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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025968/activation-of-ampk-mtorc1-mediated-autophagy-by-metformin-reverses-clk1-deficiency-sensitized-dopaminergic-neuronal-death
#1
Qiuting Yan, Chaojun Han, Guanghui Wang, John L Waddington, Longtai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
The autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) plays a critical role in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clk1 (coq7) is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is essential for Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) biosynthesis. We have reported previously that Clk1 regulates microglia activation via modulating microglia metabolic reprogramming, which contributes to dopaminergic neuronal survival. This study explored the direct effect of Clk1 on dopaminergic neuronal survival. We demonstrated that Clk1 deficiency inhibited dopaminergic neuronal autophagy in cultured MN9D dopaminergic neurons and in SNc of Clk+/- mutant mice and consequently sensitized dopaminergic neuron damage and behavioral defects...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986653/pool-size-ratio-of-the-substantia-nigra-in-parkinson-s-disease-derived-from-two-different-quantitative-magnetization-transfer-approaches
#2
Paula Trujillo, Paul E Summers, Alex K Smith, Seth A Smith, Luca T Mainardi, Sergio Cerutti, Daniel O Claassen, Antonella Costa
PURPOSE: We sought to measure quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) properties of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (HCs) using a full qMT analysis and determine whether a rapid single-point measurement yields equivalent results for pool size ratio (PSR). METHODS: Sixteen different MT-prepared MRI scans were obtained at 3 T from 16 PD patients and eight HCs, along with B1, B0, and relaxation time maps...
October 6, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984618/reduced-th-expression-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulation-contribute-towards-nigrostriatal-dysfunction-in-experimental-hepatic-encephalopathy
#3
Isabel Suárez, Guillermo Bodega, Miguel Rubio, Benjamín Fernández
PURPOSE: The present work examines α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatal system of a rat chronic hepatic encephalopathy model induced by portacaval anastomosis (PCA). There is evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction in disease conditions is strongly associated with such expression. Possible relationships among dopaminergic neurons, astroglial cells and α-synuclein expression were sought. METHODS: Brain tissue samples from rats at 1 and 6 months post-PCA, and controls, were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), α-synuclein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin (Ub)...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982816/bypassing-nearest-hospital-for-more-distant-neuroscience-care-in-head-injured-adults-with-suspected-traumatic-brain-injury-findings-of-the-head-injury-transportation-straight-to-neurosurgery-hits-ns-pilot-cluster-randomised-trial
#4
Fiona Elizabeth Lecky, Wanda Russell, Graham McClelland, Elspeth Pennington, Gordon Fuller, Steve Goodacre, Kyee Han, Andrew Curran, Damian Holliman, Nathan Chapman, Jennifer Freeman, Sonia Byers, Suzanne Mason, Hugh Potter, Timothy Coats, Kevin Mackway-Jones, Mary Peters, Jane Shewan
OBJECTIVE: Reconfiguration of trauma services, with direct transport of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to specialist neuroscience centres (SNCs)-bypassing non-specialist acute hospitals (NSAHs), could improve outcomes. However, delays in stabilisation of airway, breathing and circulation (ABC) may worsen outcomes when compared with selective secondary transfer from nearest NSAH to SNC. We conducted a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the feasibility and plausibility of bypassing suspected patients with TBI -directly into SNCs-producing a measurable effect...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980939/pedunculopontine-glutamatergic-neurons-control-spike-patterning-in-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-neurons
#5
Daniel J Galtieri, Chad M Estep, David L Wokosin, Stephen Traynelis, D James Surmeier
Burst spiking in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons is a key signaling event in the circuitry controlling goal-directed behavior. It is widely believed that this spiking mode depends upon an interaction between synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and intrinsic oscillatory mechanisms. However, the role of specific neural networks in burst generation has not been defined. To begin filling this gap, SNc glutamatergic synapses arising from pedunculopotine nucleus (PPN) neurons were characterized using optical and electrophysiological approaches...
October 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972959/role-of-paeonol-in-an-astrocyte-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Maosheng Ye, Yuxin Yi, Shixing Wu, Yong Zhou, Dongjie Zhao
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Inflammation and neural degeneration are implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Paeonol has been verified to attenuate inflammation. MATERIAL AND METHODS 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridnium ion (MPP+, 100 μM) was used to induce the cell model of PD in primary cultured astrocytes. Astrocyte cell viability and apoptosis were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively...
October 3, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972224/highly-enhanced-visible-light-water-splitting-of-cds-by-green-to-blue-upconversion
#7
Sundaram Chandrasekaran, Yen-Linh Thi Ngo, Lijun Sui, Eui Jung Kim, Dinh Khoi Dang, Jin Suk Chung, Seung Hyun Hur
This paper reports a new class of visible light water splitting photocatalysts based on a triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion (UC) process. The TTA-UC core composed of platinum-octaethyl-porphyrin (Pt(OEP)) and 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) can upconvert low energy green light to high energy blue light with a high quantum yield. Using a silica nanocapsule (SNC), the quenching caused by oxygen can be avoided, even in aqueous solutions. The enhancement factor of the photocatalytic activity induced by the UC was estimated to be approximately 3, which indicates that the green to blue UC by the encapsulated Pt(OEP)/DPA can enhance the water splitting activity of CdS significantly...
October 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952206/would-more-social-partners-leads-to-enhanced-health-the-paradox-between-quantity-and-quality
#8
Cai Xing, Xin Zhang, Sheung-Tak Cheng
In the current investigation, we examined the association between social network composition (SNC) and mental health, as well as whether quantity and quality of social network could influence mental health differently. The social network quantity and quality of 345 middle-aged and older Chinese adults were measured by the Social Convoy Questionnaire. The Chinese version of the Medical Outcome Studies 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess mental health while controlling for physical health...
September 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931341/the-neurotoxic-effects-of-prenatal-gabapentin-and-oxcarbazepine-exposure-on-newborn-rats
#9
Zuleyha Erisgin, Bulent Ayas, Jens R Nyengaard, N Ercument Beyhun, Yuksel Terzi
Teratogenicity is a problematic issue for pregnant women because of x-ray radiation, drugs, genetic and unknown variables. First generation antiepileptic drugs (AED) like valproic acid are well-known teratogens for developing foetuses. However, their usage is necessary in order to prevent maternal seizures. The underlying mechanism of birth defects associated with AED exposure remains unclear and information about the neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to AED is still limited. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) and gabapentin (GBP) are second generation antiepileptic drugs...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924005/nigral-glutamatergic-neurons-control-the-speed-of-locomotion
#10
Dimitri Ryczko, Swantje Grätsch, Laura Schläger, Avo Keuyalian, Zakaria Boukhatem, Claudia Garcia, François Auclair, Ansgar Büschges, Réjean Dubuc
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) plays a crucial role in locomotor control. In vertebrates, stimulation of the MLR at increasing intensities elicits locomotion of growing speed. This effect has been presumed to result from higher brain inputs activating the MLR like a dimmer switch. Here, we show in lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) of either sex that incremental stimulation of a region homologous to the mammalian substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) evokes increasing activation of MLR cells with a graded increase in the frequency of locomotor movements...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919537/neuroprotective-effect-of-curcumin-i-in-copper-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-in-rats-a-possible-link-with-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Hicham Chatoui, Omar El Hiba, Halima Gamrani
Numerous findings indicate an involvement of heavy metals in the neuropathology of several neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have demonstrated that Copper (Cu) exhibits a potent neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic neurons and triggers profound neurobehavioral alterations. Curcumin is a major component of Curcuma longa rhizomes and a powerful medicinal plant that exerts many pharmacological effects. However, the neuroprotective action of curcumin on Cu-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is yet to be investigated...
September 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891718/identification-expression-analysis-and-the-regulating-function-on-c-ebps-of-klf10-in-dalian-purple-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-nudus
#12
Kaikai Wu, Zhiying Jia, Qi'ai Wang, Zhenlin Wei, Zunchun Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Accumulating evidence indicates that Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) play important roles in fat biology via the regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). However, KLFs and C/EBPs have not been identified from Strongylocentrotus nudus, and their roles in this species are not clear. In this study, the full-length cDNA of S. nudus KLF10 (SnKLF10) and three cDNA fragments of S. nudus C/EBPs (SnC/EBPs) were obtained. Examination of tissue distribution and expression patterns during gonadal development implied that SnKLF10 and SnC/EBPs play important roles in gonadal lipogenesis...
October 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890053/intrastriatal-chromospheres-transplant-reduces-nociception-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#13
Alejandra Gómez-Paz, René Drucker-Colín, Diana Milán-Aldaco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Mónica Ambriz-Tututi
The present study evaluates the possible antinociceptive effect of chromosphere transplants in rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a model of Parkinson's disease. Male adult Wistar rats received 40μg/0.5μl of 6-OHDA or 0.5μl of vehicle into the left substantia nigra (SNc). Rats were evaluated for mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and formalin. Rats with altered nociceptive threshold were transplanted with chromospheres. After transplant, rats were evaluated every week...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863390/more-than-clean-air-and-tranquillity-residential-green-is-independently-associated-with-decreasing-mortality
#14
Danielle Vienneau, Kees de Hoogh, David Faeh, Marco Kaufmann, Jean Marc Wunderli, Martin Röösli
Green space may improve health by enabling physical activity and recovery from stress or by decreased pollution levels. We investigated the association between residential green (greenness or green space) and mortality in adults using the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) by mutually considering air pollution and transportation noise exposure. To reflect residential green at the address level, two different metrics were derived: normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) for greenness, and high resolution land use classification data to identify green spaces (LU-green)...
August 29, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857381/synergistic-effects-between-atomically-dispersed-fe-n-c-and-c-s-c-for-the-oxygen-reduction-reaction-in-acidic-media
#15
Hangjia Shen, Eduardo Gracia-Espino, Jingyuan Ma, Ketao Zang, Jun Luo, Le Wang, Sanshuang Gao, Xamxikamar Mamat, Guangzhi Hu, Thomas Wagberg, Shaojun Guo
Various advanced catalysts based on sulfur-doped Fe/N/C materials have recently been designed for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR); however, the enhanced activity is still controversial and usually attributed to differences in the surface area, improved conductivity, or uncertain synergistic effects. Herein, a sulfur-doped Fe/N/C catalyst (denoted as Fe/SNC) was obtained by a template-sacrificing method. The incorporated sulfur gives a thiophene-like structure (C-S-C), reduces the electron localization around the Fe centers, improves the interaction with oxygenated species, and therefore facilitates the complete 4 e(-) ORR in acidic solution...
August 31, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844287/reproducibility-of-the-effects-of-homeopathically-potentised-argentum-nitricum-on-the-growth-of-lemna-gibba-l-in-a-randomised-and-blinded-bioassay
#16
Vera Majewsky, Claudia Scherr, Claudia Schneider, Sebastian Patrick Arlt, Stephan Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: A previous study reported a significant statistical interaction between experiment date and treatment effect of Argentum nitricum 14x-30x on the growth rate of duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of the test system and intra-laboratory reproducibility of the effects found. METHODS: Duckweed was treated with A. nitricum potencies (14x-30x) as well as succussed and unsuccussed water controls. The outcome parameter area-related growth rate for day 0-7 was determined by a computerised image analysis system in two series of independent randomised and blinded experiments...
August 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836295/microglia-may-compensate-for-dopaminergic-neuron-loss-in-experimental-parkinsonism-through-selective-elimination-of-glutamatergic-synapses-from-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#17
Hitomi Aono, Mohammed Emamussalehin Choudhury, Hiromi Higaki, Kazuya Miyanishi, Yuka Kigami, Kohdai Fujita, Jun-Ichi Akiyama, Hisaaki Takahashi, Hajime Yano, Madoka Kubo, Noriko Nishikawa, Masahiro Nomoto, Junya Tanaka
Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms do not become apparent until most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) degenerate, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms play a role. Here, we investigated the compensatory involvement of activated microglia in the SN pars reticulata (SNr) and the globus pallidus (GP) in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced rat hemiparkinsonism model. Activated microglia accumulated more markedly in the SNr than in the SNc in the model. The cells had enlarged somata and expressed phagocytic markers CD68 and NG2 proteoglycan in a limited region of the SNr, where synapsin I- and postsynaptic density 95-immunoreactivities were reduced...
August 24, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812773/side-by-side-observation-of-the-interfacial-improvement-of-vertical-graphene-coated-silicon-nanocone-anodes-for-lithium-ion-batteries-by-patterning-technology
#18
Chao Wang, Fei Luo, Hao Lu, Bonan Liu, Geng Chu, Baogang Quan, Junjie Li, Changzhi Gu, Hong Li, Liquan Chen
We report that vertical graphene coating can greatly improve the electrochemical performance and the interfacial stability of silicon nanocone (SNC) anodes for lithium-ion batteries. The coating patterning technology is innovatively employed for side-by-side demonstration of the exclusive influences of graphene coating on the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and the structural stability of the SNC electrode. The silicon nanocone-graphene (SNC-G) electrode achieves a longer cycle life (1715 cycles), higher Coulombic efficiency (average 98...
August 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811034/a-simple-microdroplet-chip-consisting-of-silica-nanochannel-assisted-electrode-and-paper-cover-for-highly-sensitive-electrochemiluminescent-detection-of-drugs-in-human-serum
#19
Yi Xiao, Linru Xu, Ping Li, Xiao-Chong Tang, Lian-Wen Qi
This paper describes a simple and miniaturized microdroplet chip (μchip) that is constructed with a silica nanochannel (SNC)-assisted electrode array and a hydrophobic paper cover (SNC&P-μchip). Vertically aligned SNCs with uniform pore size of 2-3 nm in diameter and negatively charged surface can significantly accelerate the mass transport of the positively charged tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II), resulting in a remarkably enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal. The SNC-assisted electrode array was coupled to a low cost paper cover to achieve simultaneous detection of six samples in 1 min...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803956/selective-cholinergic-depletion-of-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-aggravates-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinsonian-rats
#20
Hu Xiao, Min Li, Junbin Cai, Nanxiang Li, Ming Zhou, Peng Wen, Zhengyuan Xie, Qiang Wang, Jingyu Chang, Wangming Zhang
Many patients of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from intractable axial symptoms (severe gait and postural impairments), which were recently speculated to be more relevant to cholinergic degeneration in the brainstem than dopaminergic degeneration in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc). To investigate the role of the cholinergic cells of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) on motor deficits, especially the axial motor impairments, we measured and analyzed the gait performance of sham lesion rats, SNc dopaminergic lesion rats, PPTg cholinergic lesion rats, and combined lesion rats by using the CatWalk system...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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