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OCD spectrum

Motohisa Hirose, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Chihiro Sutoh, Kenichi Asano, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Michiko Nakazato, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Georgina Krebs, Kim Murray, Amita Jassi
There is a high rate of comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Standard cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) protocols have been shown to be less effective in treating OCD in young people with ASD than in typically developing youth. This case study describes the treatment of an adolescent boy with severe, treatment-resistant OCD and ASD using a modified CBT approach. Modifications to a standard evidence-based CBT for OCD protocol included extended psychoeducation about anxiety; regular home-based sessions; and increased involvement of systems, including family and school...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Estêvão Scotti-Muzzi, Osvaldo Luis Saide
The presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) in schizophrenia is frequent, and a new clinical entity has been proposed for those who show the dual diagnosis: the schizo-obsessive disorder. This review scrutinizes the literature across the main academic databases, and provides an update on different aspects of schizo-obsessive spectrum disorders, which include schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with OCD, OCD with poor insight, schizophrenia with OCS, and schizophrenia with OCD (schizo-obsessive disorder)...
September 27, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Christopher L Camp, Joshua S Dines, Ryan M Degen, Alec L Sinatro, David W Altchek
Capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is one of the most common causes of elbow pain and dysfunction in adolescent athletes. It typically occurs in gymnasts and overhead throwers and presents along a wide spectrum of severity. Stable lesions can typically be treated with conservative therapy; however, those presenting with instability, fragmentation, or loose bodies generally require surgical intervention. Although there are a number of described surgical options used to treat capitellar OCD lesions, microfracture is one of the most commonly performed and well studied...
June 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
Jos G M Hendriksen, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Phillipe Collin, Brenda Wong, Erik H Niks, Johan S Vles
We describe a case study of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a nine-year-old boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patient history included persistent deficits in social communication and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior: a diagnosis of autism spectrum was formalized. Due to serious disruption on social functioning and negative development of the obsessive behavior we decided to start pharmacotherapy. Fluoxetine 5 mg/day was started and gradually increased to 20 mg/day...
October 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
S Schubert, A Bauer, S Molin, C Skudlik, J Geier
BACKGROUND: Geriatric nurses (GN) have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), with chronic irritant contact dermatitis predominating. However, allergic contact dermatitis is an important issue as well. Little is known whether the relevant occupational allergen spectrum reported in the 1990s, including fragrances, preservatives, rubber chemicals, and ingredients of surface disinfectants to be the most common sensitizers in geriatric nurses, is still valid. OBJECTIVES: To monitor the current allergen spectrum in GN with OCD and verify the validity of the patch test recommendations (baseline-, preservative-, ointment base-, rubber-, disinfectant, series and fragrances) in GN with suspected OCD given by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG)...
August 12, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Yu-Hsuan Huang, Yoshifumi Nishimura, Henryk A Witek, Yuan-Pern Lee
We report a transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO recorded using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. CD2OO was produced from photolysis of flowing mixtures of CD2I2, N2, and O2 (13 or 87 Torr) with laser light at 308 nm. The recorded spectrum shows close structural similarity with the spectrum of CH2OO reported previously [Y.-T. Su et al., Science 340, 174 (2013)]. The four bands observed at 852, 1017, 1054, and 1318 cm(-1) are assigned to the OO stretching mode, two distinct in-plane OCD bending modes, and the CO stretching mode of CD2OO, respectively, according to vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities, rotational contours, and deuterium-isotopic shifts predicted with extensive quantum-chemical calculations...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Beatrice Benatti, Eric Hollander, Naomi Fineberg, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner, Humberto Nicolini, Nuria Lanzagorta, Carlotta Palazzo, A Carlo Altamura, Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Pallanti, Michael Van Ameringen, Oguz Karamustafalioglu, Lynne M Drummond, Luchezar Hranov, Martijn Figee, Jon E Grant, Joseph Zohar, Damiaan Denys, Jose M Menchon
OBJECTIVE: Many studies suggest that age at onset (AAO) is an important factor for clinically differentiating patients with juvenile and adult onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present international study aimed to assess the prevalence of different AAO groups and compare related socio-demographic and clinical features in a large sample of OCD patients. METHODS: A total of 431 OCD outpatients, participating in the ICOCS network, were first categorised in groups with childhood (≤12 years), adolescent (13-17 years) and adult-onset (≥18 years), then in pre-adult and adult onset (≥18 years) and their socio-demographic and clinical features compared...
November 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Valerie Voon, Jeffrey W Dalley
Impulsivity and compulsivity have emerged as important dimensional constructs that challenge traditional psychiatric classification systems. Both are present in normal healthy populations where the need to act quickly and repeatedly without hesitation can be highly advantageous. However, when excessively expressed, impulsive and compulsive behavior can lead to adverse consequences and spectrum disorders exemplified by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism, and drug addiction...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Ellen van der Plas, Annie Dupuis, Paul Arnold, Jennifer Crosbie, Russell Schachar
We examined co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with (traits of) attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and inhibition deficits in a community sample (n = 16,676) and tested whether having a sibling with ASD manifested in increased features of ADHD, OCD or inhibition deficits. Individuals with ASD had increased ADHD and OCD traits compared with individuals without ASD. Individuals with a sibling with ASD exhibited more ADHD traits than did individuals whose sibling did not have ASD...
September 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Long Zhang, Yaoting Sun, Fangfang Chen, De Wu, Jiulai Tang, Xiaopeng Han, Jianguo Ye, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to quantify autistic traits, which have been evaluated in the parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and in the general population. This paper's objective was to investigate the AQ's psychometric properties of the Chinese version for mainland China and to establish whether the pattern of sex differences in the quantity of autistic traits exists. We also examined the usefulness of the AQ in differentiating between individuals with ASD, schizophrenia (SCH), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls (HC)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Stephanie H Ameis, Jason P Lerch, Margot J Taylor, Wayne Lee, Joseph D Viviano, Jon Pipitone, Arash Nazeri, Paul E Croarkin, Aristotle N Voineskos, Meng-Chuan Lai, Jennifer Crosbie, Jessica Brian, Noam Soreni, Russell Schachar, Peter Szatmari, Paul D Arnold, Evdokia Anagnostou
OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]) share genetic vulnerability and symptom domains. The authors present direct comparison of structural brain circuitry in children and adolescents with NDDs and control subjects and examine brain circuit-behavior relationships across NDDs using dimensional measures related to each disorder. METHOD: Diffusion imaging and behavioral measures were acquired in 200 children and adolescents (ADHD: N=31; OCD: N=36; ASD: N=71; controls: N=62; mean age range: 10...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
José M Menchón, Michael van Ameringen, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Damiaan Denys, Martijn Figee, Jon E Grant, Eric Hollander, Donatella Marazziti, Humberto Nicolini, Stefano Pallanti, Christian Ruck, Roseli Shavitt, Dan J Stein, Erik Andersson, Rajshekhar Bipeta, Danielle C Cath, Lynne Drummond, Jamie Feusner, Daniel A Geller, Georgi Hranov, Christine Lochner, Hisato Matsunaga, Randy E McCabe, Davis Mpavaenda, Takashi Nakamae, Richard O'Kearney, Massimo Pasquini, Ricardo Pérez Rivera, Michael Poyurovsky, Eva Real, Maria Conceição do Rosário, Noam Soreni, Richard P Swinson, Nienke Vulink, Joseph Zohar, Naomi Fineberg
In recent years, many assessment and care units for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been set up in order to detect, diagnose and to properly manage this complex disorder, but there is no consensus regarding the key functions that these units should perform. The International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) together with the Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders Network (OCRN) of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) and the Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders Section of the World Psychiaric Association (WPA) has developed a standards of care programme for OCD centres...
September 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Dina Viglin, Guy Doron
Research has suggested that high levels of attachment insecurities that are formed through interactions with significant others are associated with a general vulnerability to mental disorders. In the present paper, we extend Ein-Dor and Doron's (2015) transdiagnostic model linking attachment orientations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, to include thought disorder spectrum symptoms. Specifically, we speculate on the processes that mediate the linkage between attachment insecurities and psychosis and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, and indicate the different contexts that might set a trajectory of one individual to one set of symptoms while another individual to a different set of symptoms...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Priya Sakthivel, Niharika Sharma, Philipp Klahn, Marcus Gereke, Dunja Brude, Christopher L Cioffi, Peter R Guzzo
Glycine acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses and as an obligatory co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, where it facilitates neuronal excitation. Two high-affinity and substrate selective transporters, glycine transporter-1 and glycine transporter-2 (GlyT-1 and GlyT-2), regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS and as such, play critical roles in maintaining a balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. GlyT-1 inhibition has been extensively examined as a potential means by which to treat several CNS disorders that include schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction...
April 5, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Michael H Bloch, Kaitlyn E Panza, Alisa Yaffa, Pedro G Alvarenga, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Jilian M Mulqueen, Angeli Landeros-Weisenberger, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Current pharmacological treatments for Tourette Syndrome (TS), such as antipsychotic agents and α-2 agonists, are moderately effective in the treatment of tics, but have substantial side effects that limit their use. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) modulates glutamatergic systems, and has been used safely as an antioxidant agent with minimal side effects for decades. NAC has been increasingly studied for the treatment of other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. We aim to examine the efficacy of NAC for the treatment of pediatric TS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study...
May 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Alexander Häge, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Konstantin Mechler, Steven C R Williams, Ralf W Dittmann
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity is a cross-disorder trait underlying phenotypically distinct psychiatric disorders that emerge in childhood or adolescence. Despite the effectiveness of serotonergic compounds in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant symptoms remaining in 40 to 60 % of patients present a pressing clinical problem. There are currently no medications that effectively treat the core impairments of autism spectrum disorder. There is an urgent need for the development of conceptually novel pharmacological strategies...
2016: Trials
Arianna Goracci, Mirko Martinucci, Anastassia Kaperoni, Andrea Fagiolini, Chiara Sbaragli, Eleonora Corsi, Paolo Castrogiovanni
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between subthreshold obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and quality of life (QoL) in a sample from the Italian general population. METHODS: A sample of 202 psychiatrically healthy (defined as absence of current axis I and axis II disorders) subjects was recruited by word of mouth from the residential population in the Siena, Salerno and Milano municipalities (Italy). All study subjects completed the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and the Questionnaire for Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum (OBS-SR), which explore a wide array of threshold and subthreshold OCD symptoms, behaviours and traits...
December 2007: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Silje Katrine Elgen Fevang, Mari Hysing, Trond Markestad, Kristian Sommerfelt
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and gender characteristics of mental health problems in extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EP/ELBW) children without intellectual disabilities, blindness, deafness, or severe cerebral palsy compared with a reference group at 11 years of age. METHODS: In a national cohort of EP/ELBW children, mental health was assessed by parental and teacher report by using the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, the Swanson, Noland, and Pelham Questionnaire IV (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and a total difficulties score from the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire...
April 2016: Pediatrics
Elyse Stewart, Mary Kathryn Cancilliere, Jennifer Freeman, Brianna Wellen, Abbe Garcia, Jeffrey Sapyta, Martin Franklin
Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity...
February 8, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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