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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452192/graded-6-ohda-induced-dopamine-depletion-in-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-evokes-progressive-pathological-neuronal-activities-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus-of-a-hemi-parkinsonian-mouse
#1
Sunghee Estelle Park, Kang-Il Song, Hyungmin Kim, Seok Chung, Inchan Youn
Recent studies have established methods for establishing a rodent model that mimics progressive stages of human Parkinson's disease (PD), via injection of graded doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into regions within the nigrostriatal pathway. However, the electrophysiological characteristics of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in this model have not been fully elucidated in this model. This study aimed to investigate changes in the neuronal activity of the STN in a graded mouse model of PD. Increasing doses of 6-OHDA were unilaterally injected into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to produce a hemi-parkinsonian mouse model, mimicking early, moderate, advanced, and severe stages of human PD...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447268/circulating-small-non-coding-rnas-reflect-ifn-status-and-b-cell-hyperactivity-in-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#2
Ana P Lopes, Maarten R Hillen, Eleni Chouri, Sofie L M Blokland, Cornelis P J Bekker, Aike A Kruize, Marzia Rossato, Joel A G van Roon, Timothy R D J Radstake
BACKGROUND: Considering the important role of miRNAs in the regulation of post-transcriptional expression of target genes, we investigated circulating small non-coding RNAs (snc)RNA levels in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). In addition we assessed if serum sncRNA levels can be used to differentiate patients with specific disease features. METHODS: Serum RNA was isolated from 37 pSS patients as well as 21 patients with incomplete Sjögren's Syndrome (iSS) and 17 healthy controls (HC) allocated to two independent cohorts: discovery and validation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420469/dopamine-neuron-activity-before-action-initiation-gates-and-invigorates-future-movements
#3
Joaquim Alves da Silva, Fatuel Tecuapetla, Vitor Paixão, Rui M Costa
Deciding when and whether to move is critical for survival. Loss of dopamine neurons (DANs) of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease causes deficits in movement initiation and slowness of movement. The role of DANs in self-paced movement has mostly been attributed to their tonic activity, whereas phasic changes in DAN activity have been linked to reward prediction. This model has recently been challenged by studies showing transient changes in DAN activity before or during self-paced movement initiation...
February 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419828/rational-design-of-double-shelled-fe-n-and-s-tridoped-hollow-mesoporous-carbon-spheres-as-high-performance-catalysts-for-organic-reactions
#4
Tao Zeng, Xiaojie Hu, Hongru Feng, Haiyan Zhang, Jianmeng Chen, Shuang Song
Herein, hollow large-pore mesoporous carbon spheres with double Fe-, N-, and S-tridoped shells (DSHM-Fe/SNC) were fabricated via a rational self-sacrificing template route. Benefiting from the abundance of multi-heteroatom doping induced active sites, unique hierarchical structures to enhance active site exposure, and conductive networks to facilitate electron transfer, the as-prepared DSHM-Fe/SNC materials exhibit remarkable catalytic performance and excellent reusability toward reduction of p-nitrophenol.
February 8, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412937/a-simple-and-non-amplification-platform-for-femtomolar-dna-and-microrna-detection-by-combining-automatic-gold-nanoparticle-enumeration-with-target-induced-strand-displacement
#5
Tian Li, Xi Wu, Guangyu Tao, Haoyan Yin, Junlong Zhang, Feng Liu, Na Li
By combining the gold nanoparticle (AuNP) enumeration with target-induced strand-displacement reaction, we have developed a non-amplification platform for DNA and miRNA detection based on a deliberately designed sandwich-structured nanocomplex probe (SNC Probe). The proposed strategy can realize the sensitive detection of nucleic acids within 40min with the detection limit of 6.6 fM for HBV DNA and 13.5 fM for miRNA-141, respectively. The method presents reasonable ability to discriminate miRNA-141 from all the other members of miRNA-200 family...
May 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402297/cos-7-based-model-methodological-approach-to-study-john-cunningham-virus-replication-cycle
#6
C Prezioso, D Scribano, D M Rodio, C Ambrosi, M Trancassini, A T Palamara, V Pietropaolo
John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a human neurotropic polyomavirus whose replication in the Central Nervous System (SNC) induces the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV propagation and PML investigation have been severely hampered by the lack of an animal model and cell culture systems to propagate JCV have been very limited in their availability and robustness. We previously confirmed that JCV CY strain efficiently replicated in COS-7 cells as demonstrated by the progressive increase of viral load by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) during the time of transfection and that archetypal regulatory structure was maintained, although two characteristic point mutations were detected during the viral cycle...
February 5, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378186/effect-of-ghrelin-on-the-motor-deficit-caused-by-the-ablation-of-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-cells-or-the-inhibition-of-striatal-dopamine-receptors
#7
Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Michiko Narita, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Shibasaki, Kenichi Tanaka, Hideki Tamura, Takashi Kawamura, Takashige Kondo, Akihiro Yamanaka, Minoru Narita
Ghrelin plays roles in a wide range of central functions by activating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). This receptor has recently been found in the substantia nigra (SN) to control dopamine (DA)-related physiological functions. The dysregulation of DA neurons in the SN pars compacta (SNc) and the consequent depletion of striatal DA are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we further investigated the role of the SN-ghrelin system in motor function under the stereotaxic injection of AAV-CMV-FLEX-diphtheria toxin A (DTA) into the SN of dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre (DATSN::DTA) mice to expunge DA neurons of the SNc...
January 25, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355588/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-neurotransmitter-producing-sites-in-female-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
Gerd Wagner, Annegret Krause-Utz, Feliberto de la Cruz, Andy Schumann, Christian Schmahl, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Impulsive behavior, difficulties in controlling anger and suicidal behavior are typical patterns of affective/behavioral dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous functional MRI studies in the resting state condition demonstrated altered functional connectivity (FC) between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the frontoparietal executive control network (ECN), which was significantly associated with impulsivity in BPD. Impulsivity is often defined as a function of inhibitory control, strongly relying on the proper functioning of the fronto-cingulo-striatal network...
January 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343819/effects-of-silver-nanocolloids-on-plant-complex-type-n-glycans-in-oryza-sativa-roots
#9
Risa Horiuchi, Yukari Nakajima, Shosaku Kashiwada, Nobumitsu Miyanishi
Silver nanomaterials have been mainly developed as antibacterial healthcare products worldwide, because of their antibacterial activity. However, there is little data regarding the potential risks and effects of large amounts of silver nanomaterials on plants. In contrast, N-glycans play important roles in various biological phenomena, and their structures and expressions are sensitive to ambient environmental changes. Therefore, to assesse the effects of silver nanomaterials, we focused on the correlation between N-glycans and the effects of silver nanomaterials in plants and analyzed N-glycan structures in Oryza sativa seedlings exposed to silver nanocolloids (SNCs)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341412/3d-neuromelanin-sensitive-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-substantia-nigra-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Shweta Prasad, Albert Stezin, Abhishek Lenka, Lija George, Jitender Saini, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: To investigate the diagnostic utility of signal intensity measurement of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) using three dimensional (3D) neuromelanin-sensitive 31MRI, for discrimination of patients with PD from healthy controls. METHODS: T1-weighted neuromelanin sensitive images of 16 patients with PD and 15 controls were quantitatively analyzed by placing circular 10mm2 regions of interest (ROI) over the central and lateral parts of bilateral SNc, and anterior to the cerebral aqueduct at 3 levels of the midbrain...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339103/comparative-review-of-adult-midbrain-and-striatum-neurogenesis-with-classical-neurogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Parisa Farzanehfar
Parkinson's Disease (PD) motor symptoms are caused by loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain. Dopamine cell replacement therapy (DA CRT), either by cell transplantation or endogenous repair, has been a potential treatment to replace dead cells and improve PD motor symptoms. Adult midbrain and striatum have been studied for many years to find evidence of neurogenesis. Although the literature is controversial, recent research has revived the possibility of neurogenesis here...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337309/role-for-vglut2-in-selective-vulnerability-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#12
Thomas Steinkellner, Vivien Zell, Zachary J Farino, Mark S Sonders, Michael Villeneuve, Robin J Freyberg, Serge Przedborski, Wei Lu, Zachary Freyberg, Thomas S Hnasko
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area are more resistant to this degeneration than those in the SNc, though the mechanisms for selective resistance or vulnerability remain poorly understood. A key to elucidating these processes may lie within the subset of DA neurons that corelease glutamate and express the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2. Here, we addressed the potential relationship between VGLUT expression and DA neuronal vulnerability by overexpressing VGLUT in DA neurons of flies and mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305898/tyrosine-hydroxylase-afferents-to-the-interstitial-nucleus-of-the-posterior-limb-of-the-anterior-commissure-are-neurochemically-distinct-from-those-projecting-to-neighboring-nuclei
#13
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shuichi Ueda
The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) is exclusively innervated by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers as observed in the other nuclei of the rat forebrain such as the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Distinguishing TH-IR afferents to the IPAC from those projecting to neighboring nuclei has been difficult. However, we previously showed that the TH-IR fibers projecting to the IPAC were invulnerable to neurodegeneration in zitter mutant rats, whereas almost all TH-IR afferents fibers to the dorsolateral striatum were lost, indicating that these two groups of TH-IR afferents have distinct neurochemical properties...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299291/regional-patterns-of-increasing-swiss-needle-cast-impacts-on-douglas-fir-growth-with-warming-temperatures
#14
E Henry Lee, Peter A Beedlow, Ronald S Waschmann, David T Tingey, Steven Cline, Michael Bollman, Charlotte Wickham, Cailie Carlile
The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) to the Coast Range of Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al., Plant Disease, 2000, 84, 773; Rosso & Hansen, Phytopathology, 2003, 93, 790; Shaw, et al., Journal of Forestry, 2011, 109, 109). However, knowledge remains limited on the history and spatial distribution of SNC impacts in the PNW. We reconstructed the history of SNC impacts on mature Douglas-fir trees based on tree-ring width chronologies from western Oregon...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288746/a-new-synthetic-drug-5-2-aminopropyl-indole-5-it-induces-rewarding-effects-and-increases-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-dopamine-transporter-mrna-levels
#15
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Ji Seul Yang, Yoon Mi Yoon, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of recreational synthetic psychoactive substances, which is a cause of concern among healthcare providers and legal authorities. In particular, there have been reports on the misuse of 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API; 5-IT), a new synthetic drug, and of fatal and non-fatal intoxication. Despite these reports, little is known about its psychopharmacological effects and abuse potential. Here, we investigated the abuse potential of 5-IT by evaluating its rewarding and reinforcing effects through conditioned place preference (CPP) (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288267/pi3k-akt-pathway-a-role-in-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-mediated-rgc-neuroprotection
#16
Shahid Husain, Anis Ahmad, Sudha Singh, Carolyn Peterseim, Yasir Abdul, Matthew J Nutaitis
Purpose: This study examines the role of PI3K/Akt pathway in δ-opioid receptor agonist (SNC-121)-induced RGC neuroprotection in a chronic glaucoma rat model. Methods: Injecting hypertonic saline into the limbal veins of Brown Norway rats elevated IOP. Rats were treated either with 1 mg/kg SNC-121 or 3 mg/kg 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY-294002; PI3K/Akt inhibitor) plus SNC-121 once daily for 7 days. Pattern ERGs were recorded in response to contrast reversal of patterned visual stimuli...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279105/the-starch-nanocrystal-filled-biodegradable-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-composite-membrane-with-highly-improved-properties
#17
Chunjiang Xu, Chao Chen, Defeng Wu
The platelet-like starch nanocrystal (SNC) particles were used to prepare composite membrane with biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) for the potential packaging membrane application. The presence of SNC particles improves gas barrier properties, tearing strength, as well as the creep resistance of the PCL membrane evidently at the lower loading levels. This improvement effect can be further enhanced by the surface acetylation of SNC. The presence of acetylated SNC particles (1wt%) can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by about 70% and increase the tearing strength by about 68%, which is due to the improved phase adhesion...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273501/selective-%C3%AE-synuclein-knockdown-in-monoamine-neurons-by-intranasal-oligonucleotide-delivery-potential-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Diana Alarcón-Arís, Ariadna Recasens, Mireia Galofré, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Nicolás Zacchi, Esther Ruiz-Bronchal, Rubén Pavia-Collado, Rosario Chica, Albert Ferrés-Coy, Marina Santos, Raquel Revilla, Andrés Montefeltro, Isabel Fariñas, Francesc Artigas, Miquel Vila, Analia Bortolozzi
Progressive neuronal death in brainstem nuclei and widespread accumulation of α-synuclein are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduction of α-synuclein levels is therefore a potential therapy for PD. However, because α-synuclein is essential for neuronal development and function, α-synuclein elimination would dramatically impact brain function. We previously developed conjugated small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences that selectively target serotonin (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) neurons after intranasal administration...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240044/sinonasal-cancer-in-a-worker-exposed-to-chromium-in-an-unusual-industrial-sector
#19
Vera Comiati, Maria Luisa Scapellato, Enrico Alexandre, Tiziana Volo, Daniele Borsetto, Mariella Carrieri, Enzo Emanuelli, Diego Cazzador
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to chromium is carcinogenic for human respiratory system. Due to the low incidence of sinonasal malignancies, there is still a paucity of evidence to confirm that chromium(VI) exposure is a cause of nasal cancer. OBJECTIVES: To report on a sinonasal cancer (SNC) of rare occupational origin, increasing the awareness on epidemiological knowledge of occupational exposures to chromium compounds. METHODS: We describe a case of a 64-year-old chrome plater who worked in the galvanic industry in the early 1970s...
December 14, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206881/deletion-of-lynx1-reduces-the-function-of-%C3%AE-6-nicotinic-receptors
#20
Rell L Parker, Heidi C O'Neill, Beverley M Henley, Charles R Wageman, Ryan M Drenan, Michael J Marks, Julie M Miwa, Sharon R Grady, Henry A Lester
The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is an attractive drug target for treating nicotine addiction because it is present at limited sites in the brain including the reward pathway. Lynx1 modulates several nAChR subtypes; lynx1-nAChR interaction sites could possibly provide drug targets. We found that dopaminergic cells from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) express lynx1 mRNA transcripts and, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, α6 receptors form stable complexes with lynx1 protein, although co-transfection with lynx1 did not affect nicotine-induced currents from cell lines transfected with α6 and β2...
2017: PloS One
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