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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911751/the-lateral-habenula-circuitry-reward-processing-and-cognitive-control
#1
Phillip M Baker, Thomas Jhou, Bo Li, Masayuki Matsumoto, Sheri J Y Mizumori, Marcus Stephenson-Jones, Aleksandra Vicentic
There has been a growing interest in understanding the role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in reward processing, affect regulation, and goal-directed behaviors. The LHb gets major inputs from the habenula-projecting globus pallidus and the mPFC, sending its efferents to the dopaminergic VTA and SNc, serotonergic dorsal raphe nuclei, and the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus. Recent studies have made advances in our understanding of the LHb circuit organization, yet the precise mechanisms of its involvement in complex behaviors are largely unknown...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863709/the-neuronal-basis-of-copper-induced-modulation-of-anxiety-state-in-rat
#2
Abbaoui Abdellatif, E L Hiba Omar, Gamrani Halima
Recently, studies have provided strong evidence indicating the involvement of trace elements in the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders, particularly anxiety. We aimed, through the present study, to describe the effect of acute exposure to Cu (10mg/kg BW) on anxiety state together with the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems in rat by means of neurobehavioral tests (elevated plus maze, dark light box) and immunohistochemistry using anti-serotonin (5HT) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Our data report that Cu enhanced 5HT innervation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) together with a loss of TH expression within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), Substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and their subsequent outputs including the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and striatum...
November 15, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826106/differential-spread-of-anoxic-depolarization-contributes-to-the-pattern-of-neuronal-injury-after-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-ogd-in-the-substantia-nigra-in-rat-brain-slices
#3
Rashika N Karunasinghe, Angus C Grey, Ravindra Telang, Srdjan M Vlajkovic, Janusz Lipski
Anoxic depolarization (AD) is an acute event evoked by brain ischemia, involving a profound loss of cell membrane potential and swelling that spreads over susceptible parts of the gray matter. Its occurrence is a strong predictor of the severity of neuronal injury. Little is known about this event in the Substantia Nigra, a midbrain nucleus critical for motor control. We tested the effects of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of brain ischemia, in rat midbrain slices. AD developed within 4min from OGD onset and spread in the Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNr), but not through the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNc)...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825825/changes-in-sk-channel-expression-in-the-basal-ganglia-after-partial-nigrostriatal-dopamine-lesions-in-rats-functional-consequences
#4
Christiane Mourre, Christine Manrique, Jeremy Camon, Sabrine Aidi-Knani, Thierry Deltheil, Nathalie Turle-Lorenzo, Gaelle Guiraudie-Capraz, Marianne Amalric
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease originating from the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). The small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels play an essential role in the regulation of midbrain DA neuron activity patterns, as well as excitability of other types of neurons of the basal ganglia. We therefore questioned whether the SK channel expression in the basal ganglia is modified in parkinsonian rats and how this could impact behavioral performance in a reaction time task...
November 5, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803109/do-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke-mortality-vary-by-distance-to-hospitals-in-switzerland-results-from-the-swiss-national-cohort-study
#5
Claudia Berlin, Radoslaw Panczak, Rebecca Hasler, Marcel Zwahlen
OBJECTIVE: Switzerland has mountains and valleys complicating the access to a hospital and critical care in case of emergencies. Treatment success for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke depends on timely treatment. We examined the relationship between distance to different hospital types and mortality from AMI or stroke in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) Study. DESIGN AND SETTING: The SNC is a longitudinal mortality study of the census 2000 population of Switzerland...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797983/efficacy-of-various-types-of-laryngoscope-direct-pentax-airway-scope-and-glidescope-for-endotracheal-intubation-in-various-cervical-immobilisation-scenarios-a-randomised-cross-over-simulation-study
#6
Jong Won Kim, Kyeong Ryong Lee, Dae Young Hong, Kwang Je Baek, Young Hwan Lee, Sang O Park
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of direct laryngoscopy (DL), Pentax Airway Scope (PAWS) and GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) systems for endotracheal intubation (ETI) in various cervical immobilisation scenarios: manual in-line stabilisation (MILS), Philadelphia neck collar (PNC) (moderate limit of mouth opening) and Stifneck collar (SNC) (severe limit of mouth opening). DESIGN: Randomised cross-over simulation study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 35 physicians who had >30 successful ETI experiences at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786248/numerical-analysis-of-an-optical-nanoscale-particles-trapping-device-based-on-a-slotted-nanobeam-cavity
#7
Senlin Zhang, Zhengdong Yong, Yaocheng Shi, Sailing He
A slotted nanobeam cavity (SNC) is utilized to trap a polystyrene (PS) particle with a radius of only 2 nm. The carefully designed SNC shows an ultrahigh Q factor of 4.5 × 10(7) while maintaining a small mode volume of 0.067(λ/nwater)(3). Strongly enhanced optical trapping force is numerically demonstrated when the 2 nm PS particle is introduced into the central, slotted part of the SNC. In the vertical direction, the numerical calculation results show that a trapping stiffness of 0.4 pN/(nm · mW) around the equilibrium position and a trapping potential barrier of ~2000 kBT/mW can be reached...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768782/quantitative-t1-t2-and-t2-mapping-and-semi-quantitative-neuromelanin-sensitive-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-human-midbrain
#8
Takashi Hashido, Shigeyoshi Saito
PURPOSE: Neuromelanin is a dark pigment granule present within certain catecholamine neurons of the human brain. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between contrast of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR relaxation times using T1, T2, and T2* mapping of the lower midbrain. METHODS: The subjects were 14 healthy volunteers (11 men and 3 women, mean age 29.9 ± 6.9 years). Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI was acquired using an optimized T1-weighted two-dimensional (2D)-turbo spin-echo sequence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762319/midbrain-gene-screening-identifies-a-new-mesoaccumbal-glutamatergic-pathway-and-a-marker-for-dopamine-cells-neuroprotected-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Thomas Viereckel, Sylvie Dumas, Casey J A Smith-Anttila, Bianca Vlcek, Zisis Bimpisidis, Malin C Lagerström, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Based on the recently unraveled heterogeneity within the VTA and SNc, where glutamate, GABA and co-releasing neurons have been found to co-exist with the classical dopamine neurons, there is a compelling need for identification of gene expression patterns that represent this heterogeneity and that are of value for development of human therapies...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748741/chemogenetic-activation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-affects-attention-but-not-impulsivity-in-the-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-in-rats
#10
Linde Boekhoudt, Elisa S Voets, Jacques P Flores-Dourojeanni, Mieneke Cm Luijendijk, Louk Jmj Vanderschuren, Roger Ah Adan
Attentional impairments and exaggerated impulsivity are key features of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These deficits in attentional performance and impulsive behaviors have been associated with aberrant dopamine (DA) signaling, but it remains unknown whether these deficits result from enhanced DA neuronal activity in the midbrain. Here, we took a novel approach by testing the impact of chemogenetically activating DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on attention and impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732634/a-new-curve-of-critical-nitrogen-concentration-based-on-spike-dry-matter-for-winter-wheat-in-eastern-china
#11
Ben Zhao, Syed Tahir Ata-Ui-Karim, Xia Yao, YongChao Tian, WeiXing Cao, Yan Zhu, XiaoJun Liu
Diagnosing the status of crop nitrogen (N) helps to optimize crop yield, improve N use efficiency, and reduce the risk of environmental pollution. The objectives of the present study were to develop a critical N (Nc) dilution curve for winter wheat (based on spike dry matter [SDM] during the reproductive growth period), to compare this curve with the existing Nc dilution curve (based on plant dry matter [DM] of winter wheat), and to explore its ability to reliably estimate the N status of winter wheat. Four field experiments, using varied N fertilizer rates (0-375 kg ha-1) and six cultivars (Yangmai16, Ningmai13, Ningmai9, Aikang58, Yangmai12, Huaimai 17), were conducted in the Jiangsu province of eastern China...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687311/mutant-kit-as-imatinib-sensitive-target-in-metastatic-sinonasal-carcinoma
#12
S M Dieter, C Heining, A Agaimy, D Huebschmann, D Bonekamp, B Hutter, K R Ehrenberg, M Fröhlich, M Schlesner, C Scholl, H-P Schlemmer, S Wolf, A Mavratzas, C S Jung, S Gröschel, C V Kalle, R Eils, B Brors, R Penzel, M Kriegsmann, D E Reuss, P Schirmacher, A Stenzinger, P A Federspil, W Weichert, H Glimm, S Fröhling
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal carcinomas (SNCs) comprise various rare tumor types that are characterized by marked histologic diversity and largely unknown molecular profiles, yet share an overall poor prognosis owing to an aggressive clinical course and frequent late-stage diagnosis. The lack of effective systemic therapies for locally advanced or metastatic SNC poses a major challenge to therapeutic decision making for individual patients. We here aimed to identify actionable genetic alterations in a patient with metastatic SNC whose tumor, despite all diagnostic efforts, could not be assigned to any known SNC category and was refractory to multimodal therapy...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685773/continuous-mptp-intoxication-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-results-in-chronic-parkinsonian-deficits
#13
Mette Slot Nielsen, Andreas Nørgaard Glud, Arne Møller, Poul Mogensen, Dirk Bender, Jens Christian Sørensen, Doris Doudet, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, resulting from progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Neuroprotective therapies in PD are still not available, perhaps because animal models do not imitate the chronic and progressive nature of the clinical state of PD. To address this, we performed a feasibility study aimed at establishing a chronic non-primate large animal PD model in Göttingen minipigs based on continuous infusion of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl‑1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685140/accuracy-of-one-algorithm-used-to-modify-a-planned-dvh-with-data-from-actual-dose-delivery
#14
Tianjun Ma, Matthew B Podgorsak, Lalith K Kumaraswamy
Detection and accurate quantification of treatment delivery errors is important in radiation therapy. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of DVH based QA in quantifying delivery errors. Eighteen previously treated VMAT plans (prostate, H&N, and brain) were randomly chosen for this study. Conventional IMRT delivery QA was done with the ArcCHECK diode detector for error-free plans and plans with the following modifications: 1) induced monitor unit differences up to ± 3.0%, 2) control point deletion (3, 5, and 8 control points were deleted for each arc), and 3) gantry angle shift (2° uniform shift clockwise and counterclockwise)...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659216/impact-of-the-secretome-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-brain-structure-and-animal-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel M Carvalho, Krishna M Panchalingam, Ana J Rodrigues, Bárbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Sandra Anjo, Bruno Manadas, Leo A Behie, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
: : Research in the last decade strongly suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapeutic benefits are mainly due to their secretome, which has been proposed as a possible therapeutic tool for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, it has been shown that the MSC secretome increases neurogenesis and cell survival, and has numerous neuroprotective actions under different conditions. Additionally, using dynamic culturing conditions (through computer-controlled bioreactors) can further modulate the MSC secretome, thereby generating a more potent neurotrophic factor cocktail (i...
September 22, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656609/beneficial-effects-of-l-arginine-on-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-induced-neuronal-degeneration-in-substantia-nigra-of-balb-c-mice
#16
Javad Hami, Mehran Hosseini, Saeed Vafaei Nezhad, Sekineh Shahi, Nassim Lotfi, Hossein Ehsani, Akram Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: L-arginine has been recently investigated and proposed to reduce neurological damage after various experimental models of neuronal cellular damage. In this study, we aim to evaluate the beneficial effects of L-arginine administration on the numerical density of dark neurons (DNs) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of Balb/c mice subjected to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 7 each): MPTP only; saline only (control); MPTP + L-arginine; and L-arginine only...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654706/open-field-exposure-facilitates-recovery-from-an-aversive-emotional-event-involvement-of-adrenergic-and-cholinergic-transmitter-systems
#17
Mariana Psyrdellis, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Nadia Justel
Successive negative contrast (SNC) is an incentive relativity procedure that has been widely used to model emotional reactivity in rodents. The reward downshift experienced during SNC is thought to result in frustration. The exploration of a novel open field (OF), a complex situation involving stress induction and novelty detection, can enhance or block the acquisition of associative and non-associative memories. Previous experiments found a modulatory effect of OF, applied before downshift trials, on SNC. This schedule, however, can affect retention performance by influencing attentional, motivational, motor or sensory-perceptual mechanisms at training or retention testing...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619539/a-longitudinal-study-of-neuromelanin-sensitive-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Keita Matsuura, Masayuki Maeda, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Maki Umino, Hiroyuki Kajikawa, Masayuki Satoh, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto
PURPOSE: Neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging (NMI) is an increasingly powerful tool for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was undertaken to evaluate longitudinal changes on NMI in PD patients. METHODS: We examined longitudinal changes on NMI in 14 PD patients. The area and contrast ratio (CR) of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) were comparatively analyzed. RESULTS: The total area and CR of the SNc upon follow-up NMI were significantly smaller than those on initial NMI (from 33...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613619/towards-a-better-treatment-option-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-review-of-adult-neurogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Parisa Farzanehfar
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of midbrain. Given the fact that current treatment options are mostly symptomatic and based on increasing DA level in the nigrostriatal system, it is generally believed the most effective and long-lasting treatment for PD motor symptoms will be replacing SNc DA cells, either by endogenous repair (i.e. neurogenesis) or cell transplantation. While cell transplantation is hindered by failure of acquisition and maintenance of the DA phenotype by transplanted cells, hope rests upon non-invasive cell replacement therapy (CRT) with endogenous neural stem cells, which have the potential to give rise to new neurons including DA neurons...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590583/calcium-and-parkinson-s-disease
#20
D James Surmeier, Paul T Schumacker, Jaime D Guzman, Ema Ilijic, Ben Yang, Enrico Zampese
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. Its causes are poorly understood and there is no proven therapeutic strategy for slowing disease progression. The core motor symptoms of PD are caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In these neurons, Ca(2+)entry through plasma membrane Cav1 channels drives a sustained feed-forward stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although this design helps prevent bioenergetic failure when activity needs to be sustained, it leads to basal mitochondrial oxidant stress...
August 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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