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Depression and schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785555/folic-acid-methylfolate-for-the-treatment-of-psychopathology-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Kenji Sakuma, Shinji Matsunaga, Ikuo Nomura, Makoto Okuya, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata
RATIONALE: This study aims to examine whether folate/folic acid/methylfolate/folinic acid supplemented to antipsychotics (FA + AP) is beneficial in schizophrenia treatment. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of FA + AP for schizophrenia. METHODS: The primary outcome was an improvement in total symptoms. Other outcomes were psychopathology subscales (positive, negative, general, and depressive symptoms), discontinuation due to all-cause and adverse events, and individual adverse events...
May 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785013/genetic-identification-of-brain-cell-types-underlying-schizophrenia
#2
Nathan G Skene, Julien Bryois, Trygve E Bakken, Gerome Breen, James J Crowley, Héléna A Gaspar, Paola Giusti-Rodriguez, Rebecca D Hodge, Jeremy A Miller, Ana B Muñoz-Manchado, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Antonio F Pardiñas, Jesper Ryge, James T R Walters, Sten Linnarsson, Ed S Lein, Patrick F Sullivan, Jens Hjerling-Leffler
With few exceptions, the marked advances in knowledge about the genetic basis of schizophrenia have not converged on findings that can be confidently used for precise experimental modeling. By applying knowledge of the cellular taxonomy of the brain from single-cell RNA sequencing, we evaluated whether the genomic loci implicated in schizophrenia map onto specific brain cell types. We found that the common-variant genomic results consistently mapped to pyramidal cells, medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and certain interneurons, but far less consistently to embryonic, progenitor or glial cells...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780332/myoclonic-jerks-and-schizophreniform-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Dominique Endres, Dirk-M Altenmüller, Bernd Feige, Simon J Maier, Kathrin Nickel, Sabine Hellwig, Jördis Rausch, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, John P Doerr, Karl Egger, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Schizophreniform syndromes can be divided into primary idiopathic forms as well as different secondary organic subgroups (e.g., paraepileptic, epileptic, immunological, or degenerative). Secondary epileptic explanatory approaches have often been discussed in the past, due to the high rates of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with schizophreniform symptoms in well-described constellations. In the literature, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been linked to emotionally unstable personality traits, depression, anxiety, and executive dysfunction; however, the association with schizophrenia is largely unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#4
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767278/the-hypothalamus-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-psychiatry-meets-microscopy
#5
REVIEW
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume changes of the third ventricle, the hypothalamus, and its nuclei) and alterations at the cellular level (loss of neurons, increased or decreased expression of hypothalamic peptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and other regulatory factors as well as of enzymes involved in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide metabolism) have been reported in schizophrenia and/or depression...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764526/cannabinoid-signalling-in-embryonic-and-adult-neurogenesis-possible-implications-for-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders
#6
Rúbia W de Oliveira, Cilene L Oliveira, Francisco S Guimarães, Alline C Campos
Cannabinoid signalling modulates several aspects of brain function, including the generation and survival of neurons during embryonic and adult periods. The present review intended to summarise evidence supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system on the control of neurogenesis and neurogenesis-dependent functions. Studies reporting participation of cannabinoids on the regulation of any step of neurogenesis and the effects of cannabinoid compounds on animal models possessing neurogenesis-dependent features were selected from Medline...
May 16, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762677/anti-dementia-drugs-for-psychopathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Taro Kishi, Toshikazu Ikuta, Kazuto Oya, Shinji Matsunaga, Yuki Matsuda, Nakao Iwata
Background: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of anti-dementia drugs plus antipsychotics (ADD+AP) for schizophrenia. Methods: Primary outcomes of efficacy and safety included improving overall symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores) and all-cause discontinuation, respectively. Other outcomes included psychopathology subscales (positive, negative, general, and anxiety/depressive symptoms), cognitive function (attention/vigilance, reasoning/problem solving, social cognition, speed of processing, verbal learning, visual learning, working memory, and cognitive control/executive function), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, treatment discontinuation due to adverse events and inefficacy, and individual adverse events...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761753/against-the-stream-religion-and-mental-health-the-case-for-the-inclusion-of-religion-and-spirituality-into-psychiatric-care
#8
Simon Dein
This paper argues for the inclusion of religion and spirituality in psychiatric care. After discussing the antagonism of psychiatrists and psychologists to religion, I present a critical overview of studies examining the relationships between spirituality, religion and diverse aspects of mental health: depression, suicide, anxiety, delinquency, drug abuse and schizophrenia. The need to assesses the impact of religion in different faith groups is discussed. Measures of religious coping, both positive and negative, may provide a more accurate portrayal as to how individuals deploy religion in their lives than global measures such as belief and attendance...
June 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752710/inflammation-in-psychiatric-disorders-what-comes-first
#10
REVIEW
Moisés E Bauer, Antonio L Teixeira
Neuropsychiatric disorders (i.e., mood disorders and schizophrenia) and inflammation are closely intertwined, and possibly powering each other in a bidirectional loop. Depression facilitates inflammatory reactions and inflammation promotes depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Patients with neuropsychiatric disorders exhibit all cardinal features of inflammation, including increased circulating levels of inflammatory inducers, activated sensors, and inflammatory mediators targeting all tissues. Inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology and clinical progression of these disorders...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752639/prevalence-of-hiv-viral-load-suppression-among-psychiatric-inpatients-with-comorbid-substance-use-disorders
#11
D M Coviello, R Lovato, K Apostol, M M Eisenberg, D S Metzger, R Szucs-Reed, N Kiryankova-Dalseth, D Kelly, A Jackson, M Plano, M B Blank
A consistently suppressed viral load enables HIV (+) patients to live longer, healthier lives and reduces the probability of transmitting the virus. Since the prevalence of HIV is four times higher among those with psychiatric disorders than in the general population, it is likely that this group would also have greater difficulty remaining in care and achieving viral suppression. A secondary data analysis utilizing screening data from the Preventing AIDS Through Health (PATH) for Triples (PFT) Study were examined to assess HIV load suppression among 254 psychiatric inpatients with comorbid substance use disorders in Philadelphia...
May 11, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751242/local-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Yange Wei, Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Qian Zhou, Zhiyang Yin, Shengnan Wei, Yifang Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Xudong Yao, Jia Duan, Ke Xu, Xi-Nian Zuo, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Local functional connectivity (FC) indicates local or short-distance functional interactions and may serve as a neuroimaging marker to investigate the human brain connectome. Local FC alterations suggest a disrupted balance in the local functionality of the whole brain network and are increasingly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We aim to examine the similarities and differences in the local FC across SZ, BD, and MDD...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749833/neurotransmitter-receptor-genotypes-associated-with-mental-and-behavioral-disorders
#13
Ekrem Varoglu, Adil Seytanoglu, Esra Asilmaz, Bahar Taneri
AIM: Investigation of association studies within the field of mental and behavioral disorders is of value given their complex molecular etiology including epistatic interactions of multiple genes with small effects. MATERIALS & METHODS: Utilizing biomedical text mining, associations are uncovered for all mental and behavioral conditions listed in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision. Specifically, a computational pipeline is designed to retrieve neurotransmitter receptor variations from biomedical literature with a text mining approach, where unique polymorphisms are also mined...
July 2017: Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747665/comprehensive-behavioral-analysis-of-mice-deficient-in-rapgef2-and-rapgef6-a-subfamily-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-for-rap-small-gtpases-possessing-the-ras-rap-associating-domain
#14
Kazuhiro Maeta, Satoko Hattori, Junji Ikutomo, Hironori Edamatsu, Shymaa E Bilasy, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Tohru Kataoka
Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their possible involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated the development of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM), which resembles the human subcortical band heterotopia, in the dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout (Rapgef2-cKO) brains. Additional knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice resulted in gross enlargement of the ECM whereas knockout of Rapgef6 alone (Rapgef6-KO) had no discernible effect on the brain morphology...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745862/novel-functional-variants-at-the-gwas-implicated-loci-might-confer-risk-to-major-depressive-disorder-bipolar-affective-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#15
Leonid O Bryzgalov, Elena E Korbolina, Ilja I Brusentsov, Elena Y Leberfarb, Natalia P Bondar, Tatiana I Merkulova
BACKGROUND: A challenge of understanding the mechanisms underlying cognition including neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders is mainly given by the potential severity of cognitive disorders for the quality of life and their prevalence. However, the field has been focused predominantly on protein coding variation until recently. Given the importance of tightly controlled gene expression for normal brain function, the goal of the study was to assess the functional variation including non-coding variation in human genome that is likely to play an important role in cognitive functions...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741616/a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-research-on-psychotic-experiences-and-negative-symptom-traits-new-revelations-and-implications-for-psychiatry
#16
Angelica Ronald, Oliver Pain
We present a systematic review of genome-wide research on psychotic experience and negative symptom traits (PENS) in the community. We integrate these new findings, most of which have emerged over the last four years, with more established behaviour genetic and epidemiological research. The review includes the first genome-wide association studies of PENS, including a recent meta-analysis, and the first SNP heritability estimates. Sample sizes of < 10,000 participants mean that no genome-wide significant variants have yet been replicated...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740952/help-seeking-beliefs-for-mental-disorders-among-medical-and-nursing-students
#17
Louisa Picco, Esmond Seow, Boon Yiang Chua, Rathi Mahendran, Swapna Verma, Huiting Xie, Jia Wang, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
AIM: The current study aimed to investigate beliefs about help-seeking, treatment options and expected outcomes for people with alcohol abuse, dementia, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, using a vignette-based approach, among a sample of nursing and medical students. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional online study among medical and nursing students (n = 1002) who were randomly assigned 1 of 5 vignettes. Questions were asked about whom could best help the person in the vignette, the likely helpfulness of a broad range of interventions, and the likely outcome for the person in the vignette with and without appropriate help...
May 9, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739134/effects-of-tianeptine-on-adult-rats-following-prenatal-stress
#18
Hwayoung Lee, Hyung-Ki Kim, Jun-Tack Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Jonghoon Seo, Sanghyun Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hak-Jae Kim
Objective: Exposing a pregnant female to stress during the critical period of embryonic fetal brain development increases the risk of psychiatric disorders in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant tianeptine on prenatally stressed (PNS) rats. Methods: In this study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the last week of gestation. To investigate the effects of antidepressant tianeptine on PNS rats, behavioral and protein expression analyses were performed...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736883/abnormalities-of-regional-homogeneity-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-in-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#19
Xiaoxin Zhao, Jingjing Yao, Yiding Lv, Xinyue Zhang, Chongyang Han, Lijun Chen, Fangfang Ren, Zhuma Jin, Yuan Li, Yuxiu Sui
Several resting-state neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) in chronic schizophrenia; however, little work has been conducted to investigate naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Even less investigated is the association between ReHo measures and clinical symptom severity in naïve patients with FES. The current study evaluated ReHo alterations in whole brain, and assessed the correlations between ReHo measures and clinical variables in naïve patients with FES...
May 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736131/the-association-of-insight-and-change-in-insight-with-clinical-symptoms-in-depressed-inpatients
#20
Hongbo He, Qing Chang, Yarong Ma
Background: Lack of insight has been extensively studied and was found to be adversely correlated with impaired treatment compliance and worse long term clinical outcomes among patients with schizophrenia, while not much is known about this phenonmenon in patients with severe depression. Aim: To explore the correlates of insight and its relation to symptom changes among the most seriously ill patients with affective disorders, those who require hospitalization. Methods: Patients hospitalized in a large psychiatric hospital in south China with either major depressive disorder (MDD)(N=55) or bipolar depression (BD) (N=85) based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were assessed with the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire (ITAQ) one week after admission and at the time of discharge...
April 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
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