization to later offending have not been well explored. Consequently, this study assessed the association between child maltreatment (ages 0-11) and offending behavior within gender-specific models. Prospectively collected data, including official measures of maltreatment and offending, derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel study of 1,539 low-income minority participants, Multivariate probit analyses revealed that maltreatment significantly predicted delinquency for males but not females yet forged a significant relation to adult crime for both genders...
May 2011: Criminal Justice and Behavior
Charlotte A M Cecil, Rebecca G Smith, Esther Walton, Jonathan Mill, Eamon J McCrory, Essi Viding
Childhood maltreatment is a key risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Recently, variation in epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, has emerged as a potential pathway mediating this association; yet, the extent to which different forms of maltreatment may be characterized by unique vs shared epigenetic signatures is currently unknown. In this study, we quantified DNA methylation across the genome in buccal epithelial cell samples from a high-risk sample of inner-city youth (n = 124; age = 16-24; 53% female), 68% of whom reported experiencing at least one form of maltreatment while growing up...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Martin H Teicher, Jacqueline A Samson, Carl M Anderson, Kyoko Ohashi
Maltreatment-related childhood adversity is the leading preventable risk factor for mental illness and substance abuse. Although the association between maltreatment and psychopathology is compelling, there is a pressing need to understand how maltreatment increases the risk of psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that maltreatment alters trajectories of brain development to affect sensory systems, network architecture and circuits involved in threat detection, emotional regulation and reward anticipation...
September 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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