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Yuxi Liu, Shuyao Wang, Dazhi Ding, Zhaohui Yu, Weiwei Sun, Youhua Wang
Cell division cycle protein 37 (Cdc37), a molecular chaperone takes part in a series of cellular processes including cell signal transduction, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell motility, oncogenesis and malignant progression. It can not only recruit immature protein kinases to HSP90 but also work alone. Cdc37 was reported to be associated with neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, axon guidance and myelination. However, the roles of Cdc37 on Schwann cells (SC) after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) remain unknown...
April 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ilya D Ionov, Irina I Pushinskaya, Larissa A Roslavtseva, Nicholas N Severtsev
A decrease in somatostatin activity is observed in the Parkinsonian brain. In recent experiments on rats, we simulated this abnormality by intracerebroventricular injections of a somatostatin antagonist, cyclosomatostatin. The treated animals displayed catalepsy, a state that resembles the extrapyramidal signs of Parkinson's disease. The neuroanatomical substrates mediating the catalepsy-inducing effect of cyclosomatostatin are unknown. To clarify this issue, we assessed here the action of cyclosomatostatin injected into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), dorsal striatum (DS), locus coeruleus (LC), pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), and inferior colliculus (IC)...
April 19, 2018: Brain Research
Peng Li, Jian Xu, Hong-Mei Rao, Xia Li, Yun-Ke Zhang, Fei Jiang, Wen-Xue Wu
MGA_0676 has been characterized as a Mycoplasma gallisepticum nuclease that can induce apoptosis of chicken cells. However, the mechanism by which MGA_0676 induces apoptosis has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluated MGA_0676-induced apoptosis and internalization in immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) and cancer cell lines. The internalization of MGA_0676 was proven through caveolin-mediated endocytosis by blocking the endocytosis with specific inhibitors or with siRNA. We identified the Thif domain of NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 regulatory subunit (NAE) in DF-1 as the target region interacting with the SNC domain of MGA_0676...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Su-Rong Yang, Zhen-Zhen Hu, Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Nan Zhao, Huan-Xin Sun, Dou Yin, Chen-Yao Wang, Yu-Dong Yan, Dian-Ru Wang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Chen-Bo Ye, Wei Guo, Wei-Min Qu, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Yu-Qiang Ding, Zhi-Li Huang
The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), also called the GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area, projects to the midbrain dopaminergic system, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and other regions. Whether the RMTg is involved in sleep-wake regulation is unknown. In the present study, pharmacogenetic activation of rat RMTg neurons promoted non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with increased slow-wave activity (SWA). Conversely, rats after neurotoxic lesions of 8 or 16 days showed decreased NREM sleep with reduced SWA at lights on, which persisted until after lesions of 25 days...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Nicola Simola
Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that the amphetamine-related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces dopaminergic damage in the mouse brain, and that this effect is most marked in the nigrostriatal system. Moreover, it has been suggested that the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) may participate in the dopaminergic damage induced by MDMA. To further elucidate this issue, we evaluated the levels of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which catalyzes the production of NO, in mice treated with regimens of MDMA that induce progressive and persistent neurotoxicity in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system...
April 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Rasool Haddadi, Maryam Poursina, Fatemeh Zeraati, Forough Nadi
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: In this study, we appraised the effect of pre-treatment with intra-cerebro ventricular (i.c.v) microinjection of gastrodin (Gst) on catalepsy, motor imbalance, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation levels, nitric oxide (NO) production and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rats model of PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with i.c.v microinjections of Gst (20, 40 and 80 μg/3 μl/rat) for five consecutive days...
April 3, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Mohammad Reza Sarukhani, Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi, Gilda Khandan-Chelarci
Epidemiological studies indicate that a higher plasma level of uric acid (UA) associates with the reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). To confirm the role of UA as a biomarker for PD, we evaluated changes in the serum UA level in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonism in rat. For this purpose, 6-OHDA was administered in the medial forebrain bundle by stereotaxic surgery. According to the apomorphine-induced rotational test, the increased intensity of behavioral symptoms as a function of time was associated with the further reduction of UA level...
April 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ok Hee Jeon, Nathaniel David, Judith Campisi, Jennifer H Elisseeff
Senescent cells (SnCs) are associated with age-related pathologies. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by pain, loss of cartilage, and joint inflammation, and its incidence increases with age. For years, the presence of SnCs in cartilage isolated from patients undergoing total knee artificial implants has been noted, but these cells' relevance to disease was unclear. In this Review, we summarize current knowledge of SnCs in the multiple tissues that constitute the articular joint. New evidence for the causative role of SnCs in the development of posttraumatic and age-related arthritis is reviewed along with the therapeutic benefit of SnC clearance...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sebastian Hormigo, Dolores E López, Antonio Cardoso, Gladys Zapata, Jacqueline Sepúlveda, Orlando Castellano
The acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a short and intense defensive reaction in response to a loud and unexpected acoustic stimulus. In the rat, a primary startle pathway encompasses three serially connected central structures: the cochlear root neurons, the giant neurons of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC), and the spinal motoneurons. As a sensorimotor interface, the PnC has a central role in the ASR circuitry, especially the integration of different sensory stimuli and brain states into initiation of motor responses...
March 24, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yuan-Mao Lin, Yi-You Chiou, Mei-Han Wu, Shan-Su Huang, Shu-Huei Shen
OBJECTIVES: To compare the renal parenchyma attenuation of virtual noncontrast (VNC) images derived from multiphase renal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with standard noncontrast (SNC) images, and to determine the optimum phase for VNC images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine men and 16 women (mean age, 61 ± 13 years; range, 37-89 years) underwent dynamic renal DECT (100/Sn140 kVp) were included in this institutional review board-approved retrospective study...
April 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Hector R Mendez-Gomez, Jasbir Singh, Craig Meyers, Weijun Chen, Oleg S Gorbatyuk, Nicholas Muzyczka
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2), an enzyme involved in vesicle trafficking and membrane signaling, interacts with α-synuclein, a protein known to contribute in the development of Parkinson disease. We previously reported that PLD2 overexpression in rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes a rapid neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons, and that α-synuclein suppresses PLD2-induced nigral degeneration (Gorbatyuk et al., 2010). Here, we report that PLD2 toxicity is due to its lipase activity. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant (K758R) of PLD2 prevents the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc and does not show signs of toxicity after 10 weeks of overexpression...
March 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Kris Rutten, Wolfgang Schröder, Thomas Christoph, Thomas Koch, Thomas M Tzschentke
Agonists selectively acting at NOP, MOP, DOP and KOP receptors as well as mixed opioid receptor agonists are known to exert anti-hypersensitive efficacy in the rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain. To investigate the relative contribution of individual opioid receptor activation to the overall efficacy of mixed opioid receptor agonists, selective doses of respective opioid receptor antagonists have to be employed. In order to identify such selective antagonist doses, doses of the selective NOP, MOP, DOP and KOP receptor agonists Ro65-6570, morphine, SNC-80 and U50488H, that produced maximum efficacy without apparent side effects, were challenged by each of the receptor antagonists J-113397 (NOP receptor), naloxone (MOP receptor), naltrindole (DOP receptor) and nor-binaltorphimine (KOP receptor)...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jian Wang, Yuanfang Li, Zhen Huang, Wenbing Wan, Yong Zhang, Changpeng Wang, Xiaoqin Cheng, Fang Ye, Kai Liu, Guoqiang Fei, Mengsu Zeng, Lirong Jin
BACKGROUND: Neuromelanin of the brainstem, which is considered a marker of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), can be detected by T1-weighted neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI). We aimed to investigate the NM-MRI features of de novo PD and to determine whether these features are associated with motor and non-motor symptoms in de novo PD patients. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with de novo PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2) and 28 healthy controls were recruited...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Zhaowen Huang, Yang Cao, Jinfeng Nie, Hao Zhou, Yusheng Li
Gradient structured materials possess good combinations of strength and ductility, rendering the materials attractive in industrial applications. In this research, a surface nanocrystallization (SNC) technique, rotationally accelerated shot peening (RASP), was employed to produce a gradient nanostructured pure Ti with a deformation layer that had a thickness of 2000 μm, which is thicker than those processed by conventional SNC techniques. It is possible to fabricate a gradient structured Ti workpiece without delamination...
March 2, 2018: Materials
Matthew J Benskey, Rhyomi C Sellnow, Ivette M Sandoval, Caryl E Sortwell, Jack W Lipton, Fredric P Manfredsson
Human studies and preclinical models of Parkinson's disease implicate the involvement of both the innate and adaptive immune systems in disease progression. Further, pro-inflammatory markers are highly enriched near neurons containing pathological forms of alpha synuclein (α-syn), and α-syn overexpression recapitulates neuroinflammatory changes in models of Parkinson's disease. These data suggest that α-syn may initiate a pathological inflammatory response, however the mechanism by which α-syn initiates neuroinflammation is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Petr Dubový, Ivana Hradilová-Svíženská, Ilona Klusáková, Viktoria Kokošová, Václav Brázda, Marek Joukal
Unilateral sciatic nerve compression (SNC) or complete sciatic nerve transection (CSNT), both varying degrees of nerve injury, induced activation of STAT3 bilaterally in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of lumbar (L4-L5) as well as cervical (C6-C8) spinal cord segments. STAT3 activation was by phosphorylation at the tyrosine-705 (Y705) and serine-727 (S727) positions and was followed by their nuclear translocation. This is the first evidence of STAT3(S727) activation together with the well-known activation of STAT3(Y705) in primary sensory neurons upon peripheral nerve injury...
February 28, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Harris Héritier, Danielle Vienneau, Maria Foraster, Ikenna C Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Laurie Thiesse, Franziska Ruzdik, Manuel Habermacher, Micha Köpfli, Reto Pieren, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Mark Brink, Christian Cajochen, Jean Marc Wunderli, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Martin Röösli
BACKGROUND: Most epidemiological noise studies consider 24 h average noise exposure levels. Our aim was to exploratively analyze the impact of noise exposure at different time windows during day and night on cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: We generated Switzerland-wide exposure models for road traffic, railway and aircraft noise for different time windows for the year 2001. Combined noise source equivalent continuous sound levels (Leq ) for different time windows at the most exposed façade were assigned to each of the 4...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Anita Feller, Kurt Schmidlin, Andrea Bordoni, Christine Bouchardy, Jean-Luc Bulliard, Bertrand Camey, Isabelle Konzelmann, Manuela Maspoli, Miriam Wanner, Marcel Zwahlen, Kerri M Clough-Gorr
Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival are important public health issues. This study investigates the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and colorectal cancer (CRC) stage at diagnosis and survival in Switzerland, a European country with highest level of medical facilities and life expectancy. We used population-based CRC data from seven Swiss cantonal cancer registries 2001-2008 (N = 10,088) linked to the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). Follow-up information was available until the end of 2013...
February 26, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Jingfeng Yuan, Wen Yi, Mengyi Miao, Lei Zhang
The construction industry has been recognized, for many years, as among those having a high likelihood of accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses. Such risks of construction workers can lead to low productivity and social problems. As a result, construction workers' well-being should be highly addressed to improve construction workers' efficiency and productivity. Meanwhile, the social support from a social network and capital (SNC) of construction workers has been considered as an effective approach to promote construction workers' physical and mental health (P&M health), as well as their work efficiency and productivity...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takefumi Sone, Michiko Narita, Kenichi Tanaka, Yusuke Hamada, Chizuru Iwasawa, Masahiro Shibasaki, Aya Maekawa, Miri Matsuo, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano, Minoru Narita
Ghrelin exerts a wide range of physiological actions throughout the body and appears to be a promising target for disease therapy. Endogenous ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) are present in extrahypothalamic sites including the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which is related to phenotypic dysregulation or frank degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we found a dramatic decrease in the expression of GHSR in PD-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DAnergic) neurons generated from patients carrying parkin gene (PARK2) mutations compared to those from healthy controls...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Brain
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