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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434161/can-valproic-acid-regulate-neurogenesis-from-nestin-cells-in-the-adult-midbrain
#1
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes the motor symptoms (e.g. tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability) of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is generally agreed that replacing these neurons will provide better motor symptom relief and fewer side effects than current pharmacotherapies. One potential approach to this is up-regulating endogenous DA neurogenesis in SNc. In the present study, we conducted bioinformatics analyses to identify signalling pathways that control expression of Pax6 and Msx1 genes, which have been identified as potentially important neurogenic regulators in the adult midbrain...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427412/lack-of-interleukin-13-receptor-%C3%AE-1-delays-the-loss-of-dopaminergic-neurons-during-chronic-stress
#2
Simone Mori, Shuei Sugama, William Nguyen, Tatiana Michel, M Germana Sanna, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Rigo Cintron-Colon, Gianluca Moroncini, Yoshihiko Kakinuma, Pamela Maher, Bruno Conti
BACKGROUND: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases are sporadic and idiopathic suggesting that this neurodegenerative disorder is the result of both environmental and genetic factors. Stress and neuroinflammation are among the factors being investigated for their possible contributions to PD. Experiments in rodents showed that severe chronic stress can reduce the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc); the same cells that are lost in PD. These actions are at least in part mediated by increased oxidative stress...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400256/n-oleoyldopamine-modulates-activity-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-through-multiple-mechanisms
#3
Olga A Sergeeva, Roberto De Luca, Karolina Mazur, Aissa N Chepkova, Helmut L Haas, Andreas Bauer
N-oleoyl-dopamine (OLDA) is an amide of dopamine and oleic acid, synthesized in catecholaminergic neurons. The present study investigates OLDA targets in midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Substantia Nigra compacta (SNc) DA neurons recorded in brain slices were excited by OLDA in wild type mice. In transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout (KO) mice, however, SNc DA neurons displayed sustained inhibition of firing. In the presence of the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist sulpiride or the dopamine transporter blocker nomifensine no such inhibition was observed...
April 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400183/microstructure-thermal-properties-and-crystallinity-of-amadumbe-starch-nanocrystals
#4
Agnes Mukurumbira, Marcos Mariano, Alain Dufresne, John J Mellem, Eric O Amonsou
Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta), commonly known as taro is a tropical tuber that produces starch-rich underground corms. In this study, the physicochemical properties of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared by acid hydrolysis of amadumbe starches were investigated. Two varieties of amadumbe corms were used for starch extraction. Amadumbe starches produced substantially high yield (25%) of SNC's. These nanocrystals appeared as aggregated and individual particles and possessed square-like platelet morphology with size: 50-100nm...
April 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386150/characterization-of-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-against-human-mitochondrial-ferritin-and-its-immunohistochemical-application-in-human-and-monkey-substantia-nigra
#5
Mingchun Yang, Hongkuan Yang, Hongpeng Guan, Tomoko Kato, Kenichi Mukaisho, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Tomohiro Terada, Ikuo Tooyama
Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a novel iron storage protein with high homology to H-ferritin. Unlike the ubiquitously expressed H- and L-ferritin, FtMt is expressed in specific tissues such as the testis, heart, and brain. The function of FtMt is not fully understood; however, evidence suggests that it has a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously reported that FtMt is expressed in catecholaminergic neurons of the monkey brainstem. To explore FtMt expression in human dopaminergic neurons, we designed a novel monoclonal antibody, C65-2, directed against human FtMt...
February 28, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377118/single-low-doses-of-mptp-decrease-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-in-the-absence-of-overt-neuron-loss
#6
Gelareh Alam, Melissa Edler, Shelbie Burchfield, Jason R Richardson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a prototypical neurotoxicant used in mice to mimic primary features of PD pathology including striatal dopamine depletion and dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the literature, there are several experimental paradigms involving multiple doses of MPTP that are used to elicit dopamine neuron loss. However, a recent study reported that a single low dose caused significant loss of dopamine neurons...
April 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369333/sirt3-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-from-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#7
Han Shi, Han-Xiang Deng, David Gius, Paul T Schumacker, D James Surmeier, Yong-Chao Ma
Age-dependent elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress is widely posited to be a major factor underlying the loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, mechanistic links between aging and oxidative stress are not well understood. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that could mediate this connection. Indeed, genetic deletion of Sirt3 increased oxidative stress and decreased the membrane potential of mitochondria in SNc dopaminergic neurons...
March 24, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365874/developmental-vitamin-d-dvd-deficiency-reduces-nurr1-and-th-expression-in-post-mitotic-dopamine-neurons-in-rat-mesencephalon
#8
Wei Luan, Luke Alexander Hammond, Edmund Cotter, Geoffrey William Osborne, Suzanne Adele Alexander, Virginia Nink, Xiaoying Cui, Darryl Walter Eyles
Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency has been proposed as an important risk factor for schizophrenia. Our previous study using Sprague Dawley rats found that DVD deficiency disrupted the ontogeny of mesencephalic dopamine neurons by decreasing the mRNA level of a crucial differentiation factor of dopamine cells, the nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1). However, it remains unknown whether this reflects a reduction in dopamine cell number or in Nurr1 expression. It is also unclear if any particular subset of developing dopamine neurons in the mesencephalon is selectively affected...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363534/effects-of-amadumbe-starch-nanocrystals-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-starch-biocomposite-films
#9
Agnes R Mukurumbira, John J Mellem, Eric O Amonsou
The influence of amadumbe starch nanocrystals (SNCs) at varying concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10%) on the physicochemical properties of biocomposite films prepared using two starch matrices, amadumbe and potato starches were investigated. Amadumbe SNCs exhibited square-like platelets morphology, typical of SNC derived from A-type starches. In general, the inclusion of SNCs significantly decreased water vapour permeability (WVP) of composite films whilst thermal stability and opacity were increased. Amadumbe starch films showed substantially high tensile strength (TS) compared to potato starch in the presence of SNCs...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363532/stabilizing-alkenyl-succinic-anhydride-asa-emulsions-with-starch-nanocrystals-and-fluorescent-carbon-dots
#10
Bei Gong, Wenxia Liu, Xueshuai Chen, Hua Tan, Xiuli Zhang, Huili Wang, Dehai Yu, Guodong Li, Zhaoping Song
Stabilizing alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) emulsions using fine particles instead of cationic starch have attracted much attention in recent years. Herein, starch nanocrystals (SNCs) made from maize starch by H2SO4 hydrolysis were used to co-stabilize ASA emulsions with fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) made hydrothermally from gelatin. The introduction of CDs can significantly enhance the stability and reduce the droplet size of SNC-stabilized ASA-in-water emulsions. Consequently, the sizing performance of the SNC-stabilized ASA emulsion is significantly improved by increasing the CD-to-SNC mass ratio...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340989/bio-electron-fenton-bef-process-driven-by-microbial-fuel-cells-for-triphenyltin-chloride-tptc-degradation
#11
Xiao-Yu Yong, Dong-Yan Gu, Yuan-Dong Wu, Zhi-Ying Yan, Jun Zhou, Xia-Yuan Wu, Ping Wei, Hong-Hua Jia, Tao Zheng, Yang-Chun Yong
The intensive use of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) has caused serious environmental pollution. In this study, an effective method for TPTC degradation was proposed based on the Bio-Electron-Fenton process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum voltage of the MFC with graphite felt as electrode was 278.47% higher than that of carbon cloth. The electricity generated by MFC can be used for in situ generation of H2O2 to a maximum of 135.96μmolL(-1) at the Fe@Fe2O3(*)/graphite felt composite cathode, which further reacted with leached Fe(2+) to produce hydroxyl radicals...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322953/recycling-of-poly-lactic-acid-silk-based-bionanocomposites-films-and-its-influence-on-thermal-stability-crystallization-kinetics-solution-and-melt-rheology
#12
Melakuu Tesfaye, Rahul Patwa, Arvind Gupta, Manash Jyoti Kashyap, Vimal Katiyar
In this study, the effect of silk nanocrystals (SNCs) on the thermal and rheological properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) under repetitive extrusion process is investigated. The presence of SNCs facilitates the crystallization process and delaying the thermal degradation of PLA matrix. This leads to the reduction in cold crystallization peak temperature with lower crystallization half-time and higher growth rate. The substantial improvement in nucleation density observed through Polarized Optical Microscope (POM) proves the nucleating effect of SNC in all processing cycles...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297455/accuracy-of-one-algorithm-used-to-modify-a-planned-dvh-with-data-from-actual-dose-delivery
#13
Tianjun Ma, Matthew B Podgorsak, Lalith Kumaraswamy
Detection and accurate quantification of treatment delivery errors is important in radiation therapy. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of DVH based QA in quantifying delivery errors. Eighteen previously treated VMAT plans (prostate, H&N, and brain) were randomly chosen for this study. Conventional IMRT delivery QA was done with the ArcCHECK diode detector for error-free plans and plans with the following modifications: 1) induced monitor unit differences up to ±3.0%,2) control point deletion (3, 5, and 8 control points were deleted for each arc), and 3) gantry angle shift (2° uniform shift clockwise and counterclockwise)...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287593/reliable-identification-of-living-dopaminergic-neurons-in-midbrain-cultures-using-rna-sequencing-and-th-promoter-driven-egfp-expression
#14
Beverley M Henley, Bruce N Cohen, Charlene H Kim, Heather D Gold, Rahul Srinivasan, Sheri McKinney, Purnima Deshpande, Henry A Lester
In Parkinson's Disease (PD) there is widespread neuronal loss throughout the brain with pronounced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor. The identification of living dopaminergic neurons in primary Ventral Mesencephalic (VM) cultures using a fluorescent marker provides an alternative way to study the selective vulnerability of these neurons without relying on the immunostaining of fixed cells. Here, we isolate, dissociate, and culture mouse VM neurons for 3 weeks...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285346/complex-changes-in-the-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-accompany-progressive-degeneration-of-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-induced-by-intrastriatal-injection-of-6-hydroxydopamine-in-the-rat
#15
Giulia Ambrosi, Natasa Kustrimovic, Francesca Siani, Emanuela Rasini, Silvia Cerri, Cristina Ghezzi, Giuseppe Dicorato, Sofia Caputo, Franca Marino, Marco Cosentino, Fabio Blandini
We investigated changes in innate and adaptive immunity paralleling the progressive nigrostriatal damage occurring in a neurotoxic model of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on unilateral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the rat striatum. A time-course analysis was conducted to assess changes in morphology (activation) and cell density of microglia and astrocytes, microglia polarization (M1 vs. M2 phenotype), lymphocyte infiltration in the lesioned substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and modifications of CD8+ and subsets of CD4+ T cell in peripheral blood accompanying nigrostriatal degeneration...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283599/dopamine-transporter-imaging-does-not-predict-the-number-of-nigral-neurons-in-parkinson-disease
#16
Laura Saari, Katri Kivinen, Maria Gardberg, Juho Joutsa, Tommi Noponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
OBJECTIVE: To examine possible associations between in vivo brain dopamine transporter SPECT imaging and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neuronal survival in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Nigral neuron numbers were calculated for 18 patients (11 patients with neuropathologically confirmed PD) who had been examined with dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT before death. Correlation analyses between SNc tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and neuromelanin-containing neuron counts and DAT striatal specific binding ratios (SBRs) were performed with semiquantitative region of interest-based and voxel-based analyses...
March 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282943/n-pyrrylarylsulfones-with-high-therapeutic-potential
#17
REVIEW
Valeria Famiglini, Sabrina Castellano, Romano Silvestri
This review illustrates the various studies made to investigate the activity of N-pyrrylarylsulfone containing compounds as potential antiviral, anticancer and SNC drugs. A number of synthetic approaches to obtain tetracyclic, tricyclic and non-cyclic compounds, and their biological activity with regard to structure-activity relationships (SARs) have been reviewed. The literature reviewed here may provide useful information on the potential of N-pyrrylarylsulfone pharmacophore as well as suggest concepts for the design and synthesis of new N-pyrrylarylsulfone based agents...
March 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280950/transportation-noise-exposure-and-cardiovascular-mortality-a-nationwide-cohort-study-from-switzerland
#18
Harris Héritier, Danielle Vienneau, Maria Foraster, Ikenna Collins Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Laurie Thiesse, Franziska Rudzik, Manuel Habermacher, Micha Köpfli, Reto Pieren, Mark Brink, Christian Cajochen, Jean Marc Wunderli, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Martin Röösli
Most studies published to date consider single noise sources and the reported noise metrics are not informative about the peaking characteristics of the source under investigation. Our study focuses on the association between cardiovascular mortality in Switzerland and the three major transportation noise sources-road, railway and aircraft traffic-along with a novel noise metric termed intermittency ratio (IR), expressing the percentage contribution of individual noise events to the total noise energy from all sources above background levels...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279753/partial-lesion-of-dopamine-neurons-of-rat-substantia-nigra-impairs-conditioned-place-aversion-but-spares-conditioned-place-preference
#19
Bernardo F C Lima, Daniele C Ramos, Janaína K Barbiero, Laura Pulido, Peter Redgrave, Donita L Robinson, Alexander Gómez-A, Claudio Da Cunha
Midbrain dopamine neurons play critical roles in reward- and aversion-driven associative learning. However, it is not clear whether they do this by a common mechanism or by separate mechanisms that can be dissociated. In the present study we addressed this question by testing whether a partial lesion of the dopamine neurons of the rat SNc has comparable effects on conditioned place preference (CPP) learning and conditioned place aversion (CPA) learning. Partial lesions of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) induced by bilateral intranigral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 3μg/side) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 200μg/side) impaired learning of conditioned place aversion (CPA) without affecting conditioned place preference (CPP) learning...
March 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273852/caloric-restriction-protects-against-lactacystin-induced-degeneration-of-dopamine-neurons-independent-of-the-ghrelin-receptor
#20
Jessica Coppens, Eduard Bentea, Jacqueline A Bayliss, Thomas Demuyser, Laura Walrave, Giulia Albertini, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Lauren Deneyer, Najat Aourz, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Jeanelle Portelli, Zane B Andrews, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to exert ghrelin-dependent neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-based animal model for PD. We here investigated whether CR is neuroprotective in the lactacystin (LAC) mouse model for PD, in which proteasome disruption leads to the destruction of the DA neurons of the SNc, and whether this effect is mediated via the ghrelin receptor...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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