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OCD spectrum

Kevin S O'Connell, Nathaniel W McGregor, Christine Lochner, Robin Emsley, Louise Warnich
Considerable evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share a common molecular aetiology, despite their unique clinical diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was therefore to determine and characterise the common and unique molecular architecture of ASD, SCZ, BD and OCD. Gene lists were obtained from previously published studies for ASD, BD, SCZ and for OCD. Genes identified to be common to all disorders, or unique to one specific disorder, were included for enrichment analyses using the web-server tool Enrichr...
March 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
M P Coba, M J Ramaker, E V Ho, S L Thompson, N H Komiyama, S G N Grant, J A Knowles, S C Dulawa
The scaffold protein DLGAP1 is localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons and is a component of supramolecular protein complexes organized by PSD95. Gain-of-function variants of DLGAP1 have been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), while haploinsufficient variants have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in human genetic studies. We tested male and female Dlgap1 wild type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice in a battery of behavioral tests: open field, dig, splash, prepulse inhibition, forced swim, nest building, social approach, and sucrose preference...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hille T de Vries, Takashi Nakamae, Kenji Fukui, Damiaan Denys, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and psychiatric co-morbidity among adult psychiatric patients. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-three adult psychiatric patients were recruited over a 3-month period...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Annice Heratizadeh, Thomas Werfel, Steffen Schubert, Johannes Geier
BACKGROUND: Dental technicians (DTs) are at increased risk for allergic contact sensitization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the current spectrum of occupational sensitization in DTs with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of Information Network of Departments of Dermatology patch test data from the years 2001-2015 concerning DTs with OCD was performed. RESULTS: Patients of the study group (226 DTs with OCD) were significantly more often diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis (37...
January 12, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Natalie J Forde, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Daniel Brandeis, Jeffrey C Glennon, The Tactics Consortium, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Jan K Buitelaar
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and are associated with changes in striatal volumes and N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate levels. Here, we investigated the relation between dorsal striatal volume and NAA and glutamate levels. We additionally compared striatal volume and shape between ASD, OCD and controls. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, proton spectra (1H-MRS) in the left striatum, and phenotypic information were collected from 54 children with ASD, 32 with OCD, and 56 controls (aged 8-13 years) in a four-site study...
January 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods: Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD ( n = 20), boys with OCD ( n = 20), and healthy control boys ( n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Valentina Postorino, Connor M Kerns, Giacomo Vivanti, Jessica Bradshaw, Martina Siracusano, Luigi Mazzone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to synthesize the most recent research on anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the relationship between these conditions and challenges for assessment. Furthermore, implications for treatment and future directions are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Research suggests that anxiety disorders and OCD are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. However, the significant overlap of ASD features with anxiety and OCD symptomology makes differential diagnosis of these disorders particularly challenging...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Yeon-Jin Kim, Jae A Lim, Ji Yoon Lee, Sohee Oh, Sung Nyun Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jong Eun Ha, Jun Soo Kwon, Jung-Seok Choi
Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control and a preoccupation with Internet games leading to repetitive behavior. We aimed to compare the baseline neuropsychological profiles in IGD, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the spectrum of impulsivity and compulsivity. Methods A total of 225 subjects (IGD, N = 86; AUD, N = 39; OCD, N = 23; healthy controls, N = 77) were administered traditional neuropsychological tests including Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word test and computerized neuropsychological tests, including the stop signal test (SST) and the intra-extra dimensional set shift test (IED)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Camilla Groth, Nanette Mol Debes, Liselotte Skov
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent comorbidities and a wide spectrum of phenotype presentations. This study aimed to describe the development of phenotypes in TS and tic-related impairment in a large longitudinal study of 226 children and adolescents followed up after 6 years. The participants were clinically examined to assess tic severity and impairment, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The development in phenotypes changed toward less comorbidity with 40% TS-only (no OCD or ADHD) (TS without OCD or ADHD) at baseline and 55% at follow-up...
November 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often share phenotypes of repetitive behaviors, possibly underpinned by abnormal decision-making. To compare neural correlates underlying decision-making between these disorders, brain activation of boys with ASD (N = 24), OCD (N = 20) and typically developing controls (N = 20) during gambling was compared, and computational modeling compared performance. Patients were unimpaired on number of risky decisions, but modeling showed that both patient groups had lower choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning compared to controls...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Laura R Chen, M Mitsu Suyemoto, Albarra H Sarsour, H Alejandro Cordova, Edgar O Oviedo-Rondón, H John Barnes, Luke B Borst
Osteochondrosis (OCD) results from a disturbance of endochondral ossification in articular cartilage and is an important cause of lameness in several animal species, including chickens. OCD lesions in the free thoracic vertebra (FTV) of chickens are essential to the pathogenesis of pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of OCD in the FTV among three modern broiler chicken crosses (strains A/A, A/B, and C/C) and Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, which served as the control group...
November 15, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
L Reifels, K Mills, M L A Dückers, M L O'Donnell
AIMS: To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. METHODS: We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression in order to examine the full spectrum of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) affective, anxiety and substance use disorders associated with exposure to natural and man-made disaster...
September 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
N Nagarajan, B W Jones, P J West, R E Marc, M R Capecchi
Hoxb8 mutant mice exhibit compulsive grooming and hair removal dysfunction similar to humans with the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-spectrum disorder, trichotillomania. As, in the mouse brain, the only detectable cells that label with Hoxb8 cell lineage appear to be microglia, we suggested that defective microglia cause the neuropsychiatric disorder. Does the Hoxb8 mutation in microglia lead to neural circuit dysfunctions? We demonstrate that Hoxb8 mutants contain corticostriatal circuit defects. Golgi staining, ultra-structural and electrophysiological studies of mutants reveal excess dendritic spines, pre- and postsynaptic structural defects, long-term potentiation and miniature postsynaptic current defects...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Chun-Hung Chang, Shin-Yuan Chen, Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hsin-Chi Tsai
RATIONAL: The therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been studied, but complications after this treatment have rarely been noted. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old man with treatment-resistant OCD received bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum stimulation for 12 months. DIAGNOSIS: Compulsive skin-picking behavior and infection were noted following 12-month DBS treatment...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rebecca Pedley, Penny Bee, Katherine Berry, Alison Wearden
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a condition which can have major effects on the life of both the sufferer and their family members. Previous research has shown that the impact of illness on family members is related to their conceptualisation of the illness. In the present study we used qualitative methods to explore illness perceptions in family members of people with OCD. METHOD: Fourteen family members of people meeting diagnostic criteria for OCD within the previous year took part in a semi-structured interview...
September 7, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Aki Tsuchiyagaito, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is also applicable to patients with both OCD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have reported that CBT for patients with both OCD and ASD might be less effective than for patients with OCD alone. In addition, there is no evidence as to why autistic traits might be risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether comorbidity between ASD and OCD may significantly affect treatment outcome and discovered predictors of CBT outcomes using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jan Roth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, more common in males than females, with onset before age 18. TS is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal/phonic tics, persisting for more than a year. Tics are unvoluntary, abrupt, rapid, repetitive, but non-rhythmic movements or sounds (vocalizations). They are preceded by an inner urge. Tics can be temporarily suppressed, but this leads to a powerful re-emergence. The performance of tics results in immediate but transient relief...
August 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Hanna Rintala, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVES: Advancing paternal age has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders in children. However, there is limited understanding of this association with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) with inconsistent findings. We examined the association between parental age and offspring OCD and TS/CT. METHODS: This nested case-control study used the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) to identify 1358 individuals with OCD and 1195 with TS/CT, born from 1991 to 2009 and diagnosed by 2010...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Maheshi Wikramanayake, William Mandy, Sonia Shahper, Sukhwinder Kaur, Sangeetha Kolli, Selma Osman, Jemma Reid, Kiri Jefferies Sewell, Naomi Fineberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
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