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Depression and schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922588/persistent-negative-symptoms-in-first-episode-psychosis-early-cognitive-and-social-functioning-correlates-and-differences-between-early-and-adult-onset
#1
Olga Puig, Immaculada Baeza, Elena de la Serna, Bibiana Cabrera, Gisela Mezquida, Miquel Bioque, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Mara Parellada, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Manuel J Cuesta, Miquel Bernardo, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, The PEPs Group
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the early cognitive and social functioning characteristics of a sample of first-episode psychosis patients with and without persistent negative symptoms (PNS) and to examine the prevalence and cognitive and functional correlates of PNS in patients with early-onset versus adult-onset first-episode psychosis. METHODS: Participants were 235 patients with first-episode psychosis (51 early-onset, 184 adult-onset) and 240 healthy controls from a multicenter longitudinal study (recruited between 2009 and 2011)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921935/assessing-causal-relationships-using-genetic-proxies-for-exposures-an-introduction-to-mendelian-randomisation
#2
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Michael Green, Amy E Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research, and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Mendelian randomisation (MR) offers potential solutions to these problems...
September 18, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921840/the-role-of-cadherin-genes-in-five-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-literature-update
#3
REVIEW
Ziarih Hawi, Janette Tong, Callum Dark, Hannah Yates, Beth Johnson, Mark A Bellgrove
Converging evidence from candidate gene, genome-wide linkage, and association studies support a role of cadherins in the pathophysiology of five major psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). These molecules are transmembrane proteins which act as cell adhesives by forming adherens junctions (AJs) to bind cells within tissues. Members of the cadherin superfamily are also involved in biological processes such as signal transduction and plasticity that have been implicated in the etiology of major psychiatric conditions...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921675/altered-cav1-2-function-in-the-timothy-syndrome-mouse-model-produces-ascending-serotonergic-abnormalities
#4
Daniel G Ehlinger, Kathryn G Commons
Polymorphism in the gene CACNA1C, encoding the pore-forming subunit of Cav1.2 L-type calcium channels, has one of the strongest genetic linkages to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: psychopathologies in which serotonin signaling has been implicated. Additionally, a gain-of-function mutation in CACNA1C is responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder Timothy Syndrome that presents with prominent behavioral features on the autism spectrum. Given an emerging role for serotonin in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, we investigate the relationship between Cav1...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918419/-about-the-association-between-antipsychotic-medication-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-epidemiology-and-possible-background-mechanisms
#5
Gabor Gaszner, Gabor Barna, Peter Dome
The history of antipsychotics began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950s. Since then this group of medications has become one of the most important element of the armamentarium of psychopharmacology. While initially these pharmacons were used in the treatment of psychotic states (including psychotic mania) in the last approximately 10-15 years new indications - such as treatment of depressive, manic and mixed states and also mood-stabilization in bipolar disorder and also the treatment of major depressive disorder - for several second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) agents have been introduced...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918417/-clinical-features-of-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-bipolar-patients
#6
Zsuzsanna Belteczki, Zoltan Rihmer, Julia Ujvari
BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in the case of manic, depressive and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder; however, the assessment of delusions and hallucinations is frequently improper, thus the patients presenting also psychotic symptoms are treated based on their diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or paranoia. Psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder result less favourable outcomes and course of illness. METHODS: 365 patients (106 males, 259 females) were hospitalized in or institution from January 1st 2015 to September 30th 2016, who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to the ICD-10 criteria...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918241/stigma-experienced-by-patients-with-severe-mental-disorders-a-nationwide-multicentric-study-from-india
#7
Sandeep Grover, Ajit Avasthi, Aakanksha Singh, Amitava Dan, Rajarshi Neogi, Darpan Kaur, Bhavesh Lakdawala, Abhijit R Rozatkar, Naresh Nebhinani, Suravi Patra, Priya Sivashankar, Alka A Subramanyam, Adarsh Tripathi, Ab Majid Gania, Gurvinder Pal Singh, Prakash Behere
This study aimed to evaluate the stigma and its correlates among patients with severe mental disorders. Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 707), bipolar disorder (N = 344) and recurrent depressive disorder (N = 352) currently in clinical remission from 14 participating centres were assessed on Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS). Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia experienced higher level of alienation, sterotype endorsement, discrimination experience and total stigma when compared to patients with bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder...
August 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917193/high-c-reactive-protein-levels-are-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#8
M Faugere, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Faget-Agius, C Lançon, M Cermolacce, R Richieri
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are frequently associated with schizophrenia symptoms. C - Reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, had been found elevated in patients with schizophrenia and in patients with depressive symptoms. However, the association between CRP level and depressive symptoms has been poorly investigated in patients with schizophrenia. The only study conducted found an association between high CRP levels and antidepressant consumption, but not with depressive symptoms investigated with the Calgary Depression Rating Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917190/posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-dissociation-between-childhood-trauma-and-two-different-types-of-psychosis-like-experience
#9
Ji Young Choi
This study examined the roles of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and dissociation in the relationship between childhood trauma and two different types of psychosis-like experience, including persecutory ideation and aberrant experience, in non-psychotic psychiatric patients. From August 2015 to August 2016, among psychiatric out patients seeking treatment at the Department of Psychiatry at a major teaching medical hospital in Seoul, Korea, 169 patients who had never been diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, including schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and/or depressive disorder with psychotic features, completed the Korean Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the modified Korean version of the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire, and the Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)...
September 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916502/sociability-trait-and-regional-cerebral-oxidative-metabolism-in-rats-predominantly-nonlinear-relations
#10
Margus Kanarik, Jaanus Harro
Deficits in social behaviour are common in psychopathological conditions e.g., depression, autism and schizophrenia. In rats, sociability, defined as the engagement of an animal in non-aggressive social contact with a conspecific in a neutral arena, is as a persistent trait. To elucidate the neuroanatomy of social behaviour in animal models, long term neuronal energy metabolism was studied in rats preselected for sociability levels. Rats were divided into groups with high, medium and low sociability levels (HS, MS and LS) according to the average score of three social interaction tests, and cerebral long-term energy metabolism was assayed with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916298/childhood-trauma-depression-and-sleep-quality-and-their-association-with-psychotic-symptoms-and-suicidality-in-schizophrenia
#11
Esin Evren Kilicaslan, Asli Tugba Esen, Meltem Izci Kasal, Erdal Ozelci, Murat Boysan, Mustafa Gulec
This study involved the examination of the relationship between childhood trauma and both psychotic symptoms and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as clinical features, depression, and sleep quality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the suicidality subscale of Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were administered to 199 patients with schizophrenia...
September 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915381/adult-vitamin-d-deficiency-exacerbates-impairments-caused-by-social-stress-in-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice
#12
Natalie J Groves, Mei Zhou, Dhanisha J Jhaveri, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in adults throughout the world. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment. However, studies based on observational epidemiology cannot address questions of causality; they cannot determine if vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor leading to the adverse health outcome...
September 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914403/self-transformation-at-the-boundary-of-religious-conversion-and-psychosis
#13
Szabolcs Kéri
The relationship between religious conversion, as a form of spiritual emergency, and psychosis is one of the fundamental issues at the meeting point of theology and clinical psychology. In the present study, we assessed 53 individuals referred to a psychiatry center with the initial diagnosis of a psychotic episode by focusing on the clinical diagnosis (psychosis vs. spiritual emergency), subjective experiences (basic symptoms), and neuropsychological functions. Twenty-nine individuals meet the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, but 24 persons experienced only religious and spiritual problems (religious conversion)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912439/association-between-cognitive-deficits-and-suicidal-ideation-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Shenghong Pu, Shiori Setoyama, Takamasa Noda
The role of cognitive function in suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has not been adequately explored. This research sought to measure the relationship between suicidal ideation and cognitive function. Therefore, in this study, the association between cognitive function and suicidal ideation in patients with MDD was assessed. Cognitive function was evaluated in 233 patients with MDD using the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Suicidal ideation was assessed using item 3 of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902525/lurasidone-efficacy-and-safety-in-the-treatment-of-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#15
Maurizio Pompili, Claudio Verzura, Giada Trovini, Andrea Buscajoni, Giulia Falcone, Stefano Naim, Adele Nardella, Serena Sorice, Ross J Baldessarini, Paolo Girardi
Lurasidone ([3aR,4S,7R,7aS]-2-[(1R,2R)-2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)piperazin-1yl-methyl] cyclohexylmethyl]-hexahydro-4,7-methano-2H-isoindole-1,3-dione hydrochloride; Latuda® [LRSD]) is a novel benzisothiazole, second-generation antipsychotic drug developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Corporation in Japan. Similar to other atypical antipsychotics it has a distinctive pharmacodynamic profile, Areas covered: This review updates reported research findings on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of LRSD for treatment of psychotic and major affective disorders, with meta-analyses...
September 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#16
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900063/-translational-research-on-neuropsychiatric-disorders-focusing-on-microglia-hypothesis
#17
Takahiro A Kato, Masahiro Ohgidani, Shigenobu Kanba
Microglia-immune cells in the brain-have recently been highlighted to understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and autism. In this review paper, we introduce the microglia hypothesis for psychiatric disorders. In addition, we introduce our novel translational research approach to psychiatric disorders using microglia-like (iMG) cells directly induced from human blood, these iMG cells can be produced from peripheral monocytes within two weeks using two cytokines: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-34 (IL-34)...
September 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899759/hippocampal-metabolism-and-prefrontal-brain-structure-a-combined-1h-mr-spectroscopy-neuropsychological-and-voxel-based-morphometry-vbm-study
#18
Johanna Steinke, Christian Gaser, Kerstin Langbein, Maren Dietzek, Alexander Gussew, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Stefan Smesny, Heinrich Sauer, Igor Nenadić
Hippocampal structural and functional integrity impacts on multiple remote areas of the brain, and this connectivity is central to multiple cognitive functions in healthy and disease. We studied associations of hippocampal metabolic markers N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu and Glx; assessed with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and brain grey matter (studied with voxel-based morphometry, VBM) in 20 healthy subjects. We found a significant correlation between right hippocampal NAA and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortical grey matter (TFCE, p<0...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899614/measuring-pathology-using-the-panss-across-diagnoses-inconsistency-of-the-positive-symptom-domain-across-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-and-bipolar-disorder
#19
Ariana E Anderson, Maxwell Mansolf, Steven P Reise, Adam Savitz, Giacomo Salvadore, Qingqin Li, Robert M Bilder
Although the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was developed for use in schizophrenia (SZ), antipsychotic drug trials use the PANSS to measure symptom change also for bipolar (BP) and schizoaffective (SA) disorder, extending beyond its original indications. If the dimensions measured by the PANSS are different across diagnoses, then the same score change for the same drug condition may have different meanings depending on which group is being studied. Here, we evaluated whether the factor structure in the PANSS was consistent across schizophrenia (n = 3647), bipolar disorder (n = 858), and schizoaffective disorder (n = 592)...
August 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#20
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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