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chemo genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278636/immunohystochemical-expression-of-vitamin-d-receptor-in-development-stages-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#1
Nikica Šutalo, Snježana Tomić, Milenko Bevanda, Vedran Dragišić, Inga Marijanović, Joško Petričević, Ivanka Mikulić
BACKGROUND: Chemo preventive and antitumor role of vitamin D is manifested through genetic and non genetic ways with a powerful antproliferatory and proapopoptic effect, which is proven by numerous epidemiologic studies. The genetic activity of vitamin D is determined through vitamin D receptors (VDR), a member of stero-thyreoidal family of nuclear receptors, which with vitamin D form a cell nucleus complex responsible for the chemo preventive and antitumor effect. VDR in tissue cells is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus and manifests its genetic activity after transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258963/secretory-micrornas-as-biomarkers-of-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Kazuharu Kai, Rachel L Dittmar, Subrata Sen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression predominantly by inhibiting transcription and/or promoting degradation of target mRNAs also in addition to being involved in non-canonical mechanisms regulating transcription, translation and cell signaling processes. Extracellular secretory miRNAs, either in complex with specific proteins or encapsulated in microvesicles called exosomes, are transported between cells as means of intercellular communication. Secretory miRNAs in circulation remain functional after delivery to recipient cells, regulating target genes and their corresponding signaling pathways...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250930/management-of-high-risk-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-cll-patients-in-australia
#3
REVIEW
Bryone J Kuss, Constantine S Tam
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) frequently responds to chemoimmunotherapy combining cytotoxic chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. However, CLL is associated with significant genetic heterogeneity, and some high-risk forms are known to be chemo-resistant and associated with early relapse. AIMS: To review the current treatment paradigm of patients with high-risk disease, in particular those with del(17p) and TP53 variants. RESULTS: A 'watch and wait' approach is recommended for all patients who are asymptomatic...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228705/yap1-inhibition-radiosensitizes-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-by-targeting-the-dna-damage-response-and-cell-survival-pathways
#4
Daniel Andrade, Meghna Mehta, James Griffith, Janani Panneerselvam, Akhil Srivastava, Tae-Dong Kim, Ralf Janknecht, Terence Herman, Rajagopal Ramesh, Anupama Munshi
The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that regulates proliferation and apoptosis to control organ size during developmental growth. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), the terminal effector of the Hippo pathway, is a transcriptional co-activator and a potent growth promoter that has emerged as a critical oncogene. Overexpression of YAP1 has been implicated in promoting resistance to chemo-, radiation and targeted therapy in various cancers. However, the role of YAP1 in radioresistance in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently unknown...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184057/the-effects-of-pi3k-mediated-signalling-on-glioblastoma-cell-behaviour
#5
Julia Langhans, Lukas Schneele, Nancy Trenkler, Hélène von Bandemer, Lisa Nonnenmacher, Georg Karpel-Massler, Markus D Siegelin, Shaoxia Zhou, Marc-Eric Halatsch, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Mike-Andrew Westhoff
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling network is activated in almost 90% of all glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumour, which is almost invariably lethal within 15 months of diagnosis. Despite intensive research, modulation of this signalling cascade has so far yielded little therapeutic benefit, suggesting that the role of the PI3K network as a pro-survival factor in glioblastoma and therefore a potential target in combination therapy should be re-evaluated. Therefore, we used two distinct pharmacological inhibitors that block signalling at different points of the cascade, namely, GDC-0941 (Pictilisib), a direct inhibitor of the near apical PI3K, and Rapamycin which blocks the side arm of the network that is regulated by mTOR complex 1...
November 29, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163521/cd4-and-perivascular-foxp3-t-cells-in-glioma-correlate-with-angiogenesis-and-tumor-progression
#6
Luyan Mu, Changlin Yang, Qiang Gao, Yu Long, Haitao Ge, Gabriel DeLeon, Linchun Jin, Yifan Emily Chang, Elias J Sayour, Jingjing Ji, Jie Jiang, Paul S Kubilis, Jiping Qi, Yunhe Gu, Jiabin Wang, Yuwen Song, Duane A Mitchell, Zhiguo Lin, Jianping Huang
Background: Angiogenesis and immune cell infiltration are key features of gliomas and their manipulation of the microenvironment, but their prognostic significance remains indeterminate. We evaluate the interconnection between tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) and tumor blood-vasculatures in the context of glioma progression. Methods: Paired tumor tissues of 44 patients from three tumor-recurrent groups: diffuse astrocytomas (DA) recurred as DA, DA recurred as glioblastomas (GBM), and GBM recurred as GBM were evaluated by genetic analysis, immunohistochemistry for tumor blood vessel density, TIL subsets, and clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152027/design-considerations-for-open-well-microfluidic-platforms-for-hypoxic-cell-studies
#7
Matthew B Byrne, Matthew T Leslie, Heeral S Patel, H Rex Gaskins, Paul J A Kenis
Regions of hypoxia are common in solid tumors and are associated with enhanced malignancy, metastasis, and chemo/radio resistance. Real-time hypoxic cellular experimentation is challenging due to the constant need for oxygen control. Most microfluidic platforms developed thus far for hypoxic cell studies are burdened by complex design parameters and are difficult to use for uninitiated investigators. However, open-well microfluidic platforms enable short and long term hypoxic cell studies with an ease of use workflow...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147633/a-unique-case-of-carotid-splaying-by-a-cervical-vagal-neurofibroma-and-the-role-of-neuroradiology-in-surgical-management
#8
Sally A Itawi, Mark Buehler, Robert E Mrak, Tarek R Mansour, Yacine Medhkour, Azedine Medhkour
Carotid splaying, also known as the Lyre sign, is a widening of the carotid bifurcation due to the displacement of the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery just distal to the point of divergence. This phenomenon is classically exhibited by highly vascularized carotid body tumors and, in rare cases, by cervical sympathetic chain schwannomas. Demonstration of the Lyre sign by a cervical vagal neurofibroma, however, is a unique occurrence that has not been previously documented in the literature...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108254/the-impacts-of-genetic-polymorphisms-in-genes-of-base-excision-repair-pathway-on-the-efficacy-and-acute-toxicities-of-chemo-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#10
Jing Wang, Chengxian Guo, Xiaochang Gong, Fan Ao, Yuling Huang, Lihua Huang, Yiqiang Tang, Chunling Jiang, Xiaoxue Xie, Qing Dong, Min Huang, Jingao Li
Purpose: To explore whether polymorphisms in base excision repair (BER) pathway genes are predictors of (chemo)radiotherapy outcome in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We genotyped five potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of three genes in the BER pathway in 174 NPC patients who were treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Sequenom MassArray was used for SNPs analysis. The efficacy at the end of radiotherapy and at 3 months after radiotherapy was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104519/metabolite-profiling-of-yam-dioscorea-spp-accessions-for-use-in-crop-improvement-programmes
#11
Elliott J Price, Ranjana Bhattacharjee, Antonio Lopez-Montes, Paul D Fraser
Introduction: Ninety-seven percent of yam (Dioscorea spp.) production takes place in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs) and the crop provides 200 calories a day to approximately 300 million people. Therefore, yams are vital for food security. Yams have high-yield potential and high market value potential yet current breeding of yam is hindered by a lack of genomic information and genetic resources. New tools are needed to modernise breeding strategies and unlock the potential of yam to improve livelihood in LIFDCs...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079455/molecular-and-histopathological-characterization-of-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment-in-advanced-stage-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#12
Namrata S Patil, Luisella Righi, Hartmut Koeppen, Wei Zou, Stefania Izzo, Federica Grosso, Roberta Libener, Marco Loiacono, Valentina Monica, Consuelo Buttigliero, Silvia Novello, Priti S Hegde, Mauro Papotti, Marcin Kowanetz, Giorgio V Scagliotti
INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, highly aggressive, relatively chemo- and radio-resistant malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of PD-L1 and the characteristics of immune environment in this disease. METHODS: A total of 99 archival tumors from advanced stage MPM were immunohistochemically tested in parallel for PD-L1 in two different laboratories; and 87 of these were profiled for immune gene expression profiling by NanoString analysis for 800 genes...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053791/pharmacological-targeting-of-apelin-impairs-glioblastoma-growth
#13
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Gwennan Andre-Gregoire, Kathryn A Jacobs, Lucas Treps, Sophie Le Gonidec, Heloise M Leclair, Sara Gonzalez-Diest, Quentin Roux, François Guillonneau, Delphine Loussouarn, Lisa Oliver, François M Vallette, Fabienne Foufelle, Philippe Valet, Anthony P Davenport, Robert C Glen, Nicolas Bidere, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma are highly aggressive brain tumours that are associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Within these tumours exists a subpopulation of highly plastic self-renewing cancer cells that retain the ability to expand ex vivo as tumourspheres, induce tumour growth in mice, and have been implicated in radio- and chemo-resistance. Although their identity and fate are regulated by external cues emanating from endothelial cells, the nature of such signals remains unknown. Here, we used a mass spectrometry proteomic approach to characterize the factors released by brain endothelial cells...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044184/zebrafish-aversive-taste-co-receptor-is-expressed-in-both-chemo-and-mechanosensory-cells-and-plays-a-role-in-lateral-line-development
#14
Nazia Mojib, Jin Xu, Zinka Bartolek, Barry Imhoff, Nael A McCarty, Chong Hyun Shin, Julia Kubanek
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029550/b-lymphoblastic-leukemia-lymphoma-new-insights-into-genetics-molecular-aberrations-subclassification-and-targeted-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Xiaohui Zhang, Prerna Rastogi, Bijal Shah, Ling Zhang
B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell neoplasm derived from B-cell progenitors, which mostly occurs in children and adolescents and is regarded as one of top leading causes of death related to malignancies in this population. Despite the majority of patients with B-ALL have fairly good response to conventional chemotherapeutic interventions followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplant for the last decades, a subpopulation of patients show chemo-resistance and a high relapse rate...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970494/bioelectronic-measurement-and-feedback-control-of-molecules-in-living-cells
#16
Areen Banerjee, Isaac Weaver, Todd Thorsen, Rahul Sarpeshkar
We describe an electrochemical measurement technique that enables bioelectronic measurements of reporter proteins in living cells as an alternative to traditional optical fluorescence. Using electronically programmable microfluidics, the measurement is in turn used to control the concentration of an inducer input that regulates production of the protein from a genetic promoter. The resulting bioelectronic and microfluidic negative-feedback loop then serves to regulate the concentration of the protein in the cell...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951561/dual-inhibition-of-ezh1-2-breaks-the-quiescence-of-leukemia-stem-cells-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#17
S Fujita, D Honma, N Adachi, K Araki, Ei Takamatsu, T Katsumoto, K Yamagata, K Akashi, K Aoyama, A Iwama, I Kitabayashi
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive and lethal blood cancer originating from rare populations of leukemia stem cells (LSCs). AML relapse after conventional chemotherapy is caused by a remaining population of drug-resistant LSCs. Selective targeting of the chemo-resistant population is a promising strategy for preventing and treating AML relapse. Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27 to maintain the stemness of LSCs. Here, we show that quiescent LSCs expressed the highest levels of enhancer of zeste (EZH) 1 and EZH2, the PRC2 catalytic subunits, in the AML hierarchy, and that dual inactivation of EZH1/2 eradicated quiescent LSCs to cure AML...
September 27, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928472/a-high-conductance-chemo-optogenetic-system-based-on-the-vertebrate-channel-trpa1b
#18
Pui-Ying Lam, Suresh K Mendu, Robert W Mills, Baohui Zheng, Hugo Padilla, David J Milan, Bimal N Desai, Randall T Peterson
Optogenetics is a powerful research approach that allows localized optical modulation of selected cells within an animal via the expression of genetically encoded photo-excitable ion channels. Commonly used optogenetic techniques rely on the expression of microbial opsin variants, which have many excellent features but suffer from various degrees of blue spectral overlap and limited channel conductance. Here, we expand the optogenetics toolbox in the form of a tunable, high-conductance vertebrate cation channel, zTrpa1b, coupled with photo-activated channel ligands, such as optovin and 4g6...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895245/genetic-evolution-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-from-primary-to-recurrent-tumor
#19
Francesca Orzan, Francesca De Bacco, Giovanni Crisafulli, Serena Pellegatta, Benedetta Mussolin, Giulia Siravegna, Antonio D'Ambrosio, Paolo M Comoglio, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Carla Boccaccio
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal tumor that displays remarkable genetic heterogeneity. It is also known that GBM contains a cell hierarchy driven by GBM stem-like cells (GSCs), responsible for tumor generation, therapeutic resistance, and relapse. An important and still open issue is whether phylogenetically related GSCs can be found in matched primary and recurrent GBMs, and reflect tumor genetic evolution under therapeutic pressure. To address this, we analyzed the mutational profile of GSCs isolated from either human primary GBMs (primary GSCs) or their matched tumors recurring after surgery and chemoradiotherapy (recurrent GSCs)...
November 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852532/an-unusual-neck-tumor-in-a-young-pregnant-woman-challenge-diagnosis-and-response-to-treatment
#20
Juan F Arango, Juan C López, Virginia Arrazubi, Silvia Cisneros, Angel Rodríguez, Aitor Zabala, Purificación Martinez Del Prado
We report the case of a 19-year-old woman 33 weeks pregnant who presented a painful mass of progressive growth in the neck, having also dysphonia and dyspnea. Physical examination revealed a primary laryngeal tumor. A neuroendocrine small-cell carcinoma was diagnosed after histopathology, immunohistochemistry and genetic studies. Chemo-radiotherapy with a cisplatin-etoposide schedule was administered. Despite obtaining a complete response, the patient relapsed and finally survived 35 months with successive cisplatin-based treatments...
August 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
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