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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297455/accuracy-of-one-algorithm-used-to-modify-a-planned-dvh-with-data-from-actual-dose-delivery
#1
Tianjun Ma, Matthew B Podgorsak, Lalith Kumaraswamy
Detection and accurate quantification of treatment delivery errors is important in radiation therapy. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of DVH based QA in quantifying delivery errors. Eighteen previously treated VMAT plans (prostate, H&N, and brain) were randomly chosen for this study. Conventional IMRT delivery QA was done with the ArcCHECK diode detector for error-free plans and plans with the following modifications: 1) induced monitor unit differences up to ±3.0%,2) control point deletion (3, 5, and 8 control points were deleted for each arc), and 3) gantry angle shift (2° uniform shift clockwise and counterclockwise)...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287593/reliable-identification-of-living-dopaminergic-neurons-in-midbrain-cultures-using-rna-sequencing-and-th-promoter-driven-egfp-expression
#2
Beverley M Henley, Bruce N Cohen, Charlene H Kim, Heather D Gold, Rahul Srinivasan, Sheri McKinney, Purnima Deshpande, Henry A Lester
In Parkinson's Disease (PD) there is widespread neuronal loss throughout the brain with pronounced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor. The identification of living dopaminergic neurons in primary Ventral Mesencephalic (VM) cultures using a fluorescent marker provides an alternative way to study the selective vulnerability of these neurons without relying on the immunostaining of fixed cells. Here, we isolate, dissociate, and culture mouse VM neurons for 3 weeks...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285346/complex-changes-in-the-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-accompany-progressive-degeneration-of-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-induced-by-intrastriatal-injection-of-6-hydroxydopamine-in-the-rat
#3
Giulia Ambrosi, Natasa Kustrimovic, Francesca Siani, Emanuela Rasini, Silvia Cerri, Cristina Ghezzi, Giuseppe Dicorato, Sofia Caputo, Franca Marino, Marco Cosentino, Fabio Blandini
We investigated changes in innate and adaptive immunity paralleling the progressive nigrostriatal damage occurring in a neurotoxic model of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on unilateral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the rat striatum. A time-course analysis was conducted to assess changes in morphology (activation) and cell density of microglia and astrocytes, microglia polarization (M1 vs. M2 phenotype), lymphocyte infiltration in the lesioned substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and modifications of CD8+ and subsets of CD4+ T cell in peripheral blood accompanying nigrostriatal degeneration...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283599/dopamine-transporter-imaging-does-not-predict-the-number-of-nigral-neurons-in-parkinson-disease
#4
Laura Saari, Katri Kivinen, Maria Gardberg, Juho Joutsa, Tommi Noponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
OBJECTIVE: To examine possible associations between in vivo brain dopamine transporter SPECT imaging and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neuronal survival in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Nigral neuron numbers were calculated for 18 patients (11 patients with neuropathologically confirmed PD) who had been examined with dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT before death. Correlation analyses between SNc tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and neuromelanin-containing neuron counts and DAT striatal specific binding ratios (SBRs) were performed with semiquantitative region of interest-based and voxel-based analyses...
March 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282943/n-pyrrylarylsulfones-with-high-therapeutic-potential
#5
REVIEW
Valeria Famiglini, Sabrina Castellano, Romano Silvestri
This review illustrates the various studies made to investigate the activity of N-pyrrylarylsulfone containing compounds as potential antiviral, anticancer and SNC drugs. A number of synthetic approaches to obtain tetracyclic, tricyclic and non-cyclic compounds, and their biological activity with regard to structure-activity relationships (SARs) have been reviewed. The literature reviewed here may provide useful information on the potential of N-pyrrylarylsulfone pharmacophore as well as suggest concepts for the design and synthesis of new N-pyrrylarylsulfone based agents...
March 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280950/transportation-noise-exposure-and-cardiovascular-mortality-a-nationwide-cohort-study-from-switzerland
#6
Harris Héritier, Danielle Vienneau, Maria Foraster, Ikenna Collins Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Laurie Thiesse, Franziska Rudzik, Manuel Habermacher, Micha Köpfli, Reto Pieren, Mark Brink, Christian Cajochen, Jean Marc Wunderli, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Martin Röösli
Most studies published to date consider single noise sources and the reported noise metrics are not informative about the peaking characteristics of the source under investigation. Our study focuses on the association between cardiovascular mortality in Switzerland and the three major transportation noise sources-road, railway and aircraft traffic-along with a novel noise metric termed intermittency ratio (IR), expressing the percentage contribution of individual noise events to the total noise energy from all sources above background levels...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279753/partial-lesion-of-dopamine-neurons-of-rat-substantia-nigra-impairs-conditioned-place-aversion-but-spares-conditioned-place-preference
#7
Bernardo F C Lima, Daniele C Ramos, Janaína K Barbiero, Laura Pulido, Peter Redgrave, Donita L Robinson, Alexander Gómez-A, Claudio Da Cunha
Midbrain dopamine neurons play critical roles in reward- and aversion-driven associative learning. However, it is not clear whether they do this by a common mechanism or by separate mechanisms that can be dissociated. In the present study we addressed this question by testing whether a partial lesion of thedopamine neurons of the rat SNc has comparable effects on conditioned place preference (CPP) learning and conditioned place aversion (CPA) learning.Partial lesions of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) induced by bilateral intranigral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 3 μg/side) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 200 μg/side) impaired learning of conditioned place aversion (CPA) without affecting conditioned place preference (CPP) learning...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273852/caloric-restriction-protects-against-lactacystin-induced-degeneration-of-dopamine-neurons-independent-of-the-ghrelin-receptor
#8
Jessica Coppens, Eduard Bentea, Jacqueline A Bayliss, Thomas Demuyser, Laura Walrave, Giulia Albertini, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Lauren Deneyer, Najat Aourz, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Jeanelle Portelli, Zane B Andrews, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to exert ghrelin-dependent neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-based animal model for PD. We here investigated whether CR is neuroprotective in the lactacystin (LAC) mouse model for PD, in which proteasome disruption leads to the destruction of the DA neurons of the SNc, and whether this effect is mediated via the ghrelin receptor...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264982/dopamine-inhibition-differentially-controls-excitability-of-snc-dopamine-neuron-subpopulations-through-recruitment-of-t-type-calcium-channels
#9
Rebekah C Evans, Manhua Zhu, Zayd M Khaliq
While there is growing appreciation for diversity among ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, much less is known regarding functional heterogeneity among substantia nigra (SNc) neurons. Here, we show that calbindin-positive dorsal tier and calbindin-negative ventral tier SNc dopaminergic neurons in mice comprise functionally distinct subpopulations distinguished by their dendritic calcium signaling, rebound excitation, and physiological responses to dopamine D2-receptor (D2) autoinhibition. While dopamine is known to inhibit action potential backpropagation, our experiments revealed an unexpected enhancement of excitatory responses and dendritic calcium signals in the presence of D2-receptor inhibition...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247334/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-is-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rats
#10
Zhijuan Mao, Chanchan Liu, Suqiong Ji, Qingmei Yang, Hongxiang Ye, Haiyan Han, Zheng Xue
The etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are complicated and have not been fully elucidated, but an important association has been identified between inflammation and PD. In this study, we investigated the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) 3 inflammasome, consisting of NLRP3, caspase-1 and cytokines of the IL-1 family, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats. Microinjection of different doses of caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK, 300 or 1200 ng/rat) was performed for seven consecutive days...
February 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239983/targeted-deletion-of-gd3-synthase-protects-against-mptp-induced-neurodegeneration
#11
Yada Akkhawattanangkul, Panchanan Maiti, Yi Xue, Dipendra Aryal, William C Wetsel, David Hamilton, Stephen C Fowler, Michael P McDonald
Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition for which there is no cure. Converging evidence implicates gangliosides in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a potential new class of therapeutic targets. We have shown that interventions that simultaneously increase the neuroprotective GM1 ganglioside and decrease the pro-apoptotic GD3 ganglioside-such as inhibition of GD3 synthase (GD3S) or administration of sialidase-are neuroprotective in vitro and in a number of preclinical models...
February 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238669/ellagic-acid-exerts-protective-effect-in-intrastriatal-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-possible-involvement-of-er%C3%AE-nrf2-ho-1-signaling
#12
Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Nafiseh Rabiee, Sedigheh Zabihnejad, Mehrdad Roghani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent movement disorder in the elderly with progressive loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and incapacitating motor and non-motor complications. Ellagic acid is a natural phenolic compound with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated its possible neuroprotective effect in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. Intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with ellagic acid at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 1 week. Results showed that ellagic acid attenuates apomorphine-induced rotational bias and lowers the latency to initiate and the total time in the narrow beam task and this beneficial effect was partially abrogated following intracerebroventricular microinjection of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) antagonist...
February 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223929/the-effects-of-age-from-young-to-middle-adulthood-and-gender-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-dopaminergic-midbrain
#13
Andrew C Peterson, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18-49 years of age, 104 men)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219982/enhanced-sensitivity-to-hyperpolarizing-inhibition-in-mesoaccumbal-relative-to-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neuron-subpopulations
#14
Rahilla A Tarfa, Rebekah C Evans, Zayd M Khaliq
Midbrain dopamine neurons recorded in vivo pause their firing in response to reward omission and aversive stimuli. While the initiation of pauses typically involves synaptic or modulatory input, intrinsic membrane properties may also enhance or limit hyperpolarization raising the question of how intrinsic conductances shape pauses in dopamine neurons. Using retrograde labeling and electrophysiological techniques combined with computational modeling, we examined the intrinsic conductances that shape pauses evoked by current injections and synaptic stimulation in subpopulations of dopamine neurons grouped according to their axonal projections to the nucleus accumbens or dorsal striatum in mice...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#15
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199883/acetyl-l-carnitine-protects-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-pathway-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-rat
#16
Siamak Afshin-Majd, Keyhan Bashiri, Zahra Kiasalari, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Reza Sedaghat, Mehrdad Roghani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide in which nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) are lost, with clinical motor and non-motor symptoms including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, stooping posture and cognitive deficits. This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) against unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced model of PD and to explore some involved mechanisms...
February 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195715/interfacial-interaction-of-titania-nanoparticles-and-ligated-uranyl-species-a-relativistic-dft-investigation
#17
Hong-Bo Zhao, Ming Zheng, Georg Schreckenbach, Qing-Jiang Pan
To understand interfacial behavior of actinides adsorbed onto mineral surfaces and unravel their structure-property relationship, the structures, electronic properties, and energetics of various ligated uranyl species adsorbed onto TiO2 surface nanoparticle clusters (SNCs) were examined using relativistic density functional theory. Rutile (110) and anatase (101) titania surfaces, experimentally known to be stable, were fully optimized. For the former, models studied include clean and water-free Ti27O64H20 (dry), partially hydrated (Ti27O64H20)(H2O)8 (sol) and proton-saturated [(Ti27O64H20)(H2O)8(H)2](2+) (sat), while defect-free and defected anatase SNCs involving more than 38 TiO2 units were considered...
February 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191785/impact-of-the-secretome-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-brain-structure-and-animal-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel M Carvalho, Krishna M Panchalingam, Ana J Rodrigues, Bárbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Sandra Anjo, Bruno Manadas, Leo A Behie, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
Research in the last decade strongly suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapeutic benefits are mainly due to their secretome, which has been proposed as a possible therapeutic tool for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, it has been shown that the MSC secretome increases neurogenesis and cell survival, and has numerous neuroprotective actions under different conditions. Additionally, using dynamic culturing conditions (through computer-controlled bioreactors) can further modulate the MSC secretome, thereby generating a more potent neurotrophic factor cocktail (i...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190508/navigating-the-clinical-trial-pathway-conception-design-execution-and-results-dissemination
#19
John S Sampalis, Joanne Watson, Stella Boukas, Marianna Boukas, Natalie Harvey, Sanjay Machado, Michel Bordeleau, Emmanouil Rampakakis
Dr Sampalis is founder, Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Scientific Officer of JSS Medical Research Inc, founded in 1997. He is a tenured professor of Surgery and Epidemiology & Biostatistics of McGill University, the University of Montreal and University of Laval. Recognized as a leading clinical epidemiologist and one of the top trauma researchers in Canada, he possesses extensive expertise in health services research, clinical trials, and offers services as a Research and Epidemiological Consultant for numerous pharmaceutical companies, hospitals and government organizations and agencies...
March 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177164/midbrain-dopaminergic-neuron-activity-across-alternating-brain-states-of-urethane-anaesthetised-rat
#20
Magdalena Walczak, Tomasz Błasiak
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are implicated in the control of motor functions and reward-driven behaviours. The function of this neuronal population is strongly connected with distinct patterns of firing - irregular or bursting, which either maintains basal levels of dopamine or leads to phasic release, respectively. Heterogeneity of dopaminergic neurons, observed on both structural and functional levels, is also reflected in different responses of DA neurons to changes in global brain states. Preparation of urethane anaesthetised animal is a broadly used model to study brain state dependent activity of neurons...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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