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Depression and schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211553/the-assessment-of-schizotypy-by-the-o-life-oxford-liverpool-inventory-for-feelings-and-experiences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-affective-disorders
#1
Daria Dembińska-Krajewska, Janusz Rybakowski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess schizotypy by using the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), in the groups of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar (recurrent) depression (UD). An important element of the study was to compare - in terms of similarity - the results obtained in schizophrenia and BD, and - in terms of differences - the results obtained in BD and UD. METHODS: The study involved 58 patients with schizophrenia (35 men, 23 women, mean age = 34...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211248/anesthetic-considerations-for-pediatric-electroconvulsive-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Andrew D Franklin, Jenna H Sobey, Eric T Stickles
Electroconvulsive therapy is being used more frequently in the treatment of many chronic and acute psychiatric illnesses in children. The most common psychiatric indications for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy are refractory depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, and autism. In addition, a relatively new indication is the treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The anesthesiologist may be called upon to assist in the care of this challenging and vulnerable patient population...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208982/delusional-disorder-in-a-patient-with-corpus-callosum-agenesis
#3
M S Bhatia, Rashmita Saha, Nimisha Doval
Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger's syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207753/analysis-of-diagnoses-extracted-from-electronic-health-records-in-a-large-mental-health-case-register
#4
Yevgeniya Kovalchuk, Robert Stewart, Matthew Broadbent, Tim J P Hubbard, Richard J B Dobson
The UK government has recently recognised the need to improve mental health services in the country. Electronic health records provide a rich source of patient data which could help policymakers to better understand needs of the service users. The main objective of this study is to unveil statistics of diagnoses recorded in the Case Register of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, one of the largest mental health providers in the UK and Europe serving a source population of over 1.2 million people residing in south London...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#5
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199423/-outpatient-s-profile-assisted-by-the-psychiatry-residents-of-the-prof-dr-r-rossi-general-hospital-la-plata-argentina
#6
Diego Giannandrea, Julián Achilli Lucas, Lucía Saldaño, María J Barrenengoa, Mariano Dramis, Mariano Barraco, Matías González Olivi, María T Burry
OBJECTIVE: To define the profile and the treatments evolution of the outpatients assisted by the psychiatry residents of the Rossi Hospital in La Plata. METHODS: It was analyzed the period between 2005 and 2010 (six years). The variables selected included gender, age, diagnosis (according to ICD 10), duration and evolution of treatment. RESULTS: From the total number of patients (n=341), 58,7% were women (n= 200) and 41,3% men (n= 141). The most frequent diagnoses were: anxiety disorders (13,6%), depressive disorders (12,8%), schizophrenia (12,2%), other non-affective psychoses (9%) and mental retardation (8,4%)...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198022/self-stigma-by-people-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia-depression-and-anxiety-cross-sectional-survey-design
#7
Abd Al-Hadi Hasan, Mahmoud Musleh
AIM: This study investigated self-attitudes towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 564 people with a schizophrenia, depression and anxiety who are currently being treated at a psychiatric clinic in Amman, Jordan. RESULTS: The research found that stigma towards schizophrenia, depression and anxiety was based around three factors: preconceived stereotypes, personal responsibility/blame and the perceived inability of a patient to recover...
February 15, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194935/a-potential-pet-radiotracer-for-the-5-ht2c-receptor-synthesis-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-4-3-18-f-fluorophenethoxy-pyrimidine
#8
Juhyeon Kim, Byung Seok Moon, Byung Chul Lee, Ho-Young Lee, Hak Joong Kim, Hyunah Choo, Ae Nim Pae, Yong Seo Cho, Sun-Joon Min
The serotonin 2C receptor subtype (5-HT2C) is an excitatory 5-HT receptor widely distributed throughout the central nerve system. As the 5-HT2C receptor displays multiple actions on various neurotransmitter systems including glutamate, dopamine, epinephrine and -aminobutyric acid (GABA), abnormalities of the 5-HT2C receptor are associated with psychiatric diseases such as depression, schizophrenia, drug abuse, and anxiety. Up to date, three kinds of 5-HT2C PET radiotracers such as [11C]N-methylated arylazepine (1), [11C]WAY-163909 (2), [18F]fluorophenylcyclopropane (3) have been developed, but they may not be suitable for in vivo 5-HT2C imaging study due to their modest specific binding...
February 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194004/genetic-contributions-to-self-reported-tiredness
#9
V Deary, S P Hagenaars, S E Harris, W D Hill, G Davies, D C M Liewald, A M McIntosh, C R Gale, I J Deary
Self-reported tiredness and low energy, often called fatigue, are associated with poorer physical and mental health. Twin studies have indicated that this has a heritability between 6 and 50%. In the UK Biobank sample (N=108 976), we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of responses to the question, 'Over the last two weeks, how often have you felt tired or had little energy?' Univariate GCTA-GREML found that the proportion of variance explained by all common single-nucleotide polymorphisms for this tiredness question was 8...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193195/assessing-the-burden-of-treatment-emergent-adverse-events-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-medications
#10
Pierre-Michel Llorca, Christophe Lançon, Ann Hartry, T Michelle Brown, Dana B DiBenedetti, Siddhesh A Kamat, Clément François
BACKGROUND: Treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) show improved efficacy and reduced side effect burden compared with older antipsychotic medications. However, a risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) remains. TEAEs are hard to quantify and perspectives on the importance of TEAEs differ across patients and between patients and physicians. The current study is a qualitative assessment that investigates TEAEs of AAPs from both patient and physician perspectives to provide better understanding of the occurrence and burden of TEAEs associated with these medications...
February 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192768/schizotypal-and-affective-traits-in-the-offspring-of-antenatally-depressed-mothers-relationship-to-family-history-of-psychosis-in-the-northern-finland-1966-birth-cohort
#11
T Taka-Eilola Née Riekki, J Miettunen, P Mäki
BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is relatively common during pregnancy. However, follow-ups of the adult offspring of antenatally depressed mothers are scarce. Previously we found the risk of schizophrenia to be higher in the adult offspring with antenatally depressed mothers and parents with psychosis than in subjects with only one or neither of these risk factors. The aim was to study whether the risk of schizotypal or affective traits differ among adult offspring with antenatally depressed mothers with or without a parental history of psychosis when compared with offspring without antenatally depressed mothers and without parental psychosis...
December 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192643/associations-between-substance-use-disorders-and-suicide-or-suicide-attempts-in-people-with-mental-illness-a-danish-nationwide-prospective-register-based-study-of-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-unipolar-depression-or-personality-disorder
#12
Marie L D Østergaard, Merete Nordentoft, Carsten Hjorthøj
AIM: To estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: People born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35,625), bipolar disorder (n = 9,279), depression (n = 72,530), or personality disorder (n = 63,958)...
February 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190661/the-novel-antipsychotic-drug-brexpiprazole-alone-and-in-combination-with-escitalopram-facilitates-prefrontal-glutamatergic-transmission-via-a-dopamine-d1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#13
Carl Björkholm, Monica M Marcus, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Kent Jardemark, Torgny H Svensson
Brexpiprazole (Rexulti(®)), a novel D2/3 receptor (R) partial agonist, was recently approved as monotherapy for schizophrenia, demonstrating effectiveness against both positive and negative symptoms, and also approved as add-on treatment to antidepressant drugs, inducing a potent antidepressant effect with a faster onset compared to an antidepressant given alone. Moreover, brexpiprazole has demonstrated pro-cognitive effects in preclinical studies. To explore whether the observed effects may be mediated via modulation of prefrontal glutamatergic transmission, we investigated the effect of brexpiprazole, alone and in combination with the SSRI escitalopram, on prefrontal glutamatergic transmission using in vitro electrophysiological intracellular recordings of deep layer pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
February 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187187/widespread-signatures-of-positive-selection-in-common-risk-alleles-associated-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Renato Polimanti, Joel Gelernter
The human brain is the outcome of innumerable evolutionary processes; the systems genetics of psychiatric disorders could bear their signatures. On this basis, we analyzed five psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia (SCZ), using GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Machine learning-derived scores were used to investigate two natural-selection scenarios: complete selection (loci where a selected allele reached fixation) and incomplete selection (loci where a selected allele has not yet reached fixation)...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186690/reduced-levels-of-cacna1c-attenuate-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-function
#15
Chantelle E Terrillion, David T Dao, Roger Cachope, Mary Kay Lobo, Adam C Puche, Joseph F Cheer, Todd D Gould
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk...
February 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186152/association-of-polygenic-risk-for-major-psychiatric-illness-with-subcortical-volumes-and-white-matter-integrity-in-uk-biobank
#16
L M Reus, X Shen, J Gibson, E Wigmore, L Ligthart, M J Adams, G Davies, S R Cox, S P Hagenaars, M E Bastin, I J Deary, H C Whalley, A M McIntosh
Major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are common, disabling and heritable psychiatric diseases with a complex overlapping polygenic architecture. Individuals with these disorders, as well as their unaffected relatives, show widespread structural differences in corticostriatal and limbic networks. Structural variation in many of these brain regions is also heritable and polygenic but whether their genetic architecture overlaps with that of major psychiatric disorders is unknown...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185594/sleep-apnoea-in-australian-men-disease-burden-co-morbidities-and-correlates-from-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-male-health
#17
Chamara Visanka Senaratna, Dallas R English, Dianne Currier, Jennifer L Perret, Adrian Lowe, Caroline Lodge, Melissa Russell, Sashane Sahabandu, Melanie C Matheson, Garun S Hamilton, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common disorder with under-rated clinical impact, which is increasingly being recognised as having a major bearing on global disease burden. Men are especially vulnerable and become a priority group for preventative interventions. However, there is limited information on prevalence of the condition in Australia, its co-morbidities, and potential risk factors. METHODS: We used data from 13,423 adult men included in the baseline wave of Ten to Men, an Australian national study of the health of males, assembled using stratified cluster sampling with oversampling from rural and regional areas...
October 31, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181901/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-minocycline-in-schizophrenia
#18
Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Nita Thapa, Silvia Facchini, Brendon Stubbs, Michele Fornaro, André F Carvalho, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of adjunctive minocycline as a treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed/Scopus database search from inception to 3 February 2016 for randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs), open non-randomized studies, and case reports/series evaluating minocycline in patients with schizophrenia. Random-effects meta-analysis of positive, negative, depressive, and cognitive symptom rating scales, discontinuation and adverse effects rates calculating standardized mean difference (SMD), and risk ratios±95% confidence intervals (CI 95%) were calculated...
February 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173881/the-needs-of-older-people-with-mental-health-problems-in-a-portuguese-psychiatric-setting
#19
Joaquim Passos, Aníbal Fonte, Cláudia Camila Dias, Lia Fernandes
BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify met and unmet needs, according to the patient, the carer and the staff, and their relationship with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in elderly people with mental health problems. METHODS: A sample of 306 elderly patients ≥65 years, of both sexes, diagnosed with mental illness (ICD-10 criteria), was recruited from inpatient/outpatient settings in a Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, in northern Portugal...
February 8, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167432/comparison-of-psychopathological-dimensions-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-focusing-on-language-affectivity-and-motor-behavior
#20
Sarah Steinau, Katharina Stegmayer, Fabian U Lang, Markus Jäger, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
This study tested whether patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders would differ in three dimensions of psychopathology (language, affectivity and motor behavior) as assessed by the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) in a cohort of 58 patients with MDD and 146 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The overall estimation of severity of each of the three dimensions was rated on a seven-point Likert scale from severely inhibited to severely disinhibited. Here, more than half of the patients endorsed ratings that showed normal or mildly (dis-)inhibited behavior...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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