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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087102/feature-selection-for-outcome-prediction-in-oesophageal-cancer-using-genetic-algorithm-and-random-forest-classifier
#1
Desbordes Paul, Ruan Su, Modzelewski Romain, Vauclin Sébastien, Vera Pierre, Gardin Isabelle
The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy...
December 28, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086948/is-there-still-a-role-for-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-after-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-in-metastatic-melanoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Aurélien Simon, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Joseph Kerger
Metastatic melanoma has long been considered to have a very poor prognosis and to be chemo-resistant. However, a subgroup of patients with metastatic melanoma presents remarkable responses to chemotherapeutic agents, even in the absence of a response to modern targeted therapies and immunotherapies; accordingly, determining predictive biomarkers of the response to chemotherapies for metastatic melanoma remains a priority to guide treatment in these patients. We report a case study of a patient with B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase-mutated metastatic melanoma harbouring many genetic mutations...
January 13, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060758/exosomes-as-mediators-of-platinum-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#3
Jennifer Crow, Safinur Atay, Samagya Banskota, Brittany Artale, Sarah Schmitt, Andrew K Godwin
Exosomes have been implicated in the cell-cell transfer of oncogenic proteins and genetic material. We speculated this may be one mechanism by which an intrinsically platinum-resistant population of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells imparts its influence on surrounding tumor cells. To explore this possibility we utilized a platinum-sensitive cell line, A2780 and exosomes derived from its resistant subclones, and an unselected, platinum-resistant EOC line, OVCAR10. A2780 cells demonstrate a ~2-fold increase in viability upon treatment with carboplatin when pre-exposed to exosomes from platinum-resistant cells as compared to controls...
January 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045502/legomedicine-a-versatile-chemo-enzymatic-approach-for-the-preparation-of-targeted-dual-labeled-llama-antibody-nanoparticle-conjugates
#4
Sanne A M van Lith, Sander M J van Duijnhoven, Anna C Navis, Edward Dolk, Jos W H Wennink, Cornelus F van Nostrum, Jan C M van Hest, William P J Leenders, Sanne A M van Lith, Sander M J van Duijnhoven, Anna C Navis, William P J Leenders, Edward Dolk, Jos W H Wennink, Cornelus F van Nostrum, Jan C M van Hest
Conjugation of llama single domain antibody fragments (Variable Heavy chain domains of Heavy chain antibodies, VHHs) to diagnostic or therapeutic nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, or drugs offers many opportunities for optimized targeted cancer treatment. Currently, mostly nonspecific conjugation strategies or genetic fusions are used that may compromise VHH functionality. In this paper we present a versatile modular approach for bioorthogonal VHH modification and conjugation. First, sortase A mediated transPEGylation is used for introduction of a chemical click moiety...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032524/classifying-circulating-tumor-cells-to-monitor-cancer-progression
#5
Panagiota Economopoulou, Vassilis Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
The term 'liquid biopsy' refers to molecular analysis of a tumor's genetic features based on circulating genetic material in the peripheral blood derived from circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating miRNAs, and has emerged as a minimally invasive tool in early cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring. CTCs are believed to originate from the primary tumor and obtain genetic heterogeneity during evolution. Areas covered: The presence of CTCs has been associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993114/hitting-a-moving-target-glioma-stem-cells-demand-new-approaches-in-glioblastoma-therapy
#6
Drew A Spencer, Brenda M Auffinger, Jason P Murphy, Megan E Muroski, Jian Qiao, Yureve Govind, Maciej S Lesniak
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to devastate patients and outfox investigators and clinicians despite the preponderance of research directed at its biology, pathogenesis and therapeutic advances. GBM routinely outlasts multidisciplinary treatment protocols, almost inevitably recurring in a yet more aggressive and resistant form with distinct genetic differences from the original tumor. Attempts to glean further insight into GBM point increasingly toward a subpopulation of cells with a stem-like phenotype...
December 15, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833560/pharmacometabolomics-informs-viromics-toward-precision-medicine
#7
Angeliki Balasopoulou, George P Patrinos, Theodora Katsila
Nowadays, we are experiencing the big data era with the emerging challenge of single data interpretation. Although the advent of high-throughput technologies as well as chemo- and bio-informatics tools presents pan-omics data as the way forward to precision medicine, personalized health care and tailored-made therapeutics can be only envisaged when interindividual variability in response to/toxicity of xenobiotics can be interpreted and thus, predicted. We know that such variability is the net outcome of genetics (host and microbiota) and environmental factors (diet, lifestyle, polypharmacy, and microbiota) and for this, tremendous efforts have been made to clarify key-molecules from correlation to causality to clinical significance...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797294/targeting-autophagy-to-overcome-chemoresistance-in-acute-myleogenous-leukemia
#8
Sujan Piya, Michael Andreeff, Gautam Borthakur
Therapeutic inhibition of macroautophagy/autophagy is expected to increase chemosensitivity of cancers and alter tumor-stroma interdependence. The hypoxic, metabolically challenged bone marrow microenvironment confers chemoresistance to leukemia cells. The impact of autophagy inhibition in the context of microenvironment-mediated resistance in leukemia is less explored. Our recent studies demonstrated that co-culture of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells with marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) induces autophagy in AML cells and increases resistance to genotoxic agents (cytarabine and idarubicin)...
January 2, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782084/measles-to-the-rescue-a-review-of-oncolytic-measles-virus
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Aref, Katharine Bailey, Adele Fielding
Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV) receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) in oncolysis...
October 22, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755125/treatment-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#10
Yini Wang, Zhao Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition of uncontrolled immune activation with a high mortality rate. The recommended therapeutic guideline for HLH was published by the Histiocyte Society in 1994 and revised in 2004, which greatly improved the survival in patients with HLH. However, HLH is still a refractory disease for which the search for novel treatments continues. This article overviewed recent advances in treatment of HLH. RECENT FINDINGS: Current practices in treatment extend from chemo-immunotherapy to some new cytokine-targeting biologicals, which are more effective to eliminate pathologically activated T cells and resist exaggerated cytokine storm...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732643/a-high-content-larval-zebrafish-brain-imaging-method-for-small-molecule-drug-discovery
#11
Harrison Liu, Steven Chen, Kevin Huang, Jeffrey Kim, Han Mo, Raffael Iovine, Julie Gendre, Pauline Pascal, Qiang Li, Yaping Sun, Zhiqiang Dong, Michelle Arkin, Su Guo, Bo Huang
Drug discovery in whole-organisms such as zebrafish is a promising approach for identifying biologically-relevant lead compounds. However, high content imaging of zebrafish at cellular resolution is challenging due to the difficulty in orienting larvae en masse such that the cell type of interest is in clear view. We report the development of the multi-pose imaging method, which uses 96-well round bottom plates combined with a standard liquid handler to repose the larvae within each well multiple times, such that an image in a specific orientation can be acquired...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714611/preparation-of-semisynthetic-peptides-macrocycles-using-split-inteins
#12
Shubhendu Palei, Henning D Mootz
Cyclic peptides are highly desired molecules not only for basic research but also for many biomedical and pharmacological applications. Due to their potentially superior physicochemical properties as compared to their linear counterparts, they are considered as ideal candidates for studying protein-protein interactions, among others. Most of the methods developed in recent years to prepare cyclic peptides focus either on a synthetic or a recombinant route. While the former provides access to diversified, noncanonical peptides, including unnatural and D-amino acid, for example, the latter can harness the power of genetic randomization to generate and select from large peptide libraries...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713147/mir-608-pre-mir-124-1-and-pre-mir26a-1-polymorphisms-modify-susceptibility-and-recurrence-free-survival-in-surgically-resected-crc-individuals
#13
Hou-Qun Ying, Hong-Xin Peng, Bang-Shun He, Yu-Qin Pan, Feng Wang, Hui-Ling Sun, Xian Liu, Jie Chen, Kang Lin, Shu-Kui Wang
Genetic variation within microRNA (miRNA) may result in its abnormal folding or aberrant expression, contributing to colorectal turmorigenesis and metastasis. However, the association of six polymorphisms (miR-608 rs4919510, miR-499a rs3746444, miR-146a rs2910164, pre-miR-143 rs41291957, pre-miR-124-1 rs531564 and pre-miR-26a-1 rs7372209) with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, therapeutic response and survival remains unclear. A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the association in 1358 0-III stage resected CRC patients and 1079 healthy controls using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707786/chemo-genetic-interactions-between-histone-modification-and-the-antiproliferation-drug-aicar-are-conserved-in-yeast-and-humans
#14
Delphine Albrecht, Johanna Ceschin, Jim Dompierre, Florian Gueniot, Benoît Pinson, Bertrand Daignan-Fornier
Identifying synthetic lethal interactions has emerged as a promising new therapeutic approach aimed at targeting cancer cells directly. Here, we used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a simple eukaryotic model to screen for mutations resulting in a synthetic lethality with 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) treatment. Indeed, AICAR has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of multiple cancer cell lines. Here, we found that loss of several histone-modifying enzymes, including Bre1 (histone H2B ubiquitination) and Set1 (histone H3 lysine 4 methylation), greatly enhanced AICAR inhibition on growth via the combined effects of both the drug and mutations on G1 cyclins...
December 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705917/reciprocal-regulation-of-the-cholinic-phenotype-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioblastoma-cells
#15
Katharina Koch, Rudolf Hartmann, Friederike Schröter, Abigail Kora Suwala, Donata Maciaczyk, Andrea Caroline Krüger, Dieter Willbold, Ulf Dietrich Kahlert, Jaroslaw Maciaczyk
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor with very limited therapeutic options. Standard multimodal treatments, including surgical resection and combined radio-chemotherapy do not target the most aggressive subtype of glioma cells, brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). BTSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and relapse. Furthermore, they have been associated with the expression of mesenchymal features as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) thereby inducing tumor dissemination and chemo resistance...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686798/long-non-coding-rna-an-emerging-paradigm-of-pancreatic-cancer
#16
T Han, H Hu, M Zhuo, L Wang, J-J Cui, F Jiao, L-W Wang
Pancreatic cancer remains a worldwide issue and burden that is hard to resolve given its low resection rate and chemo-resistance. Early diagnosis and early treatment are critical for conquering pancreatic cancer. Therefore, new biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis are urgently needed. Previously, researchers mainly focused on protein-coding genetic and epigenetic changes in many types of cancers, and regarded the noncoding part as waste. Recently, however, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has emerged as a major participant in carcinogenesis, as it regulates cell proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, chemo-resistance, etc...
2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600777/-clinical-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-genetic-prognostic-factors-in-adult-patients-with-glioblastoma
#17
N V Lobanova, L V Shishkina, M V Ryzhova, G L Kobyakov, R V Sycheva, S A Burov, A V Luk'yanov, Zh R Omarova
UNLABELLED: Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant glial tumor of the brain in adult patients. AIM: to define the prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1) mutation and methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status in patients with glioblastoma (GB) and to analyze the impact of clinical data (gender, age, and tumor site), histological variants of the tumor structure, and time to development of recurrences on the course of the disease...
July 2016: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526684/rewired-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-as-a-potentially-actionable-feature-of-activated-b-cell-like-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#18
REVIEW
Gero Knittel, Paul Liedgens, Darya Korovkina, Christian P Pallasch, Hans Christian Reinhardt
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of aggressive lymphoma in the Western world and remains a clinical challenge. Two types of DLBCL are distinguishable, namely a germinal center B-cell-like phenotype (GCB) and an activated B-cell-like phenotype (ABC). Particularly ABC-DLBCL is difficult to treat, as this subentity typically displays resistance against frontline chemo-immune therapy. Through the availability of novel experimental technologies, such as next-generation sequencing and cutting-edge mouse models, we recently caught an unprecedentedly detailed glimpse at the genomic and biological features of ABC-DLBCL...
December 2016: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521214/quantitative-assessment-of-cd44-genetic-variants-and-cancer-susceptibility-in-asians-a-meta-analysis
#19
Vishal Chandra, Yun-Mi Lee, Usha Gupta, Balraj Mittal, Jong Joo Kim, Rajani Rai
CD44 is a well-established cancer stem cell marker playing a crucial role in tumor metastasis, recurrence and chemo-resistance. Genetic variants of CD44 have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to various cancers; however, the results are confounding. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify these associations more accurately. Overall, rs13347 (T vs. C: OR=1.30, p=<0.004, pcorr=0.032; CT vs. CC: OR=1.29, p=0.015, pcorr=0.047; TT vs. CC: OR=1.77, p=<0.000, pcorr=0.018; CT+TT vs. CC: OR=1...
July 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471629/mrna-based-dendritic-cell-immunization-improves-survival-in-ret-transgenic-mouse-melanoma-model
#20
Adi Sharbi-Yunger, Mareike Grees, Esther Tzehoval, Jochen Utikal, Viktor Umansky, Lea Eisenbach
Malignant melanoma is characterized by a rapid progression, metastasis to distant organs and resistance to chemo and radiotherapy. Although melanoma is capable of eliciting an immune response, the disease progresses and the overall results of immunotherapeutic clinical studies are not satisfactory. Recently, we have developed a novel genetic platform for improving an induction of peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells by dendritic cell (DC) based on membrane-anchored β2-microglobulin (β2m) linked to a selected antigenic peptide at the N-terminus and to the cytosolic domain of TLR4 at the C-terminus...
June 2016: Oncoimmunology
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