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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928197/inhibiting-basal-ganglia-regions-reduces-syllable-sequencing-errors-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-computer-simulation-study
#1
Valentin Senft, Terrence C Stewart, Trevor Bekolay, Chris Eliasmith, Bernd J Kröger
Background: Parkinson's disease affects many motor processes including speech. Besides drug treatment, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) has developed as an effective therapy. Goal: We present a neural model that simulates a syllable repetition task and evaluate its performance when varying the level of dopamine in the striatum, and the level of activity reduction in the STN or GPi. Method: The Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) is used to build a model of syllable sequencing through a cortico-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904346/rhes-counteracts-dopamine-neuron-degeneration-and-neuroinflammation-depending-on-gender-and-age
#2
Giulia Costa, Annalisa Pinna, Pier Francesca Porceddu, Maria Antonietta Casu, Anna Di Maio, Francesco Napolitano, Alessandro Usiello, Micaela Morelli
We have recently shown that male Rhes knockout (KO) mice develop a mild form of spontaneous Parkinson's disease (PD)-like phenotype, characterized by motor impairment and a decrease in nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons. Experimental evidence has implicated neuroinflammation in PD progression, and the presence of activated glial cells has been correlated with DA neuron degeneration. Despite this, several factors, such as gender, have been found to affect DAergic neuron degeneration and influence neuroinflammation, explaining the differences between men and women in the etiology of PD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842922/mitoq-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-6-ohda-induced-pd-model-by-enhancing-mfn2-dependent-mitochondrial-fusion-via-activation-of-pgc-1%C3%AE
#3
Ye Xi, Dayun Feng, Kai Tao, Ronglin Wang, Yajun Shi, Huaizhou Qin, Michael P Murphy, Qian Yang, Gang Zhao
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc). Although mitochondrial dysfunction is the critical factor in the pathogenesis of PD, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood, and as a result, effective medical interventions are lacking. Mitochondrial fission and fusion play important roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and cell viability. Here, we investigated the effects of MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced in vitro and in vivo PD models...
May 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805027/green-poly-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-starch-nanocrystal-composites-tuning-the-nucleation-and-spherulite-morphology-through-surface-acetylation-of-starch-nanocrystal
#4
Guorui Zhang, Defeng Wu, Wenyuan Xie, Zhifeng Wang, Chunjiang Xu
Starch nanocrystal (SNC) particles were used as the filler to prepare green composites with biodegradable poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). An interesting way to tune the nucleation and banded morphology of composites by the surface acetylation of SNC was proposed. Pristine SNC acts as the nucleating agent, while acetylated SNC as the antinucleation one to PHB. This role switching is due to improved polymer-particle compatibility after surface acetylation of SNC particles. The banded structure of PHB spherulites degrades evidently in the presence of two kinds of SNC particles, showing decreased ring-band space, with deteriorated periodicity and increased flocculation of peak-to-valley height...
September 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804474/the-utility-of-the-combined-use-of-123-i-fp-cit-spect-and-neuromelanin-mri-in-differentiating-parkinson-s-disease-from-other-parkinsonian-syndromes
#5
Eiji Matsusue, Yoshio Fujihara, Kenichiro Tanaka, Yuki Aozasa, Manabu Shimoda, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Toshihide Ogawa
Background Neuromelanin magnetic resonance imaging (NmMRI) and 123 I-FP-CIT dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) provide specific information that distinguishes Parkinson's disease (PD) from non-degenerative parkinsonian syndrome (NDPS). Purpose To determine whether a multiparametric scoring system (MSS) could improve accuracy compared to each parameter of DAT-SPECT and NmMRI in differentiating PD from NDPS. Material and Methods A total of 49 patients, including 14 with NDPS, 30 with PD, and five with atypical parkinsonian disorder (APD) underwent both NmMRI and DAT-SPECT and were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792933/role-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-slowly-progressive-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-the-zitter-rat
#6
Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Kanji Yoshimoto, Shuichi Ueda
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the distribution patterns and functions of nNOS in slowly progressive DA neurodegeneration. Here we describe the spatiotemporal change in nNOS expression over the course of neurodegeneration and the effect of short- or long-term treatment with the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), in zitter (zi/zi) rats. In the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), nNOS expression was significantly increased with progression of neurodegeneration...
May 21, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773980/anatomical-inputs-from-the-sensory-and-value-structures-to-the-tail-of-the-rat-striatum
#7
Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772491/calpain-inhibition-reduces-nmda-receptor-rundown-in-rat-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons
#8
Jerry Zhao, Michel Baudry, Susan Jones
Repeated activation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a Ca2+ -dependent reduction in NMDAR-mediated current in dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in one week old rats; however, a Ca2+ -dependent regulatory protein has not been identified. The role of the Ca2+ -dependent cysteine protease, calpain, in mediating NMDAR current rundown was investigated. In brain slices from rats aged postnatal day 7-9 ('P7'), bath application of either of the membrane permeable calpain inhibitors, N-Acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN, 20 μM) or MDL-28170 (30 μM) significantly reduced whole-cell NMDAR current rundown...
May 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772432/silymarin-prevents-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-the-bax-caspase-3-expression-and-suppresses-toll-like-receptor-4-pathway-in-the-snc-of-6-ohda-intoxicated-rats
#9
Rasool Haddadi, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Shahla Eyvari Brooshghalan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several lines of evidence show that apoptosis, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the effect of pre-treatment with silymarin (SM) on oxidative stress, apoptosis and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in substantia nigra pars copmacta (SNc) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. METHODS: Animals were pretreated with 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg of SM daily for 5 days and at 6th day 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl) was infused unilaterally into the central region of the SNc...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771174/signaling-and-induction-of-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-by-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-under-stress-conditions
#10
Wenming Li, Qian Yang, Zixu Mao
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a form of selective autophagy, maintains cellular proteostasis in response to diverse stress conditions. Whether and how endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers CMA remains elusive. In our recent study, we demonstrate that various types of ER stress activate the CMA pathway via an EIF2AK3/PERK-MAP2K4/MKK4-MAPK14/p38-dependent manner. We term this process ERICA for ER stress-induced chaperone-mediated autophagy. This pathway is activated in response to stress associated with Parkinson disease and is required for the viability of the SNc dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of Parkinson disease...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735961/administration-of-oxygen-ultra-fine-bubbles-improves-nerve-dysfunction-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-model
#11
Hozo Matsuoka, Kosuke Ebina, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Makoto Hirao, Toru Iwahashi, Takaaki Noguchi, Koji Suzuki, Shunsuke Nishimoto, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs) on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC) model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs) diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1) control, (sham operation + saline); (2) SNC, (crush + saline); (3) SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline); (4) SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline)...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733459/hiv-1-tat-regulation-of-dopamine-transmission-and-microglial-reactivity-is-brain-region-specific
#12
Douglas R Miller, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Leah Phan, Nesrin Sharif, Joyonna Gamble-George, Jay P McLaughlin, Wolfgang J Streit, Habibeh Khoshbouei
The transactivator of transcription protein, HIV-1 Tat, is linked to neuroAIDS, where degeneration of dopamine neurons occurs. Using a mouse model expressing GFAP-driven Tat protein under doxycycline (Dox) regulation, we investigated microglial-neuronal interactions in the rostral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Immunohistochemistry for microglia and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed that the ratio of microglia to dopamine neurons is smaller in the SNc than in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and that this difference is maintained following 7-day Dox exposure in wild type animals...
May 7, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731707/the-neuroprotection-of-low-dose-morphine-in-cellular-and-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-ameliorating-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-activating-autophagy
#13
Bing Wang, Cun-Jin Su, Teng-Teng Liu, Yan Zhou, Yu Feng, Ya Huang, Xu Liu, Zhi-Hong Wang, Li-Hua Chen, Wei-Feng Luo, Tong Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Brain endogenous morphine biosynthesis was reported to be impaired in PD patients and exogenous morphine attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death in vitro . However, the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of morphine in PD are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of low-dose morphine in cellular and animal models of PD and the possible underlying mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729086/the-novel-atypical-antipsychotic-cariprazine-demonstrates-dopamine-d-2-receptor-dependent-partial-agonist-actions-on-rat-mesencephalic-dopamine-neuronal-activity
#14
Sarah Delcourte, Charles R Ashby, Renaud Rovera, Béla Kiss, Nika Adham, Bence Farkas, Nasser Haddjeri
AIM: Cariprazine, a dopamine D3 -preferring D3 /D2 receptor partial agonist, is FDA approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder. This study used in vivo electrophysiological techniques in anesthetized rats to determine cariprazine's effect on dopaminergic cell activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). METHODS: Extracellular recordings of individual dopaminergic neurons were performed after oral or intravenous administration of cariprazine, the D3 receptor antagonist SB 277011A, the D2 receptor antagonist L741,626, and/or the D3 receptor agonist PD 128,907...
May 4, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727730/dor-agonist-snc-80-exhibits-anti-parkinsonian-effect-via-downregulating-upr-oxidative-stress-signals-and-inflammatory-response-in-vivo
#15
Erfath Thanjeem Begum M, Dwaipayan Sen
The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease exhibit imperative roles in unfolded protein response stress-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in general. Although, delta opioid receptor (DOR), has been found to represent anti-parkinsonian effect at behavioral level, its underlying mechanism remains elusive till date. In the present study the role of DOR agonist, SNC-80 and the consorted molecular mechanisms, which translates to behavioral recuperation, has been delineated. In order to mimic PD, mice were intra-peritoneally injected with MPTP, following exposure to SNC-80 and L-DOPA to elucidate amelioration of the MPTP-induced behavioral impairments...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726751/evaluation-of-the-antiparkinsonism-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-acute-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-behavioral-histological-and-biochemical-studies
#16
Mohammad Sarukhani, Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi, Ali Sarbazi Golezari, Arvin Babayan-Tazehkand, Tahere Dargahi, Nafiseh Rastgoo
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a gaseous neurotransmitter, has neuroprotective effect. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective activity of H2 S in acute 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: 6-OHDA was injected through stereotaxic surgery into medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of the right hemisphere to induce severe and fast degeneration in dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra (SN). NaHS, as donor of H2 S, was daily injected at doses of 3 and 5...
May 4, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726038/fe-isolated-single-atoms-on-s-n-codoped-carbon-by-copolymer-pyrolysis-strategy-for-highly-efficient-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#17
Qiheng Li, Wenxing Chen, Hai Xiao, Yue Gong, Zhi Li, Lirong Zheng, Xusheng Zheng, Wensheng Yan, Weng-Chon Cheong, Rongan Shen, Ninghua Fu, Lin Gu, Zhongbin Zhuang, Chen Chen, Dingsheng Wang, Qing Peng, Jun Li, Yadong Li
Heteroatom-doped Fe-NC catalyst has emerged as one of the most promising candidates to replace noble metal-based catalysts for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, delicate controls over their structure parameters to optimize the catalytic efficiency and molecular-level understandings of the catalytic mechanism are still challenging. Herein, a novel pyrrole-thiophene copolymer pyrolysis strategy to synthesize Fe-isolated single atoms on sulfur and nitrogen-codoped carbon (Fe-ISA/SNC) with controllable S, N doping is rationally designed...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725300/salidroside-promotes-the-pathological-%C3%AE-synuclein-clearance-through-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#18
Tao Li, Yang Feng, Ruixin Yang, Leitao Wu, Ruru Li, Lu Huang, Qian Yang, Jianzong Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) in the surviving SNc neurons. LBs formation is caused by the accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) or phosphorylated α-syn at serine-129 (pSer129-α-syn), which is implicated in the pathological progression of PD. Salidroside (Sal), the main active ingredient of the root of Rhodiola rosea L ., has been reported to have potent neuroprotective properties in our previous investigations...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716614/lewy-body-like-alpha-synuclein-inclusions-trigger-reactive-microgliosis-prior-to-nigral-degeneration
#19
Megan F Duffy, Timothy J Collier, Joseph R Patterson, Christopher J Kemp, Kelvin C Luk, Malú G Tansey, Katrina L Paumier, Nicholas M Kanaan, D Luke Fischer, Nicole K Polinski, Olivia L Barth, Jacob W Howe, Nishant N Vaikath, Nour K Majbour, Omar M A El-Agnaf, Caryl E Sortwell
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests a role for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Animal models of PD can serve as a platform to investigate the role of neuroinflammation in degeneration in PD. However, due to features of the previously available PD models, interpretations of the role of neuroinflammation as a contributor to or a consequence of neurodegeneration have remained elusive. In the present study, we investigated the temporal relationship of neuroinflammation in a model of synucleinopathy following intrastriatal injection of pre-formed alpha-synuclein fibrils (α-syn PFFS)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709506/motor-asymmetry-and-neuromelanin-imaging-concordance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Shweta Prasad, Jitender Saini, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: The onset of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is characteristically asymmetric and correlates with dopaminergic deficit of contralateral basal ganglia. This study explored the concordance between motor asymmetry and changes of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) using neuromelanin-sensitive imaging. METHODS: Forty-four subjects with PD and fifteen healthy controls were included in this study. Clinical laterality (CL) was based on the motor sub scores of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Part III...
April 24, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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