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mesencephalic locomotor region

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#1
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701941/rapid-alleviation-of-parkinson-s-disease-symptoms-via-electrostimulation-of-intrinsic-auricular-muscle-zones
#2
Yusuf O Cakmak, Hülya Apaydin, Güneş Kiziltan, Ayşegül Gündüz, Burak Ozsoy, Selim Olcer, Hakan Urey, Ozgur O Cakmak, Yasemin G Ozdemir, Sibel Ertan
Background: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) significantly improve cardinal motor symptoms and postural instability and gait difficulty, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective and Hypothesis: Intrinsic auricular muscle zones (IAMZs) allow the potential to simultaneously stimulate the C2 spinal nerve, the trigeminal nerve, the facial nerve, and sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in addition to providing muscle feedback and control areas including the STN, the PPN and mesencephalic locomotor regions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603482/dopamine-and-the-brainstem-locomotor-networks-from-lamprey-to-human
#3
REVIEW
Dimitri Ryczko, Réjean Dubuc
In vertebrates, dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion via their ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project to brainstem locomotor networks. An increased dopaminergic tone is associated with increase in locomotor activity. In pathological conditions where dopamine cells are lost, such as in Parkinson's disease, locomotor deficits are traditionally associated with the reduced ascending dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. However, a descending dopaminergic pathway originating from the substantia nigra pars compacta was recently discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579945/lfp-oscillations-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-during-voluntary-locomotion
#4
Brian R Noga, Francisco J Sanchez, Luz M Villamil, Christopher O'Toole, Stefan Kasicki, Maciej Olszewski, Anna M Cabaj, Henryk Majczyński, Urszula Sławińska, Larry M Jordan
Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs) are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. Theta band activity (6-12 Hz) is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) during locomotion have not been determined...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264980/locomotion-enhances-neural-encoding-of-visual-stimuli-in-mouse-v1
#5
Maria C Dadarlat, Michael P Stryker
Neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) are selective for particular properties of visual stimuli. Locomotion causes a change in cortical state that leaves their selectivity unchanged but strengthens their responses. Both locomotion and the change in cortical state are thought to be initiated by projections from the mesencephalic locomotor region, the latter through a disinhibitory circuit in V1. By recording simultaneously from a large number of single neurons in alert mice viewing moving gratings, we investigated the relationship between locomotion and the information contained within the neural population...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#6
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
February 28, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956208/anatomical-evidence-for-functional-diversity-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-of-primates
#7
Sophie B Sébille, Hayat Belaid, Anne-Charlotte Philippe, Arthur André, Brian Lau, Chantal François, Carine Karachi, Eric Bardinet
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a highly preserved brainstem structure in vertebrates. The MLR performs a crucial role in locomotion but also controls various other functions such as sleep, attention, and even emotion. The MLR comprises the pedunculopontine (PPN) and cuneiform nuclei (CuN) but their specific roles are still unknown in primates. Here, we sought to characterise the inputs and outputs of the PPN and CuN to and from the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and cortex, with a specific interest in identifying functional anatomical territories...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649270/physiology-of-freezing-of-gait
#8
REVIEW
Anke H Snijders, Kaoru Takakusaki, Bettina Debu, Andres M Lozano, Vibhor Krishna, Alfonso Fasano, Tipu Z Aziz, Stella M Papa, Stewart A Factor, Mark Hallett
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating, but largely mysterious, symptom of Parkinson disease. In this review, we will discuss the cerebral substrate of FOG focusing on brain physiology and animal models. Walking is a combination of automatic movement processes, afferent information processing, and intentional adjustments. Thus, normal gait requires a delicate balance between various interacting neuronal systems. To further understand gait control and specifically FOG, we will discuss the basic physiology of gait, animal models of gait disturbance including FOG, alternative etiologies of FOG, and functional magnetic resonance studies investigating FOG...
November 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216823/the-primate-pedunculopontine-nucleus-region-towards-a-dual-role-in-locomotion-and-waking-state
#9
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) mainly composed by the pedunculopontine and the cuneiform nuclei is involved in the control of several fundamental brain functions such as locomotion, rapid eye movement sleep and waking state. On the one hand, the role of MRF neurons in locomotion has been investigated for decades in different animal models, including in behaving nonhuman primate (NHP) using extracellular recordings. On the other hand, MRF neurons involved in the control of waking state have been consistently shown to constitute the cholinergic component of the reticular ascending system...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147647/on-the-role-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-and-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-in-locomotion-in-nonhuman-primates
#10
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
UNLABELLED: The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) is formed by the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, two neuronal structures thought to be key elements in the supraspinal control of locomotion, muscle tone, waking, and REM sleep. The role of MRF has also been advocated in modulation of state of arousal leading to transition from wakefulness to sleep and it is further considered to be a main player in the pathophysiology of gait disorders seen in Parkinson's disease. However, the existence of a mesencephalic locomotor region and of an arousal center has not yet been demonstrated in primates...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063549/neural-ablation-of-the-park10-candidate-plpp3-leads-to-dopaminergic-transmission-deficits-without-neurodegeneration
#11
Sandra Gómez-López, Ana Valeria Martínez-Silva, Teresa Montiel, Daniel Osorio-Gómez, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni, Lourdes Massieu, Diana Escalante-Alcalde
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and a variety of motor symptoms. The gene coding for the phospholipid phosphatase 3, PLPP3 (formerly PPAP2B or LPP3), maps within the PARK10 locus, a region that has been linked with increased risk to late-onset PD. PLPP3 modulates the levels of a range of bioactive lipids controlling fundamental cellular processes within the central nervous system. Here we show that PLPP3 is enriched in astroglial cells of the adult murine ventral midbrain...
April 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046818/motor-control-illuminating-an-enigmatic-midbrain-locomotor-center
#12
COMMENT
Maria S Esposito, Silvia Arber
A recent study has functionally disentangled the hitherto enigmatic mesencephalic locomotor region of the brain on the basis of cell type diversity and identified differential upstream regulatory pathways.
April 4, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995360/internuclear-ophthalmoplegia-plus-ataxia-indicates-a-dorsomedial-tegmental-lesion-at-the-pontomesencephalic-junction
#13
Sun-Uk Lee, Hyo-Jung Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, Ji-Soo Kim
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) indicates a lesion involving the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) that interconnects the abducens nucleus and medial rectus subnucleus of the oculomotor nuclear complex. In fact, rostral-caudal localization value of the INO is often limited except when it accompanies symptoms and signs owing to involvement of nearby structures. Ataxia is often observed in lesions involving the cerebellum or the fibers to and from it anywhere in the brainstem. Herein, we sought to determine the localizing value of INO plus ataxia in the rostrocaudal axis of the brainstem...
May 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880033/the-anterior-and-posterior-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-are-involved-in-behavior-and-neuronal-activity-of-the-cuneiform-and-entopeduncular-nuclei
#14
X Jin, K Schwabe, J K Krauss, M Alam
Loss of cholinergic neurons in the mesencephalic locomotor region, comprising the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the cuneiform nucleus (CnF), is related to gait disturbances in late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigate the effect of anterior or posterior cholinergic lesions of the PPN on gait-related motor behavior, and on neuronal network activity of the PPN area and basal ganglia (BG) motor loop in rats. Anterior PPN lesions, posterior PPN lesions or sham lesions were induced by stereotaxic microinjection of the cholinergic toxin AF64-A or vehicle in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 13, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824660/cell-type-specific-control-of-brainstem-locomotor-circuits-by-basal-ganglia
#15
Thomas K Roseberry, A Moses Lee, Arnaud L Lalive, Linda Wilbrecht, Antonello Bonci, Anatol C Kreitzer
The basal ganglia (BG) are critical for adaptive motor control, but the circuit principles underlying their pathway-specific modulation of target regions are not well understood. Here, we dissect the mechanisms underlying BG direct and indirect pathway-mediated control of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a brainstem target of BG that is critical for locomotion. We optogenetically dissect the locomotor function of the three neurochemically distinct cell types within the MLR: glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons...
January 28, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26704205/clinical-experience-with-pedunculopontine-nucleus-stimulation-in-conditions-with%C3%A2-nigrostriatal-disconnection
#16
Jeremy Rowe, Aijaz Khan, Charles Romanowski, Claire Isaac, Sadequate Khan, Richard Mair, Tipu Aziz, John Yianni
BACKGROUND: The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a part of the mesencephalic locomotor region and, in recent years, it has been considered a new surgical target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders including atypical parkinsonian syndromes such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy. Involvement of the PPN may play an important role in gait impairment in these disorders and the development of PPN DBS could potentially provide treatment for this disabling problem...
May 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26545711/exaggerated-sympathetic-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-stimulation-of-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#17
Nan Liang, Jere H Mitchell, Scott A Smith, Masaki Mizuno
The sympathetic and pressor responses to exercise are exaggerated in hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms causing this abnormality remain to be fully elucidated. Central command, a neural drive originating in higher brain centers, is known to activate cardiovascular and locomotor control circuits concomitantly. As such, it is a viable candidate for the generation of the augmented vascular response to exercise in this disease. We hypothesized that augmentations in central command function contribute to the heightened cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension...
January 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26497023/brainstem-control-of-locomotion-and-muscle-tone-with-special-reference-to-the-role-of-the-mesopontine-tegmentum-and-medullary-reticulospinal-systems
#18
REVIEW
Kaoru Takakusaki, Ryosuke Chiba, Tsukasa Nozu, Toshikatsu Okumura
The lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum contains functionally important structures involved in the control of posture and gait. Specifically, the mesencephalic locomotor region, which may consist of the cuneiform nucleus and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), occupies the interest with respect to the pathophysiology of posture-gait disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the mechanisms involved in the control of postural muscle tone and locomotion by the mesopontine tegmentum and the pontomedullary reticulospinal system...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470600/the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-sends-a-bilateral-glutamatergic-drive-to-hindbrain-reticulospinal-neurons-in-a-tetrapod
#19
Dimitri Ryczko, Francois Auclair, Jean-Marie Cabelguen, Réjean Dubuc
In vertebrates, stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) on one side evokes symmetrical locomotor movements on both sides. How this occurs was previously examined in detail in a swimmer using body undulations (lamprey), but in tetrapods the downstream projections from the MLR to brainstem neurons are not fully understood. Here we examined the brainstem circuits from the MLR to identified reticulospinal neurons in the salamander Notophthalmus viridescens. Using neural tracing, we show that the MLR sends bilateral projections to the middle reticular nucleus (mRN, rostral hindbrain) and the inferior reticular nucleus (iRN, caudal hindbrain)...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341909/brain-metabolic-abnormalities-during-gait-with-freezing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
C Tard, A Delval, D Devos, R Lopes, P Lenfant, K Dujardin, C Hossein-Foucher, F Semah, A Duhamel, L Defebvre, F Le Jeune, C Moreau
INTRODUCTION: Freezing of gait (FoG) is a debilitating gait disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD). In advanced PD patients with FoG, the supraspinal locomotor network may be dysregulated (relative to similar patients without FoG) during gait. Here, we sought to characterize the metabolism of locomotor networks involved in FoG. METHODS: Twenty-two PD patients (11 with off-drug FoG and 11 without) each underwent two [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET brain scans in the off-drug state: one at rest and another during radiotracer uptake while performing a standardized gait trajectory that incorporated the usual triggers for FoG...
October 29, 2015: Neuroscience
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