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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352475/characteristics-of-proanthocyanidins-in-leaves-of-chamaecyparis-obtusa-var-formosana-as-strong-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors
#1
Chia-Yun Hsu, Gong-Min Lin, Huan-You Lin, Shang-Tzen Chang
BACKGROUND: In recent decades there has been a growing demand for natural products with a view to using them as α-glucosidase inhibitors for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. The hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder (Cupressaceae) (HWE) leaves and its soluble fractions were screened for α-glucosidase inhibition properties. The n-butanol soluble fraction of HWE was further fractionated into fourteen subfractions (B1-B14) using a Sephadex LH-20 column...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341603/pokmt1-from-the-polyketomycin-biosynthetic-machinery-of-streptomyces-diastatochromogenes-t%C3%A3-6028-belongs-to-the-emerging-family-of-c-methyltransferases-that-act-on-coa-activated-aromatic-substrates
#2
Xun Guo, Ivana Crnovcic, Chin-Yuan Chang, Jun Luo, Jeremy R Lohman, Monica Papinski, Andreas Bechthold, Geoffrey P Horsman, Ben Shen
Recent biochemical characterizations of the MdpB2 CoA ligase and MdpB1 C-methyltransferase (C-MT) from the maduropeptin (MDP, 2) biosynthetic machinery revealed unusual pathway logic involving C-methylation occurring on a CoA-activated aromatic substrate. Here we confirmed this pathway logic for the biosynthesis of polyketomycin (POK, 3). Biochemical characterization unambiguously established that PokM3 and PokMT1 catalyze the sequential conversion of 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA, 4) to form 3,6-dimethylsalicylyl-CoA (3,6-DMSA-CoA, 6), which serves as the direct precursor for the 3,6-dimethylsalicylic acid (3,6-DMSA) moiety in the biosynthesis of 3...
January 17, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333468/extraosseous-accumulation-of-technetium-99m-methyl-diphosphonate-99mtc-mdp-in-a-child-with-all-a-case-report
#3
Farnaz Banezhad, Narjess Ayati, Farrokh Seilanian Toosi, Samine Boloursaz, S Rasoul Zakavi
Extraosseous accumulation of technetium-99m-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) on bone scan is not common. This phenomenon is often attributed to abnormality of calcium metabolism and has been reported in a variety of conditions including metabolic diseases and malignancies. A five years old boy is presented here, who was admitted to the pediatric emergency suffering from fatigue, respiratory symptoms, weight loss, intermittent fevers, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, edema of legs and abdominal distension for one month...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320413/adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-and-inflammatory-markers
#4
Antoni Sureda, Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Alicia Julibert, Cristina Bouzas, Emma Argelich, Isabel Llompart, Antoni Pons, Josep A Tur
The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females) of the Balearic Islands population (12-65 years) was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305856/expression-and-regulation-of-proton-coupled-oligopeptide-transporters-in-colonic-tissue-and-immune-cells-of-mice
#5
Yuqing Wang, Yongjun Hu, Ping Li, Yayun Weng, Nobuhiko Kamada, Huidi Jiang, David E Smith
A number of studies have implicated proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) in the initiation and/or progression of inflammatory bowel disease and immune cell signaling. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to delineate the expression of POTs in mouse colonic tissues and immune cells, and characterize the potential role of these transporters in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) signaling. Using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, we found that DSS down regulated Pht1 gene expression and up regulated Pht2 gene expression in colonic tissue and immune cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304087/human-visual-exploration-reduces-uncertainty-about-the-sensed-world
#6
M Berk Mirza, Rick A Adams, Christoph Mathys, Karl J Friston
In previous papers, we introduced a normative scheme for scene construction and epistemic (visual) searches based upon active inference. This scheme provides a principled account of how people decide where to look, when categorising a visual scene based on its contents. In this paper, we use active inference to explain the visual searches of normal human subjects; enabling us to answer some key questions about visual foraging and salience attribution. First, we asked whether there is any evidence for 'epistemic foraging'; i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296846/macrophages-and-osteoclasts-stem-from-a-bipotent-progenitor-downstream-of-a-macrophage-osteoclast-dendritic-cell-progenitor
#7
Yanling Xiao, Jara Palomero, Joanna Grabowska, Liqin Wang, Iris de Rink, Luuk van Helvert, Jannie Borst
Monocytes/macrophages (MΦs), osteoclasts (OCs), and dendritic cells (DCs) are closely related cell types of high clinical significance, but the exact steps in their lineage commitment are unclear. In studies on MΦ and DC development, OC development is generally not addressed. Furthermore, findings on DC development are confusing, because monocytes can also differentiate into DC-like cells. To resolve these issues, we have examined the development of monocytes/MΦs, OCs, and DCs from common progenitors, using the homeostatic driver cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand (L), and Flt3L...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285263/predicting-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-after-combined-androgen-blockade
#8
Miao He, Haina Liu, Jingyi Cao, Qian Wang, Haiting Xu, Yufeng Wang
This study analyzed 99Tcm-MDP bone scans and investigated factors influencing early-stage castration resistance in prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with bone metastasis. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 92 patients with bone metastatic prostate cancer treated with maximal androgen blockade. Patients were imaged with 99Tcm-MDP bone scan to detect metastases, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) values were measured regularly. Before treatment, 464 total bone metastases were detected in the 92 patients, with pelvic bone metastases accounting for about 30...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279763/influence-of-different-surface-treatments-on-bond-strength-of-novel-cad-cam-restorative-materials-to-resin-cement
#9
Meltem Bektaş Kömürcüoğlu, Elçin Sağırkaya, Ayça Tulga
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement by four point bending test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CAD/CAM materials under investigation were e.max CAD, Mark II, Lava Ultimate, and Enamic. A total of 400 bar specimens (4×1.2×12 mm) (n=10) milled from the CAD/CAM blocks underwent various pretreatments (no pretreatment (C), hydrofluoric acid (A), hydrofluoric acid + universal adhesive (Scotchbond) (AS), sandblasting (Sb), and sandblasting + universal adhesive (SbS))...
December 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275854/edta-treatment-for-sodium-hypochlorite-treated-dentin-recovers-disturbed-attachment-and-induces-differentiation-of-mouse-dental-papilla-cells
#10
Kentaro Hashimoto, Nobuyuki Kawashima, Shizuko Ichinose, Keisuke Nara, Sonoko Noda, Takashi Okiji
INTRODUCTION: The disturbance of cellular attachment to dentin by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) may hamper pulp tissue regeneration. The aims of this study were to examine the recovering effect of EDTA on the attachment/differentiation of stemlike cells and to address the mechanisms of EDTA-induced recovery under the hypothesis that attachment to the exposed dentin matrix and the subsequent activation of integrin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling play a crucial role. METHODS: Mouse dental papilla (MDP) cells were cultured on bovine dentin disks treated with NaOCl (0%, 1...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242132/molecular-characterization-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-nod1-nod2-and-nlrc3-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#11
Feng-Ying Gao, Ji-Cai Pang, Mai-Xin Lu, Xian-le Yang, Hua-Ping Zhu, Xiao-Li Ke, Zhi-Gang Liu, Jian-Meng Cao, Miao Wang
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins NOD1, NOD2 and NLRC3 are cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family. In the present study, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) NOD1 (ntNOD1), NOD2 (ntNOD2) and NLRC3 (ntNLRC3) genes were cloned and characterized. The full-length ntNOD1, ntNOD2 and ntNLRC3 genes were 3924, 3886 and 4574 bp, encoding 941, 986 and 1130 amino acids, respectively. The three Nod-like receptors have a NACHT domain and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain...
December 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240527/depressive-symptom-prevalence-and-predictors-in-the-first-half-of-pregnancy
#12
Patricia Anne Kinser, Leroy R Thacker, Dana Lapato, Sara Wagner, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Lisa Jobe-Shields, Ananda Amstadter, Timothy P York
INTRODUCTION: Major depression during the peripartum (MDP) period carries significant public health impact due to the potential adverse effects on maternal, infant, and family outcomes. METHODS: As part of a larger longitudinal study, this cross-sectional observational study sought to build upon the current literature on the prevalence and predictors of depression in the early second trimester of pregnancy, as related to generally accepted risk factors and other less explored risk factors...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234755/self-etching-enamel-bonding-using-acidic-functional-monomers-with-different-length-carbon-chains-and-hydrophilicity
#13
Viviane Hass, Gabriel Abuna, Victor Pinheiro Feitosa, Eveline Claudia Martini, Mario Alexandre Sinhoreti, Roberta Furtado Carvalho, Matheus Coelho Bandéca, Salvatore Sauro, Alessandro D Loguercio
PURPOSE: To compare the enamel bonding performace of two commercial and three experimental two-step self-etch adhesives containing acidic functional monomers with different carbon-spacer length and hydrophilicity. The contact angle was also assessed to evaluate the wettability of each tested material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty extracted human molars were sectioned into four parts (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal) and divided into 5 groups, according to the adhesives used: Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), AdheSE (ADSE), 10-MDP (15 mol% 10-methacryloyldecylphosphate), CAP-P (15 mol% caprolactone phosphate), and MTEP (15 mol% methacryloyltetraethylene phosphate)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234083/nod2-is-required-for-the-early-innate-immune-clearance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-the-lungs
#14
Sandeep D Kale, Neha Dikshit, Pankaj Kumar, Vanniarajan Balamuralidhar, Hanif Javanmard Khameneh, Najib Bin Abdul Malik, Tse Hsien Koh, Gladys Gek Yen Tan, Thuan Tong Tan, Alessandra Mortellaro, Bindu Sukumaran
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a significant cause of severe nosocomial pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals world-wide. With limited treatment options available, a better understanding of host immnity to A. baumannii infection is critical to devise alternative control strategies. Our previous study has identified that intracellular Nod1/Nod2 signaling pathway is required for the immune control of A. baumannii in airway epithelial cells in vitro. In the current study, using Nod2-/- mice and an in vivo sublethal model of pulmonary infection, we show that Nod2 contributes to the early lung defense against A...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224352/functional-characterization-of-human-peptide-histidine-transporter-1-in-stably-transfected-mdck-cells
#15
Feifeng Song, Yongjun Hu, Yuqing Wang, David E Smith, Huidi Jiang
The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PHT1 (SLC15A4), which facilitates cross-membrane transport of histidine and small peptides from inside the endosomes or lysosomes to cytosol, plays an important role in intracellular peptide homeostasis and innate immune response. However, it remains a challenge to elucidate functional properties of the PHT1 transporter because of its subcellular localization. The purpose of this study was to re-sort hPHT1 protein from the subcellular to outer cell membrane of MDCK cells stably transfected with human PHT1 mutants, and to characterize its functional activity in these cells...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216926/pro-inflammatory-adjuvant-properties-of-pigment-grade-titanium-dioxide-particles-are-augmented-by-a-genotype-that-potentiates-interleukin-1%C3%AE-processing
#16
Sebastian Riedle, Laetitia C Pele, Don E Otter, Rachel E Hewitt, Harjinder Singh, Nicole C Roy, Jonathan J Powell
BACKGROUND: Pigment-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are an additive to some foods (E171 on ingredients lists), toothpastes, and pharma-/nutraceuticals and are absorbed, to some extent, in the human intestinal tract. TiO2 can act as a modest adjuvant in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) when triggered by common intestinal bacterial fragments, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or peptidoglycan. Given the variance in human genotypes, which includes variance in genes related to IL-1β secretion, we investigated whether TiO2 particles might, in fact, be more potent pro-inflammatory adjuvants in cells that are genetically susceptible to IL-1β-related inflammation...
December 8, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215417/muramyl-dipeptide-enhances-thermal-injury-induced-autophagy-and-inflammatory-cytokine-response-of-lungs-via-activation-of-nod2-rick-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#17
Xiao-Jing Wu, Hui Liang, Ying Zhang, Xu-Ming Yang, Hong-Yu Wang, Hui Li, Xin-Yi Li, Kai Chen, Yan-Lin Wang, Jian-Guo Li, Zong-Ze Zhang, Xue-Min Song
OBJECTIVE: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is the innate receptor of muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Our previous study revealed that MDP could enhance thermal injury-induced inflammatory cytokine production and organ function injury in rats. The present study was to determine the effect of MDP on autophagy and NOD2/receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinases (RICK) signaling pathway of lung injury after thermal injury. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawlay rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC) group, MDP group, Scald group and MDP + Scald group...
December 6, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186497/for-as-long-as-necessary-examining-30-years-of-merck-co-inc-s-focus-on-achieving-elimination-of-onchocerciasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis
#18
Kenneth M Gustavsen, Brenda D Colatrella, Theresa McCoy
Established by Merck & Co., Inc. (known as MSD outside of the United States and Canada) in 1987, the Mectizan Donation Program (MDP) is the longest running disease-specific program of its kind. Initially aimed at control of onchocerciasis (river blindness), the company expanded its commitment through the MDP in 1998 to include lymphatic filariasis (LF). Both diseases are now candidates for elimination and the company is engaged in several global partnerships to help advance towards that goal. To support the steadily growing demand from country-led disease elimination programs, the company has put in place several administrative and operational improvements...
November 23, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183673/effect-of-tribochemical-treatments-and-silane-reactivity-on-resin-bonding-to-zirconia
#19
Raphael Pilo, Maria Dimitriadi, Anna Palaghia, George Eliades
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the roughness, structure and bond strength with zirconia of four grit-blasting treatments combined with three silane types, the reactivity of which was evaluated, as well. METHODS: The grit-blasted treatments performed on zirconia (Lava) were alumina (ALU), CoJet (COJ), SilJet (SLJ) and SilJet Plus (SJP, with silica-encapsulated silane). The other two silanes selected were the S-Bond (SB, prehydrolyzed) and Clearfil Ceramic Primer Plus (CP, prehydrolyzed with 10-MDP)...
November 25, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177262/metabolic-activity-in-bone-metastases-of-breast-and-prostate-cancer-were-similar-as-studied-by-18f-fdg-pet-ct-the-role-of-99mtc-mdp
#20
Agata Pietrzak, Rafal Czepczynski, Ewa Wierzchoslawska, Witold Cholewinski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic activity of metastatic foci from breast and prostate cancer patients as scanned by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and by technetium-99m methyl diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scan (BS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty one patients were studied, divided into 2 groups based on histologically confirmed diagnosis: a) Breast cancer group, 23 women, mean age: 61±12 years, range: 37-79 years and, b) Prostate cancer group, 18 men, mean age 68±8 years, range: 52-82 years...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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